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Due to the general lack of iron in the early colonies, the carpenter was the most important craftsman a town could have. Carpenters had the daunting task of fashioning from lumber many tools that would normally be made of iron, such as hinges, shovels and spades. But by the 18th century, the average carpenter had at hand a plethora of tools to perform the various tasks needed to aid in the construction of the growing colony. Saws and augers could be used in order to cut the wood and drill any holes needed to hold the pieces together. Squares, bevels and compasses were used to measure the level and angle of two pieces of wood. Finally, planes, chisels and drawknives could be used to whittle away the excess until the work was smooth and fit for human usage.