The science of Metallurgy became especially important after the development of Gunpowder, as the European powers vied with one another for the latest technological advance in weapons. Research in Metallurgy was conducted by the private smelters and Universities. The result was artillery and naval guns superior to any in the world. This development was an important factor in the rise of European states as world powers. Metallurgy later led to the discovery of Steel and other metals.