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Lived: 1745-1829

John Jay was one of the American founding fathers and well as his nation's first Supreme Court Chief Justice. One of the more conservative founders, Jay, while certainly unhappy with much of what had been done in the name of the King in the colonies, had helped to draft the "Olive Branch Petition," in the hopes of reconciling with England. With the ultimate separation of the United States from England, Jay was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs under the new government. Jay also became a major proponent of the Constitution, writing several of the renowned Federalist Papers in favor of the new document and campaigning tirelessly for its passage in his home state of New York. His appointment to Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by George Washington placed him in an important position of power. His ruling on "Chisholm v. Georgia" was actually the cause of the adoption of the first Constitutional Amendment to be added after the Bill of Rights. In 1794, the Chief Justice also became chief negotiator of what would become known as Jay's Treaty, which regulated trade and relations between Britain and the freshly separated colonies, granting the new country almost a decade of comfortable growth and expansion.

Civilization IV: Colonization Founding Fathers
Political

Samuel AdamsBen FranklinPatrick HenryWashington IrvingJohn JayJames MadisonThomas PainePocahontasBetsy RossAlexis de TocquevilleJohn Winthrop

Exploration

Vasco Nunez de BalboaJuan de BermudezPedro Alvares CabralAlexander von HumboldtJuan Ponce de LeonLewis and ClarkJacques MarquetteGonzalo Jimenez de QuesadaJohn SmithGiovanni da Verrazano

Religious

William BrewsterBartolome de las CasasJohn HarvardNathanial HawthorneThomas HookerSor JuanaGabriel LallemantGregorio de Mattos e GuerraWilliam PennJuan de SepulvedaRoger Williams

Trade

John Jacob AstorLord BaltimoreAlexander HamiltonCyrus McCormickPeter MinuitJohn RolfeAdam SmithEli WhitneyJan de Witt

Military

Ethan AllenFrancisco de CoronadoHernan CortesDiego Velazquez de CuellarMarquis de La FayetteJohn Paul JonesPaul Chomedey de MaisonneuveDom Pedro IFrancisco PizarroChief PowhatanHernando de Soto