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local data = {}
data["England"] = { leaders = {"King of England"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[N/A]]}
data["France"] = { leaders = {"King of France"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[N/A]]}
data["Netherlands"] = { leaders = {"King of Netherlands"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[N/A]]}
data["Spain"] = { leaders = {"King of Spain"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[N/A]]}
data["New England"] = { leaders = {"George Washington", "John Adams"},
     traits = {"Tolerant"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[In the classical age Britain lay on the periphery of the civilized world; Julius Caesar's visitations to the island in 55/54 BC were viewed as a daring voyage into the unknown. But in 43 AD the island was invaded by Roman soldiers under the Emperor Claudius, and it was to spend the next four centuries as a Roman province. The Romans built cities, roads, and great bathhouses, the ruins of which can still be seen today. With the collapse of Roman power under Germanic onslaught, tribal migrations into Britain began about the middle of the 5th century. The first arrivals were invited by a British chieftain to defend his kingdom against the Picts and Scots. These first mercenaries were from three tribes - the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes - which were located on the coastlands of northwestern Germany. Eventually, these peoples would themselves topple the existing order, and Britain would spend many centuries divided between various warring kingdoms such as Mercia, East Anglia, and others. The first political entity that could rightly be called "England" formed out of the efforts of the kingdom of Wessex to unite the island against the invasion of Danes and Vikings in the 9th century. But the English domination was fleeting; the subsequent Norman Conquest (1066) resulted in the subordination of England to a Frankish aristocracy, and the introduction of feudalism to the Isles.<br><br>The Norman invasion reoriented England from the Scandinavian world to the Mediterranean one, and reintroduced many elements of Latin culture that had been lost in the Germanic invasions. The English Normans would eventually give rise to a purely British line of kings, the Plantagenets. Three centuries later, the Wars of the Roses was the final struggle between the Yorkist and Lancastrian descendants of the Plantagenets for control of the throne. When Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, seized the crown in 1485, leaving the Yorkist Richard III dead upon the field of battle, few Englishmen would have predicted that 118 years of Tudor rule had begun. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) proved to be the most able Tudor monarch. No observer in 1558, any more than in 1485, would have predicted that despite the social discord, political floundering, and international humiliation of the past decades, the kingdom again stood on the threshold of an extraordinary age. Her reign ushered in two centuries of British exploration, colonization, and artistic and intellectual advances. When Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," died childless, Parliament offered the crown to the closest blood kin, James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England (1603-1625) and founded the Stuart dynasty. The Stuarts kings did not possess the best luck; Charles I was defeated by the forces of Parliament in the English Civil War and executed, and a scant four decades later his descendent James II was also overthrown in the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688. But despite all this turbulence, by 1700 England had merged with Scotland to become "Britain" and established an identity that would be both Protestant and Parliamentry.<br><br>The British Empire was to be one based on trade and control of the seas. Using the soldiers commonly denoted "Redcoats", every major war Britain engaged in during the 18th and 19th centuries increased its colonial power. The Seven Years' War was particularly notable in this respect, and so were the Napoleonic Wars. By 1820 the total population of the British Empire was 200 million, 26%% of the world's total population. However acquired, all these acquisitions added to the crown's and the country's power and reputation. For the privileged and the rich, the Victorian era was pre-eminently one of confidence and arrogance, under the able guidance of Britain's two longtime Prime Ministers, Gladstone and Disraeli. Stretching from Australia and New Zealand through India, much of Africa, and Canada, the British Empire under Victoria was truly one on which the "sun never set."<br><br>But the "long summer of peace" came to an end in the bloodbath of Flanders. Although Britain suffered far less physical damage than France and underwent no political revolution, World War I may have affected it more fundamentally than any other European power. The war was a catalyst for social and economic change. The mainstays of the early Industrial Revolution, such as coal mining, textile production, and shipbuilding, upon which British prosperity had been built, were now impoverished or redundant. Britain was slow to develop many of the newer manufacturing industries, such as those involving chemicals, electronics, and automobiles. British foreign policy for much of the postwar period aimed at rehabilitating Germany, while domestic policy focused on institutionalizing socialism to counter public concerns. In general, these movements were opposed by France and resulted in a rupture between Britain and its wartime ally, forcing France into a position of isolation that would have prodigious consequences for Europe with the rise of Hitler in the 1930s. World War II was a British victory, but left the nation bankrupt and unable to prevent the onset of decolonization in the 1950s and 1960s. Although Britons maintained a high standard of living, the British economy continued to perform poorly throughout the 1960s and 1970s. As a reaction, Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990) set out to end socialism in Britain. Her most dramatic acts consisted of a continuing series of statutes to denationalize nearly every industry that Labour had brought into public ownership during the previous 40 years. Promising that "we shall govern as New Labour," the Blair government installed in general elections in 1997 accepted some of Thatcher's foreign policies but also carried out the economic reforms it promised in its manifesto. Faced now with terrorist attacks that threaten the lives of ordinary civilians, Britain has pledged to work together with the United States and other nations to defend this attack on civilization.]]}
data["New France"] = { leaders = {"Samuel de Champlain", "Louis de Frontenac"},
     traits = {"Cooperative"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[Modern France has its roots in ancient Gaul. In the 2nd century BC Rome intervened on the side of Massilia (Marseilles), a Greek colony founded in 600 BC, in its struggle against the barbarian tribes of the hinterland. The result was the formation, in 121 BC, of the Roman Provincia in what is now southern France; between 58 to 50 BC Julius Caesar seized the remainder. For more than four centuries Gaul enjoyed the benefits of Roman rule, and many ruins of aqueducts and bathhouses still dot the French landscape. After 395 AD the internal problems of the Empire encouraged barbarian penetration of Gaul. By 418, the Franks and Burgundians were established west of the Rhine, and the Visigoths had settled in Aquitaine. The period of the Merovingian and Carolingian Frankish dynasties (476-887) frames the Early Middle Ages.<br><br>Following his ascension, the first Merovingian king, Clovis (481-511), consolidated the position of the Franks in northern Gaul. Clovis came to believe that his victories were due to the Christian God. Clovis' subsequent conversion assured the Frankish rulers of the support not only of the Catholic Church but of the majority of their own subjects. The Frankish kingdom reached its largest extent under Charlemagne (768-814), who united modern-day France, Italy, and Germany under his rule. After Charlemagne's death, his grandsons divided the kingdom into the three parts that have largely survived to the present. France was a divided kingdom for much of the medieval period, but power gradually began to accumulate in the hands of the rulers of the Ile de France region centered around Paris. By the rise of the house of Valois in 1328, France was the most powerful kingdom in Europe. Its ruler could muster larger armies than rivals; he could tap enormous fiscal resources; and the king's courts maintained royal supremacy. The history of France in the Late Middle Ages is dominated by efforts of its kings to maintain their suzerainty, efforts that, despite French advantages, were long frustrated.<br><br>The Hundred Years War was an intermittent struggle between England and France in the 14th-15th centuries over a series of dynastic disputes, including the legitimate succession to the French crown. The war's turning point was reached in 1429, when an English army was forced to raise its siege of Orleans by a relief force organized by Joan of Arc. By 1453, England retained only Calais, which it finally relinquished in 1558. The French kings of the 16th century spent much of their time fighting the Hapsburg monarchs for control of Italy, while religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants led to a series of civil wars between 1562 and 1598.<br><br>The ascension of the Bourbon line of kings beginning in 1589 brought renewed stability to France, and the country soared to some of its greatest heights during the long rule of Louis XIV (1643-1715). Under Louis, France became the artistic and intellectual capital of Europe. From his magnificent palace of Versailles, Louis was truly the "Sun King", the absolute master of all he surveyed. The French military was the most powerful in Europe at this time, known for the elite Musketeer units that served as the king's personal guard. France was so strong at this time that the other European nations kept banding together to stop France from conquering them - a pattern that would be repeated in the French Revolution.<br><br>These intellectual developments, although significant by themselves, gave rise to a still more momentous change: the French Enlightenment. This movement was a cultural transformation based on rationalism, empiricism, and an amorphous concept of freedom found in the influential writings of figures like Voltaire (1694-1778) and Rousseau (1712-78). Compounding the situation was the bankruptcy of the French crown, which forced the king to call upon representatives of the people for additional taxes. Hence, what began in 1787 as a conflict between royal authority and aristocrats became a triangular struggle, with "the masses" opposing both absolutism and privilege. By any standard, the fall of the Bastille to the Parisian crowd in 1789 was a monumental event, a seemingly miraculous triumph of the people. But the French Revolution soon degenerated into a reign of terror and chaos. After a decade of violence and uncertainty, Napoleon terminated the bloodshed by overthrowing the French government in 1800, at the price of suppressing freedom altogether. In utter contrast to the Revolution, militarism became the defining quality of the Napoleonic regime. The French armies under Napoleon won victory after victory against all of the other great European powers, but decades of war led to the exhaustion of the nation and eventual defeat in 1815.<br><br>However, the revolutionary fervor of the French citizenry was undiminished by the Napoleonic experience, and led to further revolutions in 1830 and 1848. The latter revolution lead to the short-lived Second Republic (1848-1852), which was overthrown by Napoleon's nephew "Napoleon III" who instituted the Second Empire (1852-1870). Following defeat in the Franco-Prussia War, the Third Republic (1870-1940) was formed, which survived the First World War but collapsed in the face of the German invasion in 1940. After the war, the period of the short-lived Fourth Republic (1947-59) was succeeded by the Fifth Republic (the current one), adopted in September 1958 by popular referendum. Although shorn of its past colonial holdings and aura of military invulnerability, France today remains a major economic power and influential member of the European Union.]]}
data["New Netherlands"] = { leaders = {"Adriaen van der Donck", "Peter Stuyvesant"},
     traits = {"Mercantile"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[Originally several separate territories under the control of the Holy Roman Empire, and then united into one state under Habsburg rule (16th century), the Netherlands did not acquire national independence until the conclusion of the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648 AD) when the Spanish formally renounced all claims to Dutch sovereignty in the Treaty of Münster.<br><br>The Eighty Years' War was sparked by Spanish religious oppression and an occupation by Spanish forces led by the Duke of Alba, during which over one thousand people were sentenced to death, including two prominent and popular Dutch nobles; these actions caused dissention among the Dutch people. In 1568 Willem, Prince of Orange, returned from a self-imposed exile (in order to avoid prosecution by the Duke of Alba) and led the uprising against the Spanish occupation.<br><br>The Dutch fight for independence can be seen as a war against religious oppression, with the Pacification of Ghent treaty being a written representation of this sentiment. Signed on November 8th, 1576 the document specified an alliance between the Dutch provinces, in which religious differences would be put aside for the purposes of expelling the Spanish and restoring local provincial control to the Netherlands.<br><br>During the seventeenth century the Dutch began using their large military and merchant navies to both create their own trading posts along the African coast and rob those of the Portuguese in an effort to reach valuable markets in India and Indonesia. The inrush of treasure, trade and knowledge from these trading and military expeditions was extremely beneficial, and during this first half of the seventeenth century the Dutch experienced a Golden Age of cultural and economic growth. This Golden Age would soon come to a crushing end.<br><br>In 1795, France, under Napoleon I, conquered the Dutch mainland. The Netherlands quickly declined in influence and power, locally and internationally, with the British taking most of their colonial possessions. After Napoleon was defeated a few colonial territories were restored to the Dutch and remained under their control until the decolonization of the twentieth century.<br><br>Many historians regard the Dutch empire as the first truly capitalist country. In addition to developing the first stock exchange, many modern services such as corporate insurance and retirement funds were attributed to Dutch inventiveness.<br><br>The Netherlands is also the birthplace of one of the world's early democratic institutions - the Dutch Water Boards. Due to the unique topography of the Netherlands - about half of the mainland is a foot or more under sea level - the country's waterways must be constantly monitored and controlled in order to prevent flooding that would result in tremendous loss of life and property. Each Water Board is in charge of one of the nation's 27 water districts and all matters pertaining to local water management. The creation of these water boards predates the Netherlands itself.<br><br>The modern Netherlands, with a diverse population and liberal laws towards drugs, prostitution, abortion, same-sex marriage, and euthanasia, has been a constant haven for refugees from other countries. Cultural minorities are encouraged to protect their own cultural identity while at the same time integrate into Dutch culture at large, further reinforcing the open-minded ideals for which Dutch ancestors fought and died.]]}
data["New Spain"] = { leaders = {"Simon Bolivar", "Jose de San Martin"},
     traits = {"Conquistador"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[The Kingdom of Spain is located in the extreme southwest of the European continent, and occupies approximately 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsula. Spain is bordered on the west by Portugal, in the northeast by France, and by the great wall of the Pyrenees Mountains. The Iberian Peninsula that the Spanish inhabited was occupied by various other civilizations, including the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, and Muslims, and Spain is now associated with having a very rich, eclectic culture as a result.<br><br>The development of Christian society and culture in the first 300 years following Islamic conquest in Spain was slow, but major changes occurred for the Spanish in the 12th and 13th centuries. The population grew, communication with northern Europe intensified, commerce and urban life gained in importance, and the kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal emerged as the governing bodies of the Iberian Peninsula. These kingdoms reached the frontiers that they would keep, with minimum amount of alteration, until the end of the Middle Ages, when Isabella I became Queen of Castile.<br><br>Isabella began participating in the royal court at the age of 13; and when Portugal, Aragon, and France offered their marriage candidates, she favored Ferdinand of Aragon. Isabella ascended to the throne as Queen of Castile to rule sensibly and with a prudent political program. Her unification of the states of the Iberian Peninsula into a single entity, the maintenance and control over the Straits of Gibraltar, policy of expansion into Muslim North Africa, reform of Spanish Catholicism, and support for the exploration and expansion of the unknown were evidence of her wisdom and capabilities as Queen. In 1492 Columbus, with the blessing and financial backing of Isabella, sought a route to the legendary rich markets of China and Japan. He instead discovered what would become known as "The New World", the present day Americas. This voyage gave way to a new golden age of expeditions and conquest, as the Americas contained gold, a valuable resource that Spain happened to be desperately bereft of at the time.<br><br>The Spanish explorer Hernando Cortes came to the New World with the sole purpose of seeking out new frontiers and riches in the unknown. Men like Cortes became known as Conquistadores, adventurers who undertook their expeditions in the vast landmasses of the Americas at their own expense, risking their lives without aid from the Spanish royalty. Their conquests included campaigns in Guatemala, Peru, Cuzco, Columbia, Chile, the Bay of Honduras, and as far as the Pacific coastal regions. The Conquistadors, however, were given to fighting and searching for gold, and were swiftly replaced by administrators and settlers from Spain who governed in their place.<br><br>The twin forces of disease and conquest combined to devastate the indigenous peoples of the Americas, allowing the Spaniards to carve out an enormous empire comprising most of North and South America. Many of the Spanish colonies proved to yield fabulous wealth in the form of gold and sugar, but working conditions were so harsh that large numbers of Africans were brought across the Atlantic as slaves to replace the Indians who had died working on the plantations. These lucrative operations inevitably became high-profile targets of pirates and other raiders who were endorsed by European powers such as England. The Monarchy of Spain endeavored to retaliate by building an armada of warships that was dubbed "The Invincible Armada". The armada was a collection of over 130 naval warships and transport-ships, which contained approximately 8,000 seamen and 19,000 soldiers. King Philip II (1556-98) directed this armada to invade England when the various and frequent raids on Spanish commerce in the Caribbean became intolerable. England's success in repelling the Spanish fleet saved England and the Netherlands from potential consolidation into the Spanish Empire, but despite the Armada's defeat, Spain remained temporarily the strongest land power in Europe.<br><br>Thereafter, Spain declined in power quickly; the enormous influx of gold and silver from the Americas debased the Spanish currency, and most of the nation's military might was wasted in the quagmire of religious conflict known as the Thirty Years War (1618-48). By the beginning of the 18th century, Spain had become somewhat marginal in international politics, even though it continued to hold vast territories in the Americas. Spain's period of imperial power and exploration left a legacy that consisted of 18 nations in Latin American, the Spanish presence in the Phillipines, and the ever-growing Spanish-speaking population in the United States today. It is also due to the work of Jesuit missionaries from Spain that hundreds of millions of people in Latin America practice Roman Catholicism to this day. In 1975 Spain transitioned into a constitutional monarchy by way of a democratic constitution and is now recognized for its eclectic culture as well as for the glory and mystique that it once possessed in its youth.]]}
data["Apache"] = { leaders = {"Mangas Coloradas"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[Natives of the inhospitable southwestern United States and northern Mexico, the Apache were nomadic people who built their society on a balance of commerce and raids. Thanks in part to their nomadic lifestyle and harsh homeland, the Apache were considered among the most formidable mounted warriors of the southwest. The name Apache itself came from a Zuni native word meaning "enemy."<br><br>The Spanish were the first to encounter the Apache when Francisco de Coronado, the Spanish conquistador who combed the American Southwest in the 16th century, met and traded with them. Relations between the Apache and the colonists remained relatively benign until the 19th century, when Mexico declared its independence from Spain. In the 1830s, seeking to gain control of the Southwest, the Mexican government began offering a reward for the scalps of the Apache.<br><br>The violence that followed led many Apache, normally a series of independent tribes, to unite under the leadership of Mangas Coloradas. Coloradas' war against the Mexicans would continue for almost a decade before the United States, declaring war in 1846, defeated Mexico and laid claim to their territories. Coloradas agreed to sign a treaty with the Americans in return for self-sovereignty, but it did not last. The discovery of a wealth of minerals in Apache territory brought white settlers flocking to their lands. Seeing them as trespassers, the Apache led raids against the American settlers. In response, the US military sent forth troops to make war on the Apache. The ensuing conflict, which became known as the Apache Wars, continued for roughly ten years.<br><br>During this time, Mangas Coloradas, as well as the Apache leader Cochise and the medicine man Geronimo, led guerilla forces against the Americans. The decade of war took its toll on the Apache - Coloradas was captured and executed during a treaty negotiation in 1863 and Cochise too was captured. To help stem the tide of violence, the American government authorized the creation of a reservation in San Carlos, Arizona, where the Apache could live separated from the white settlers. At first the Apache agreed to live on the territory, but found the restricting life on the reservation little to their liking. Geronimo along with numerous others escaped from the reservation on multiple occasions to wreak havoc on American encampments. During his final escape in 1886, nearly 6000 soldiers and volunteers were mobilized to try and recapture the Apache leader.<br><br>After the surrender of Geronimo later that year, there was a great demand among the white settlers that the Apache be relocated, as it was clear the reservation could not hold them. Bowing to their constituents' demands, the American government scattered the Apache to the four winds. Some were moved east to Oklahoma. Geromino and his followers were imprisoned in Florida and not allowed to return to their home territory until 1914. Today, most modern Apache still live in the same region as their ancestors - Arizona and New Mexico, with many still living on their original reservation at San Carlos.]]}
data["Arawak"] = { leaders = {"Agueybana"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[The Arawaks were one of the most prominent societies of the Caribbean at the time of the New World's discovery and were the first natives encountered by Columbus. Originating in South America (where there remain a few scattered settlements of Arawak to this day), the Arawaks migrated to the Caribbean islands, where they established settlements from the Lesser Antilles to Cuba. They are thought to have arrived in the Caribbean around 500 BC, but in large part were obliterated from the Lesser Antilles by their sworn foes the Carib, who also hailed from northern South America and for whom the Caribbean Sea was named.<br><br>The Arawak migration across the vast Caribbean was possible thanks in large part to their expert abilities as navigators. Arawak boat-builders were capable of creating massive canoes, the largest of which could carry roughly 150 souls. These served the Arawaks well in their primary activity - trade. Arawak canoes could often be found cruising between islands, heavy with trade goods, including gold, wood carvings, trained parrots and other luxuries, along with basic food stuffs, pottery, or fishing nets.<br><br>Our earliest records of Arawak society come from Columbus himself. Upon setting down at Hispanola, Columbus was impressed by the gentle nature of the Arawaks, who seemed more awed than threatened by his sailors. When Columbus' ship, the Santa Maria, ran aground of the coast of the island, a cacique (Arawak leader) named Guacanagari sheltered Columbus and his men, giving them gifts of gold and other fineries.<br><br>The ease of Arawak life would not long survive the arrival of the Europeans: in fact, a convergence of events nearly wiped them from the Caribbean. After seeing that there was gold to be had in this new land, the Spaniards began employing the docile natives as slave labor. At the same time, the Carib began a renewed effort to remove the Arawaks from their homes in the southern Caribbean. And all the while, European diseases began to creep through the population. Between these three factors, the Arawak population was nearly obliterated within a decade.<br><br>As the first people to meet westerners, the Arawaks left an indelible mark on the European conquerors. The hammock was among the innovations first presented to western society by the Arawaks and the space-saving resting place would become an important part of naval fleets until the twentieth century. As well, the cooking method known as barbecuing, where pieces of meat are left to simmer over low heat for hours on end, was first performed before western eyes by the Arawaks.]]}
data["Aztec"] = { leaders = {"Montezuma"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[The origin of the Aztec people is uncertain, but elements of their own tradition suggest that they were a tribe of hunter-gatherers on the northern Mexican plateau before their appearance in Meso-America in the 12th century. The Aztec were so called for Aztlan ("White Land"), an allusion to their origins in northern Mexico. It is possible that their migration southward was part of a general movement of peoples that followed, or perhaps helped trigger, the collapse of the Toltec civilization. The Aztecs settled on islands in Lake Texcoco and in 1325 founded Tenochtitlan, which remained their chief city. The basis of the Aztecs' success in creating a great state and ultimately an empire was their remarkable system of agriculture, which featured intensive cultivation of all available land, as well as elaborate systems of irrigation and reclamation of swampland. The high productivity gained by these methods made for a rich and populous state. The empire the Aztecs established was equaled in the New World only by that of the Incas of Peru, and the brilliance of their civilization is comparable to that of other great ancient cultures of the New and the Old World.<br><br>Under a succession of ambitious kings they established a dominion that eventually stretched over most of present-day Mexico. By commerce and conquest, Tenochtitlan came to rule an empire of 400 to 500 small states, comprising by 1519 some five to six million people spread over 80,000 square miles. Valor in war, notably in the feared Jaguar Warrior formations, was the surest path to advancement in Aztec society, which was caste- and class-divided but nonetheless vertically fluid. The priestly and bureaucratic classes were involved in the administration of the empire, while at the bottom of society were classes of serfs, indentured servants, and outright slaves. The incredible story of a wandering tribe that was able to build an empire in one century (from the beginning of the 14th century to the beginning of the 15th) can be largely explained by three main factors: the Aztec religion, the thriving trade routes centered on Tenochtilan, and Aztec military organization. In 1502 the ninth emperor Montezuma II (1502-1520) succeeded his uncle Ahuitzotl as the leader of an empire that had reached its greatest extent, stretching from what is now northern Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua. The Aztec empire was still expanding, and its society still evolving, when its progress was halted in 1519 by the appearance of Spanish adventurers.<br><br>For all its apparent strength, the Aztec Empire had vulnerabilities that the Spanish were able to exploit. Aztec rule was based upon a system of tribute and fear over the surrounding peoples; every year, they were forced to pay the Aztecs money, goods, and a supply of captives to be sacrificed on the altar. Taking advantage of this resentment of their Aztec overlords, the tiny Spanish force was able to attract a massive army of some 30,000 Mesoamericans of many different tribes. After mistaking the Spanish for gods and inviting them into Tenochtitlan, Montezuma was taken prisoner by Hernando Cortes and died in custody. Montezuma's successors, Cuitlahuac and Cuauhtemoc, were unable to stave off the force raised by the conquistadors and, with the Spanish sack of Tenochtitlan in 1521, the Aztec empire came to an end.]]}
data["Cherokee"] = { leaders = {"Oconostota"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[The Cherokee were inhabitants of the southern reaches of the modern United States. Residing in what is today Georgia, Tennessee and the Carolinas, the Cherokee were among the most powerful peoples of their region. They also were among the first natives of North America to establish contact with Europeans, being among the peoples encountered by the Spaniard Hernando de Soto in his journey across the American South.<br><br>The permanent settlement of North America by the English, however, placed significant pressure on the relations between the Cherokee and the Europeans. While siding with the English against the French during the French and Indian War, tensions came to a head in 1760 when a dispute between white settlers and the Cherokee exploded into all-out war. During what became known as "The Cherokee War," the Cherokee won a series of impressive victories, including the capture of the English fortress of Loudoun. The English reaction was brutal, the settlers burning entire villages to the ground, and the Cherokee were eventually forced to return to the negotiating table.<br><br>After the Cherokee War, the tensions between the Cherokee and the English eased, and with the coming of the Revolutionary War, the Cherokee once again sided with the English against the colonists. This slight would embitter relations between the colonists and the Cherokee and with the victory of the colonists, the Cherokee were left faced with a new, unfriendly country in the midst of their territory. Attempts at reconciliation were made, including the Cherokee's participation in a war against their enemies, the Creek, yet relations remained tense.<br><br>In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which required the Cherokee to abandon their lands in the east and march west, to resettle in the area that is modern Kansas, Nebraska and Oklahoma. While promising to provide the Cherokee with food, protection and shelter, the American government failed in all three respects, turning the forced exile into a death march. Nearly four thousand Cherokee died in what became known as the "Trail of Tears."<br><br>Living in the west, the Cherokee managed to survive in the particularly precarious circumstances in which they were placed, yet their general abuse by the American government continued. Over the next seventy years, the lands given to the Cherokee were slowly whittled away by American policy and overeager settlers. By 1906, nearly all their land had been stolen by American settlers or made part of newly-formed states.<br><br>The Cherokee would struggle to begin the slow process of reclaiming their native identity. With the discovery of oil in their remaining territory in the early 20th century and changes in American policy granting them more self-sovereignty, the fate of the Cherokee took a decidedly positive turn. Today, the Cherokee are among the most powerful and respected tribes in the United States, with members living in both Oklahoma and in their original homelands in the east.]]}
data["Incan"] = { leaders = {"Huayna Capac"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[Hundreds of years ago, a group of people calling themselves the Inca settled the Cuzco Valley high in the Andes Mountains of South America. Where they had come from was a mystery that still remains unsolved. Although their purpose for settling such a rugged and inhospitable landscape was unclear, the end result of their arrival is without doubt. In time, the Inca built an empire that spanned the Pacific coast as far south as Argentina and as far north as Ecuador, some 2000 miles of hills, mountains, valleys, and coastline. In just a short time (roughly 100 years), the Incan Empire dominated South America and is, to this day, considered one of the finest empires the world has ever known. Starting with the ninth ruler, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, the Inca began their expansion. Pachacuti won his first military campaign against the Chanca people, consolidated control over his cultural base of Cuzco, then turned his army south and conquered the Colla and Lupaca tribes. Though not the first Incan ruler, Pachacuti was by many accounts one of the finest Pre-Columbian persons that ever lived. It was under the rule of Huayna Capac, however, that the Incan Empire reached its greatest height. When his father died in 1483 and he became emperor in his own right, Capac continued the campaigns of the previous emperor, eventually extending the empire's borders into what is modern Colombia. A dedicated ruler, Huayna did much to improve the lives of his people. In addition to building temples and other works, Huayna greatly expanded the road network, along which he built storehouses for food so that aid could be quickly rushed to any who were in danger of starvation.<br><br>Like many other groups that preceded the Inca (the Chimu, the Nazca, the Moche), Incan society was heavily dipped in the worship of powerful gods. Their pantheon contained such lofty omnipotents as Viracocha (the god of creation), Inti (the sun and father of the Inca Dynasty), Illapa (god of rain, thunder, and lightning), Pacha Mama (mother of the earth), and Mama Cocha (mother of the lakes). Grand ceremonies were held frequently to honor these gods, for the Inca believed that if one did not give thanks and obedience to the gods, bad things would happen. The world of the Andes Mountains is full of ecological wonders - and ecological disasters such as earthquakes, severe storms, and volcanic activity. The gods held sway with these events and thus the proper respect had to be paid at all times.<br><br>The Inca called their empire Tahuantinsuyu (Land of the Four Quarters), which was divided into four provinces. Each province was controlled by a local governor called the apu; below him were the local rulers - the curacas - and even lower still the district headsmen - the camayoc. Through this governmental structure, the Sapa-Inca could rule the empire with impunity. Additional structures were also put in place, such as the Imperial road system, which was built along the steep inclines of mountains, interspersing bridges and stone walkways, stone steps, and flat brick highways. In addition, way-stations known as tambos were constructed at strategic points along the roads, giving travelers and important dignitaries a place to rest and prepare for the next leg of their journey.<br><br>The Incan army was also well organized. When called upon to fight, each province would muster squadrons of men armed with maces, bows and arrows, slings, darts, and spears. These fierce Incan warriors, known as the Quechua, conquered much of the Andes and coastal regions of what is now Peru and Ecuador in the period between 1440 and 1530 . During a battle, slingers would let fly a shower of rocks to soften the enemy lines. Then, archers would release their shafts, darts would fly, and then the shock troops would hit, in a torrent of screams and shouts meant to confuse and terrify the wavering opposition. Incan warfare was very successful. But nothing could prepare the empire for what was coming.<br><br>After the glorious reign of Huayna Capac, the empire began to erode under a series of internal and external disasters. A bitter civil war between half brothers Huascar and Atahuallpa, the sons of Capac, stretched the empire to the breaking point. Atahuallpa won the war, quickly killed his half-brother, and declared himself king. But, in 1532 AD, Spanish Conquistadors, under the command of Francisco Pizarro, entered the Cajamarca Valley and brutally attacked Atahuallpa and his subjects, killing many and taking the Sapa-Inca hostage. Eventually, Pizarro killed Atahuallpa, pillaged the empire of its riches, and brought an end to the mighty Incan civilization.]]}
data["Iroquois"] = { leaders = {"Logan"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[The Iroquois Confederacy was a union of five separate tribes unified by a constitutionally-bound representative democracy. Residing in the area that is today upper New York State, the Iroquois were one of the most formidable bodies of natives that Europeans ever encountered.<br><br>According to the founding legend of the nation, the five tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy - the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Onieda and the Mohawk - were originally locked in a perpetual war. This state of continual attrition, which showed no signs of abating, threatened to destroy them all until a Huron prophet, known as the Great Peace Maker, and a messenger known as Hiawatha, began spreading a word of unity and equality among the tribes, bringing the bloodshed to a halt. The Peace Maker and Hiawatha brought with them a democratic code of laws known as the Great Law of Peace, which was readily adopted by the five tribes and became the constitution of the unified Iroquois Confederacy. While it is debated exactly when this unification took place, it is generally assumed to have occurred somewhere between the 13th and 15th centuries AD.<br><br>Upon their arrival to North America, the Europeans were quick to strike deals with the Iroquois. The English were the first to ally themselves with the Iroquois, in no small part because the hated French had already allied themselves with the Algonquin and the Huron, the rivals of the Iroquois. The Iroquois engaged in innumerable raids and minor skirmishes against the French and their allies, in the hopes of bringing them to their knees. The Iroquois were also one of the main forces on the side of the English during the French and Indian War. In thanks for their participation in England's victory in that conflict, the English king, George III, declared that the lands of the Iroquois should remain in their control.<br><br>Yet the Revolutionary War, beginning in 1775, would mark the beginning of a great decline for the Iroquois. Four of the nations remained loyal to England during the war, but two, the Onieda and a group of newcomers known as the Tuscarora, allied themselves with the nascent colonies, effectively shattering the Confederacy. As a result, when the colonies emerged victorious, great numbers of those Iroquois loyal to the English migrated to what is now Ontario, where they remain to this day. Many Iroquois, however, still populate the regions of northern New York where their ancestors had lived for centuries.<br><br>With almost 200 years of close contact with Europeans, the Iroquois had an important influence on their neighbors, in food, language, and indeed lifestyle. However, their greatest contribution may be the influence their system of government had on modern democracy. Their constitutionally-based, bicameral, representative democracy stood as an example of a fully functioning democratic government, just at the time when a group of English colonists were trying to build one of their very own. The Iroquois system of government left an impression on many of the founding fathers of America, particularly author and scientist Benjamin Franklin. American democracy, which would later spread around the world, is in part, Iroquois democracy.]]}
data["Sioux"] = { leaders = {"Sitting Bull"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[The Sioux were a semi-nomadic people of central North America, living in the area that today stretches from modern Kansas to Saskatchewan. Because their territory stretched over a thousand miles in the heart of the continent, the Sioux were comprised of several different tribal groups that spoke dialects of the Sioux language. They first encountered Europeans in 1640, meeting with a group of French explorers sailing down the Mississippi, marking the beginning of a cordial trading relationship with the whites. For the next hundred years, because of their distance from any major European settlements, the Sioux were left largely in peace. They enthusiastically adopted horses in their hunting and battle, learning to handle lance and shield in addition to their traditional bow.<br><br>By the 19th century, the Sioux began to feel the adverse effects of European colonization. The first half of the 19th century was marked by a series of disease outbreaks among the Sioux. As well, westward expansion towards California turned their previously isolated settlements into a major thruway for European settlers. The settlers, as they passed through, massacred entire herds of buffalo, leading the beasts to near extinction. The Sioux, who made their livelihood from the buffalo, found themselves in a desperate situation.<br><br>And it only worsened. In the 1850s, gold was found in the Black Hills of the Dakotas and brought a surge of European settlers to the area. Conflicts between natives and settlers spurred the United States government to offer a treaty to the Sioux - the Fort Laramie Treaty - which gave them sovereignty over their territory. It had little effect and was generally ignored by white settlers. By the 1860s and 70s, war swept the Sioux territory as various tribes fought both settlers and the federal government. Outgunned by the United States Army, some Sioux surrendered, some fled to Canada, others fought until they could fight no more. Sitting Bull, the most renowned Sioux leader, led his people in clashes against the US Army before fleeing to Canada. When they found, however, that the territory provided for them in Canada was inadequate for their survival, Sitting Bull and his followers agreed to return to the United States and take up residence on a reservation.<br><br>By 1890, the Sioux had lost nearly all of their territory and had been forced onto reservations where their livelihood relied solely on the US government. Hunger was a common occurrence and with the "accidental" death of Sitting Bull and his son in December of that year, things looked grim for the Sioux. Many began practicing a religion known as the "Ghost Dance," which was said to be the remedy to their current situation. The US Army, though, expressly forbade the ritual, culminating in the Massacre at Wounded Knee, where 153 men, women and children were gunned down for their participation in the ritual.<br><br>By the 20th century, nearly all Sioux had been forced onto reservations, often being moved at the whim of the federal government. Their numbers had been greatly reduced and to this day, only about 150,000 remain.]]}
data["Tupi"] = { leaders = {"Cunhambebe"},
     color1 = "",
     cp = [[The Tupi were the dominant people of the region that is today Brazil. They occupied vast tracts of territory, hugging the eastern coast of the South American continent, with settlements along the Amazon River and as far inland as modern Paraguay. Tupi society consisted of a series of culturally and religiously related tribal families, which migrated along the coasts and rainforests as their food needs required.<br><br>While the Tupi economy benefited from brisk trade with other tribes, the Tupi were feared by many for their skills in combat. Armed with blowguns, bolas and all manner of bludgeoning instruments, Tupi warriors would often overwhelm their foes, taking captives to be cannibalized or to be used in religious rituals. Because of their practice of cannibalism, the Tupi were often confused with their neighbors, the Aimore, who practiced cannibalism as a form of sustenance. The Tupi, on the other hand, performed cannibalistic acts only as a form of revenge against those who had wronged members of their people.<br><br>With the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, it affected the Tupi way of life surprisingly little - at first . The Tupi found the Portuguese excellent trading partners. Unfortunately, the Tupi soon discovered that the Portuguese brought with them diseases they had never before experienced. In addition, in their search for gold on the continent, the Portuguese soon led raiding parties against Tupi settlements in order to acquire slaves to work in the mines.<br><br>While some Tupi mounted a defense against Portuguese incursions, many chose to flee into the forest, where the dense foliage could protect them from the Europeans. They could not, however, escape the disease the Europeans brought with them and over the next century, the Tupi, once numbering in the millions, were nearly obliterated. Today, Tupi settlements can still be found nestled deep within the reaches of the Amazon, but their numbers barely reach a fraction of their former grandeur.]]}
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