|Beyond the Sword|
|Unique Unit||Holkan (replaces Spearman )|
|Starting techs|| Mysticism|
|Unique Building||Ball Court (replaces Colosseum)|
The Mayan people (or Maya) represent a civilization in Civilization IV.
The Mayan Empire is wealthy, healthy and happy. Pacal's "Financial" trait adds a bonus to any plot producing 2 commerce, while his "Expansive" trait not only provides extra health to your cities, but also allows Workers to quickly improve new plots to take advantage of the "Financial" trait. Have your Workers build a few Hamlets and watch the money roll in. And while money can't buy happiness, the Ball Court certainly can, making your newly wealthy citizens jubilant. Even without the Holkan, a Spearman that requires no Copper, the Mayans would surely be an early game powerhouse.
The Mayan Empire blossomed within the thick jungles and volcanic hills of Belize, Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Creators of the most advanced civilization in the Americas from 700 BC until 900 AD, the Mayan population in its age was second only to the Chinese T'ang dynasty in sheer numbers.
Often referred to as the "Greeks of the New World," the Mayans were similarly organized into a series of feuding city states, although these cities served more religious and administrative purposes than as population centers. Uniting the Maya culture was a common language, religion and artistic style, but each city state remained fiercely independent, often uniting only at the point of a Holkan spear.
Every city-state was governed by its own royal family, whom often claimed full or semi-divinity. During the Mayan Classical Period from roughly 250 to 900 AD, these cities became vast complexes of pyramids, causeways and plazas. Nakbe, the first city-state to grow on a grand scale, began its expansion around 700 BC. By 300 BC, Nakbe had been transformed into an impressive city, with four grand step pyramids and a seven-mile stone causeway linking it to the nearby city of El Mirador.
Nakbe was only the first of many vast cities. Chichen Itza, Tikal and Palenque all became massive population centers. With myriad pyramids and religious structures, Tikal grew to become a city of the grandest scale and the largest of the Mayan population centers, dwarfing Palenque and Copan.
Palenque, a significantly smaller settlement to the West, reached its zenith in the seventh century AD under the reign of Pacal II, whose subjugation of neighboring cities ensured the hegemony of his own. Much is known about Pacal and his city thanks to the intricately-carved history left to us within Pacal's tomb, "The Temple of Inscriptions," entire walls of which were filled with the Mayans' distinctive pictographic language, the only written language developed in the Americas.
Language was not the only realm in which Mayan minds excelled. Their calendars were nearly on par with those of the modern era, but were created without the use of the telescope or other tools. Independent development of the number zero, an accomplishment that eluded both the Greeks and Romans, was yet another of the impressive feats of the Mayans.
Most of these discoveries grew out of the Mayan religion. And while certainly interested in knowledge, the Mayan religion was ensconced in the belief of the power of blood. Many wars among the Maya were fought simply to provide prisoners to be sacrificed in intricate religious ceremonies, thought necessary to ensure the safety and advancement of the people.
The Mayan civilization came to a surprisingly abrupt end, and the cause of this fall is still a hotly debated topic. One of the most widely accepted theories is that the delicate ecology of the Yucatán rainforests simply could no longer support the growing population of the Mayan people. A peasant revolt is also a likely cause of the fall of Mayan priestly caste, as belief in brutal Mayan rituals fell to the wayside.
But the popular notion that the Mayans simply disappeared is false. While the grand temple building, intricate carvings and sacrifices ceased, the Mayan language and people continued to survive in their former homeland, even after the conquest of their country by Spanish conquistadors. The Mayan languages, Yucatec being the most common, are still spoken to this day and armed resistance by the Maya continued into the twentieth century. The Maya remain a living people.
List of CitiesEdit
|Founding Order||City Name||Notes|
|1||Mutal||(Tikal) Principal classical city in central lowlands (Peten)|
|2||Lakamha||(Palenque) Key classical site in central lowlands, capital of Pacal (Mexico)|
|3||Chichen Itza||Key classical Yucatán city, post-classic capital of Toltec-Mayans (Yucatán)|
|4||Uxmal||With Chichen Itza, the principal (post-)classical city of Yucatán (Yucatán)|
|5||Mayapan||Newly built post-classical pan-Mayan capital after Toltec revolt (Yucatán)|
|6||Calakmul||Large, powerful classical city and "superpower", capital of Kaan (Mexico)|
|7||Oxhuitza||(Caracol) Powerful and extremely large classical city (Belize)|
|8||Xukpi||(Copan) Large, powerful and southern-most city and kingdom (Honduras)|
|9||Quirigua||Important southern highlands classical city, conquered Copan (Guatemala)|
|10||Izancanac||(Yaxchilan) Large important classical city (Peten)|
|11||Yokib||(Piedras Negras) Important classical city (Peten)|
|12||Altun Ha||Important (pre-)classical trade city with the Caribbean (Belize)|
|13||Izamal||Very important religious centre from pre-classical to modern times (Yucatán)|
|14||Zama*||(Tulum) Important post-classical coastal city (Yucatán)|
|15||Coba||Important city throughout Mayan history (pre- to post-classic) (Yucatán)|
|16||Dzibilchaltun||Very old but major post-classical city (Yucatán)|
|17||Cozumel||Large, important island-based trading centre and religious site (Yucatán)|
|18||Edzna||Important post-classical city with pre-classic roots (Yucatán)|
|19||Oxkintok||Important pre-classical labyrinth-like city (Yucatán)|
|20||Becan||Large important pre-classical city (Mexico)|
|21||Nakbe||Principal pre-classical Mayan city (Peten)|
|22||Cival||Recently discovered large, important pre-classical city (Peten)|
|23||Lamanain||(Lamanai) Major pre-classical city, important up to colonial times (Belize)|
|24||Kaminaljuyu||Principal (pre-)classical Mayan southern highland site (Guatemala)|
|25||Takalik Abaj||Important pre-classical Mayan southern highland site (Guatemala)|
|26||Holmul||Important classical economic centre (Peten)|
|27||Waka||(El Peru) Recently found as important economic classical city (Peten)|
|28||Lubaantun||Major classical site with unusual architecture (Belize)|
|29||Siaan Kaan||(Uaxactun, pron. Washington) Old classical city of some importance (Peten)|
|30||Bonampak||Well-preserved classical site of some importance (Mexico)|
|31||Tonina||Important late-classical city (Mexico)|
|32||Tazumal||Important (pre-)classical Mayan city in southern highlands (El Salvador)|
|33||Comalcalco||Westernmost, important classical Mayan city (Mexico)|
|34||Nim Li Punit||Important classical city (Belize)|
|35||Ekbalam||Important late-classical city (Yucatán)|
|36||Sayil||Important post-classical city (Yucatán)|
|37||Kabah||Somewhat important post-classical city (Yucatán)|
|38||Labna||Somewhat important post-classical city (Yucatán)|
|39||Wak Kabnal||(Naranjo) Capital of the somewhat important kingdom of Saal (Peten)|
|40||Xunantunich||Somewhat important classical religious city (Belize)|
|41||Izapa||Major pre-classical city, unclear if it was Mayan, Olmec or other (Mexico)|
|42||Noj Peten||Post-classical capital of the central lowlands, at modern Flores (Peten)|
|43||Utatlan||(Gumarcaj) Capital of important highland post-classical kingdom (Guatemala)|
|44||Mani||Ancient site, capital of Xiu, dominant Maya power after Mayapan (Yucatán)|
The Mayan units speak Yucatec Mayan. Corresponding English dialogue appears in parentheses.
Order000: (As you wish!)
Order001: (Move out!)
Order003: (We're on it!)
Order004: (No problem!)
Order005: (Consider it done!)
Order006: (Very well!)
Order007: (On our way!)
Order008: (Let's get moving!)
Order009: (You can count on us!)
Select000: (Reporting for duty!)
Select001: (At your service!)
Select002: (Tell me what to do!)
Select003: (Awaiting your orders!)
Select004: (Ready for action!)
Select005: (What's the plan?)
Select006: Bei? (Yes?)
Select007: (Your orders?)
Select008: (What do you need?)
Select009: (All present and accounted for!)