Happiness, , is a measure of your citizen's contentment. A happy population is easier to manage, while an unhappy population provides negative effects. Some happiness is gained (or lost if your citizens are unhappy) each turn. Once you acquire enough happiness a 10 turn Golden Age begins for you.
The main sources of unhappiness are:
- Number of people: The more people belong to your civilization the more amusement they demand to keep happy. (-1 for every citizen, 1.34 for every occupied citizen*)
- Number of cities: The more cities you have the unhappier your population becomes.
- -3 for every city*
- -6* for every annexed city until you build a courthouse in them
- less than -3* for every Puppetted city (needs verification).
.* Values are from default settings (As of this time, all levels use the values above except for Large (80% of the above values) and Huge (60% of the above values). This affects both population and city unhappiness equally)
There are two levels of unhappiness: "unhappy" and "very unhappy". An unhappy population does not grow nearly as fast (1/4 the speed) as a content one but there are no other negative effects. However, once your population reaches -10 unhappiness per turn it becomes very unhappy. A very unhappy civilization does not grow at all, cannot build settlers at all and its military units get a nasty combat penalty (-33%).
The December 2010 patch also added yet another twist to unhappiness. If an empire reaches -20 happiness, it goes into revolt, and rebels start appearing throughout the empire, based on the number of cities. The rebels are similar to barbarians, but they appear in groups. Once a group of rebels appear another group will not appear for a while.
Sources of happiness:
|Ancient||Stone works||+1||City must have improved marble/stone nearby, city cannot be on plains|
|Classical||Burial tomb||+2||Egyptian unique building|
|Renaissance||Satrap's court||+2||Persian unique building|
|Circus Maximus||+5||Must have a Colosseum in every city|
|Chichen Itza||+4||Civil Service|
|Eiffel Tower||+5, +1 per additional 2 policies adopted||Radio|
|Forbidden Palace||-10% unhappiness in non-occupied cities||Banking|
|Taj Mahal||+4||Printing Press|
|Aristocracy||Tradition||None||None||+1 happiness for every 10 citizens in a city|
|Monarchy||Tradition||None||None||+1 gold and -1 unhappiness for every 2 citizens in the capital|
|Meritocracy||Liberty||None||Citizenship||+1 happiness for each city connected to the capital with a trade route and -5% unhappiness for citizens in non-occupied cities|
|Military Caste||Honor||None||Discipline||+1 happiness for each city with a unit in garrison|
|Professional Army||Honor||Military Caste||Discipline||Gold cost of upgrading units reduced 33% and +1 happiness from every defensive building (Walls, Castle, Arsenal, Military Base)|
|Organized religion||Piety||Classical||None||+1 happiness from every monument, temple and monastery|
|Cultural diplomacy||Patronage||Medieval||Scholasticism||Happiness from luxuries gifted by City-states increased by 50%.|
|Protectionism||Commerce||Medieval||Mercantilism||+1 happiness from each luxury resource|
|Humanism||Rationalism||Renaissance||None||+1 happiness from every University, observatory and public school|
|Democracy||Freedom||Renaissance||None||-50% unhappiness from specialist population|
|Police state||Autocracy||Industrial||Militarism||+3 happiness from courthouses, build courthouses in half the time|
- adopting Order generates 1 happiness per city