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Diamonds provide a substantial amount of gold and up to 3 extra production when mined with the correct technology. These are a valuable commodity to gain when available.
Civilopedia Entry Edit
Formed in the lithospheric mantle under conditions of extreme heat and pressure, lumps of metastable allotropes of carbon – better known as diamonds – have fueled wonder and greed in civilization since the days of ancient India. Found in deposits near the surface, by the 4th Century BC several Indian settlements were trading in diamonds, which inevitably found their way to Europe. Although uncut and unpolished – the technology for this wouldn’t be developed until the late 1300s – diamonds became a marker of power and privilege. They still are, although now faux diamonds can be made in labs.
The name diamond is derived from the ancient Greek αδάμας (adámas), "proper", "unalterable", "unbreakable", "untamed", from ἀ- (a-), "un-" + δαμάω (damáō), "I overpower", "I tame". Diamonds are thought to have been first recognised and mined in India, where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could be found many centuries ago along the rivers Penner, Krishna and Godavari. Diamonds have been known in India for at least 3,000 years but most likely 6,000 years.
Diamonds have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in ancient India. Their usage in engraving tools also dates to early human history. The popularity of diamonds has risen since the 19th century because of increased supply, improved cutting and polishing techniques, growth in the world economy, and innovative and successful advertising campaigns.
In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier used a lens to concentrate the rays of the sun on a diamond in an atmosphere of oxygen, and showed that the only product of the combustion was carbon dioxide, proving that diamond is composed of carbon. Later in 1797, Smithson Tennant repeated and expanded that experiment. By demonstrating that burning diamond and graphite releases the same amount of gas, he established the chemical equivalence of these substances.
The formation of natural diamond requires very specific conditions—exposure of carbon-bearing materials to high pressure, ranging approximately between 45 and 60 kilobars (4.5 and 6 GPa), but at a comparatively low temperature range between approximately 900 and 1,300 °C (1,650 and 2,370 °F). These conditions are met in two places on Earth; in the lithospheric mantle below relatively stable continental plates, and at the site of a meteorite strike
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