Anarchy is a temporary form of government in Civilization Revolution that halts all forms of production (including gold, science, food and construction of units and buildings) in a civilization's cities. Anarchy is also called "civil disorder." It only occurs when a civilization changes from one form of government to another and lasts only one turn.
Some civilizations, such as the Chinese, are granted an ability which makes them immune to the effects of anarchy. Anarchy is completely avoided if the player chooses to enact a form of government that has just been researched (which they are given the choice to do by the in-game advisors).