Mesopotamia is the region where Sumer, the first state in world history, began. The Sumerians were the first people to inhabit Mesopotamia, which was divided into three principal states: Sumer-Akad (later Sumeria), Babylonia, and Assyria. The most famous cities in the region were Babylon, Ur, Uruk, Kish, Assur, Lagash, Nippur, Susa, Niniveh, and Nimrud. Assyria and Babylonia were organized into empires, the latter of which was formed by the unification of Babylonia and Sumer after 2000 BC. The most famous king of the Babylonian Empire was Hammurabi, who is remembered for his code of laws.

Mesopotamia: first state in world history
First people: Sumerians
The people lived in city states.
A city state had a king, a city centre, an agricultural part and a harbour.
Major city states: Babylon, Ur, Uruk, KishAssur
Minor city states: LagashNippur, Susa, Niniveh, Nimrud
Three states: Babylonia, Sumeria and Assyria
Assyria=Assyrian Empire
After 2000 B.C.: Babylon creates the Babylonian Empire
Most famous king of the Babylonian Empire: Hammurabi
Hammurabi's Code: the first recorded code of laws