- "A city is well-fortified which has a wall of men instead of brick."
Gorgo (c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent Spartan Queen, noted as one of the few female historical figures actually named by Herodotus, and was known for her political judgement and wisdom. She leads the Greeks in Civilization VI.
Who better to be master of the civic side of life than the Greeks? As a Spartan, Gorgo can use the power and flexibility of the civics system to set up for any kind of victory.
Gorgo, Queen of Sparta; glory to you and your loyal hoplite armies! Greece savors the blessings from Ares that every victory brings. And your people applaud your thoughtful governance and cultural marvels. Stand proud, for the legacy of Greece, and of your achievements, will be told over and over again for generations.
Gorgo's unique agenda is called "With Your Shield Or On It." She never gives up items in a peace deal, prefers civilizations who haven't yielded in a peace deal, and dislikes any civilization who has surrendered in a peace deal or any civilization who has never engaged in war.
Detailed Approach Edit
Greece leads the early game in Culture output. With Gorgo, it is by going to war and getting Culture from kills, or by putting an Acropolis on a Hill right in the center of her city's districts and wonders. Coupled with a free Wildcard Policy slot, Greece is the government power player throughout the game. Researching the civics that boost their victory strategy, they will have a full slate of Policies in place to help them along the way. The government system is flexible to support any victory path, though a Culture Victory is an easy fit for Greece.
Agenda-based Approval: You would make a good Spartan… resilient, strong, brave. (Σπαρτιάτης καλός είησαν. Καρτερός, ισχυρός, ανδρείος.)
Agenda-based Disapproval: Are you such a coward, to avoid bloodshed? To yield so easily? Where is your honor?
Attacked: Now, we test your strength. Prepare yourselves! (Νυν πειρασόμεθα τάς
υμετέρας δυνάμεως. Παρασκευάζεσθε!)
[Note: The game incorrectly attributes this translation to Gorgo's Declares War line.]
Declares War: Those with power act with strength and the weak suffer. And thus it will happen to you. (Δυνατά οί προύχοντες πράσσουσι καί οί ασθενείς ξυγχωρούσιν. Καί ούτως τοι γίγνεται.)
Defeated: Ares has abandoned us. Sparta is defeated. (Ἄρης ἁμμε ἀπολέλοιπε. ἁ Σπάρτα ἐσσῆται.)
Greeting: I am Gorgo, Queen of Sparta and leader of the Greeks. Who are you? What victories can you speak of? (Γοργώ ειμί, α βασιλεία τάς Σπάρτας, και αγεμών των Ελλήνων. Τις εί συ; Τίνας νίκας οίος τε συ αγγέλλειν;)
Denunciation: You are worse than sophists. Let the rest of the world know.
Historical Context Edit
Daughter of a king of Sparta, wife of a king of Sparta, mother of a king of Sparta, perhaps the most remarkable thing about Gorgo is that we know much about her at all considering the near complete absence of women in classical Greek history. Even queens are rarely mentioned in the works of Herodotus, Xenophon and Thucydides. Not surprising, for most of the ancient Greek historians were Athenians, and Athenians held that women should not be seen – much less heard – in public. As Pericles supposedly said in one of his speeches: “The greatest glory of a woman is to be least talked about, whether they are praising you or criticizing you.” Gorgo, by that view, was a stunning aberration.
Born around 513 BC, Gorgo was the only child of the Agiad king of Sparta, Cleomenes. Besides ruling Sparta with an iron fist, he pursued an often unscrupulous foreign policy, crushing Argos, intervening in Athenian affairs, helping forge the Peloponnesian League. Gorgo learned a lot from her darling dad. Virtually nothing is known of her childhood; she was likely plain (or mention of her “beauty” would have found its way into the “histories”) but clever, as when she advised her father not to trust Aristagoras of Miletus who was seeking support for an Ionian revolt against the Persians. She was no doubt raised and schooled as were other Spartan girls of noble lineage: taught literacy and numeracy, dancing and singing, to ride bareback and to drive a chariot, encouraged to strenuous exercise daily (including wrestling and gymnastics in the nude).
Whatever her other attributes, Gorgo was the quintessential Spartan woman, self-confident and outspoken. Neither vain nor materialistic, if Herodotus’ tales are to be believed (and that’s a stretch, as he was more given to hearsay than fact), she showed Spartan scorn at affectation, once thinking that a visitor to court had no hands because he had slaves dress him. According to another story, a grown Gorgo accused an elegantly dressed visitor of not being able to “play even a female role” among true Spartan women.
It appears that Gorgo was married to Leonidas I, her half-uncle, by 490 BC when her father died. Sparta was unique in that it had two kings, serving simultaneously. Although both technically had equal power, when Leonidas came to the throne, succeeding Cleomenes in the Agiad dynasty, Gorgo managed to elevate her husband over the other king Leotychidas in terms of influence and decision-making. As queen of a militaristic city-state, her “cleverness” served Sparta in good stead numerous times. Prior to the Persian invasion of Greece in 480, the exile Demaratus sent a warning to Sparta about Xerxes’ plans; to conceal the message, he had it engraved on a piece of wood and then covered with wax. When it arrived, neither the kings nor the five ephors (advisors to the kings elected by the citizens) knew what to make of the seemingly blank slab, until Gorgo advised Leonidas to clear the wax from the wood. There are several instances mentioned in the histories in which she is present in council giving advice to the kings or assembly.
It is unknown whether the proud queen gave Leonidas more than one child – his son Pleistarchus I – but given her schedule before Leonidas marched away to die at Thermopylae, it is perfectly understandable if she didn’t. And, while other Spartan queens had been accused of adultery (notably Helen), Gorgo is repeatedly portrayed as virtuously rejecting unwanted advances. But then, she is famously cited as having stated that only Spartan women produced real men … so maybe no one else was worthy. According to the later historian Plutarch, aware that his death was inevitable when the 300 Spartans marched north, Gorgo asked her husband what he wanted her to do. Leonidas told her “to marry a good man … bear good children.” There is no record that she followed his advice.
It is likely that, both before and after the Persians invaded, Gorgo travelled throughout Greece helping Leonidas rally the Greek city-states to a common defense. Virtually all of Leonidas’ reign was dominated by Sparta’s efforts to forge a coalition, especially an alliance with Athens, the leading maritime power. Gorgo in Athens must have been a sensation; after all, in Athens it was considered scandalous for a woman – married or not – to be seen in public … and Gorgo was driving a chariot through the streets. Even more scandalous if while riding about she wore traditional Spartan female attire, consisting of a short, thin skirt and tunic with arms and legs bare, while Athenian women wore heavy clothing that concealed everything save face, feet and hands. Spartan women at the time enjoyed a status and respect unknown by their gender in the rest of Greece, and no doubt Leonidas and Gorgo made the most of that in their negotiations, alternating shock with charm.
Upon the slaughter of the 300 at Thermopylae, Gorgo’s son became king, with first his uncle and then his cousin acting as regent until Pleistarchus assumed the crown himself in 478 BC. Although it is likely that she continued to offer advice to him and the ephors of Sparta through the rest of the Persian war, with her husband’s death, Gorgo disappears from the recitations of Greek historians. There is no record of her own demise.