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Lived: 1751-1836

James Madison was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, the country's fourth president and is known as the "Father of the Constitution." It was Madison in his Virginia Plan that called for America's unique three-branch style of government which has now been imitated throughout the world. As one of the writers of the Federalist Papers - the predecessor to America's Constitution - Madison became one of the most influential political authors of his era. The Federalist Papers were eventually replaced by a more powerful Constitution (which is the one that defines American law to this day). This document too found many opponents who saw it as an authoritarian document. To assuage the fears of these Anti-Federalists, Madison penned the American Bill of Rights, which explicitly stated the rights all citizens of the United States could claim. In 1808, Madison was elected President and led the country into yet another first - its first war. The War of 1812, which took place during Madison's tenure, not only led to the burning of the capital in Washington but also the death of Madison's beloved Federalist Party.