There are 6 types of governments in Civilization Revolution 2.
Tech required: Communism
Players that adopt Communism will see a hefty bonus added to their Civilization's Production. This comes at the cost, though, of all the players Temples and Cathedrals ceasing to provide Culture to their cities.
Communism is a form of government in which the State owns everything: there is little or no private property. There is no ruling class; everyone is equal. Workers, farmers and laborers of all types come together and share the fruits of their labor, taking from each according to his ability to provide, giving to each according to his need.
The strength of this form of government is that all within it share equally in the State's output. No one is allowed to slip through the safety net into abject poverty. The weakness of this form of government is that it tends to be subject to great corruption and abuse, unable to overcome human acquisitiveness (or greed).
Communism, embraced by dozens of countries around the world at its height, caused substantial unease in governments opposed to Communism. The "Red Scare" was a period of powerful anti-communist sentiment in the United States during the 1950s that resulted in the wrongful imprisonment or blacklisting of many artists and public figures of the era.
Deng Xiaoping is considered one of the most influential Communist leaders of the twentieth century. He is renowned in China for turning the nation's stumbling economy into one of the most powerful in the world through the adoption of a market economy.
Tech required: Democracy
Players that adopt Democracy will increase their trade output, but will be unable to initiate wars. They may of course defend themselves if attacked.
Democracy is a form of government in which the government is based upon majority rule. To be successful, a democracy requires periodic free and fair elections as well as some level of protection of minorities and basic civil rights.
The strength of this form of government is that the people directly decide their own fate, and are thus more likely to do things that benefit the greatest majority of the people. The weakness of this form of government is that large groups of people can be as boneheaded as one, and "mob rule" can get pretty ugly once it gets rolling.
The United States was one of the first modern governments to pay its legislators. Its founders hoped to form a legislature which citizens from any class could join. This was in direct contradiction to the government of Great Britain at the time, where members of Parliament were unpaid and so only the wealthy could hold office.
"Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation." - Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France's first Bill of Rights)
Tech required: none
Despots may use nuclear weapons with no loss to their culture level.
Despotism is a form of government characterized by a ruler who wields absolute power over his people. Despite the word's negative connotations, a leader doesn't necessarily have to be a corrupt, evil megalomaniac to be a despot; it is possible to be a benevolent despot, though history records few cases of such.
The strength of this form of government is that the ruler can easily implement his decisions; he does not need to compromise, cajole, or bribe anyone to get the job done. The weakness of this form of government is that the ruler can implement bad decisions just as easily as good ones; with no checks and balances, how can he be stopped? Also, there is a lot of truth in the old saying, "Power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely." And though as said before, despots don't need to be corrupt, evil megalomaniacs, many of them end up that way.
Simon Bolivar, remembered as South America's greatest liberator, is one of history's best examples of an enlightened dictator. In 1828, to ensure that the newly freed colony of Gran Colombia did not rip itself apart, Bolivar declared himself dictator in the hopes of holding the nation together, yet it was not enough. The many and varied interests of Gran Colombia pulled the nation apart and Bolivar was forced into exile.
Augustus Caesar, following in the footsteps of his uncle Julius, abolished the Roman Republic and declared himself Emperor of Rome in 27 BC. Despite the loss of their influence in government, the citizens of Rome saw their lives improve significantly under Augustus as an era of peace known as the Pax Romana began.
Tech required: Religion
Players that adopt Fundamentalism as their government will find that all their ground units now receive a +1 bonus to attack, but at the cost of all the player's Libraries and Universities ceasing to provide bonuses to Science production.
Fundamentalism is a form of government characterized by strict adherence to a religious code of laws. Generally its adherents are rejecting a modern code which they view as corrupt and evil in favor of a return to what they see as more fundamental values of the past.
The strength of this form of government is that its adherents are generally very devoted to their religion and their leaders and are often willing to follow orders unquestioningly, even at the risk of their own lives. The weakness of this form of government is that it is unable to adapt to the modern world, it often oppresses any minorities within the country, and it is often unable to get along with its non-fundamentalist neighbors.
The Puritans arrived in the New World in 1621. Fleeing religious persecution in England, they created a colony where they could practice their religion without fear. Yet any who went against the beliefs that the Puritans had fought so hard to practice were often exiled or worse. The Salem Witch Trials were one such example, where a number of young women suspected of heathen practices were executed by the community.
While certainly not a fundamentalist state, Vatican City, the home of the Pope, is one of the world's few remaining openly theocratic nations.
Tech required: Monarchy
Players that adopt Monarchy as their government will double the amount of culture produced by Palaces!
Monarchy is a form of government wherein the rulership is passed down from one member of the family to the next. There is often a religious justification for hereditary rule; kings are said to rule by "divine right" or "the mandate of Heaven."
The strength of hereditary rule is that there is usually a clear line of succession, and thus perhaps less squabbling for power when the current monarch dies. Further, there may be a certain amount of familial pressure on the ruler to not mess things up too badly for the next generation. However, hereditary rule suffers the same kind of weaknesses as do all unelected rulers: the leader is not answerable to the people, and it can be extremely difficult to get rid of a bad one.
During their long rule, the Hapsburgs, one of Europe's most successful monarchies, controlled Germany, Spain, Portugal, Transylvania, Hungary, Austria, Mexico, parts of Italy and married into the English royal family.
The Caliph was both the ruler of an Islamic nation and head of the Islamic religion. This title passed among numerous Islamic states, including the Arab Empire, Spain and the Ottoman Empire. The position was abolished at the turn of the twentieth century by the Turks and ever since, Islam has had no central ruler.
Tech required: Code of Laws
Players that adopt Republic will find it easier than ever to expand their empire. Any Civilization that has adopted the Republic government and then builds a Settler unit will find it costs only one city population, rather than the usual two.
A republic is a form of government where the people elect rulers to govern in their name. Republics often form when democratic societies become too large for direct democratic action to be effective.
The strength of this form of government is that the rulers are answerable to the people, who can replace them if they go too far astray. The weakness of this form of government is that leaders may pander to the "lowest common denominator" to get elected, resulting in rule by the most popular rather than the most competent.
The term "Republic" has little specific meaning. It simply refers to a system where the citizens have some form of input into their nation's governance. Both Iran and France are republics, despite their vastly different styles of governance.
The Roman Republic lasted from 509 BC until its overthrow by Julius Caesar in 44 BC.