|Required for||Units: Chariot archer, Horseman, Companion cavalry, Cataphract, Knight, Camel archer, Mandekalu cavalry, Conquistador, Keshik, Lancer, Sipahi, Hakkapeliitta, Winged hussar, Cavalry, Cossack|
Basic strategic resource. Used by many mounted units.
As the first strategic resource revealed on the map along with Iron, Horses are very important for planning your initial expansion. Research Animal Husbandry, then look for the newly revealed resources and try to settle near them.
Horses are required for all mounted units in the game (except for the African Forest Elephant, Horse Archer, Naresuan's Elephant, War Chariot, and War Elephant), so you will be needing this resource quite a lot. Try to ensure access to at least one or two sources of Horses; alternatively, ensure a stable trading partner for them.
Horses are usually found on open plains and grassland terrains; however, they are also rarely found on desert and hills. They are accessed via the Pasture improvement, which provides the opportunity to build the Stable in a nearby city. Both of these net a good increase in the tile's Production yield, which is very important in the early game. They also give a bonus to building mounted units in the city - use this strategically.
Finally, Horses are one of the two resources that allow building of a Circus in a city, a useful source of extra Happiness.
As transport, implement of war, companion and (occasionally) foodstuff, horses are among the most important domesticated animals in human history. Horses were originally domesticated in Central Asia around 4000 BC, and over the next several thousand years the practice spread across Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Horses were transported to the New World by the Spanish in the 16th century, where their use was quickly and enthusiastically picked up by the native population in the following centuries. Remember that horses are strategic resources, and thus they are consumed as you construct the associated units.