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local data = {}
data["Adriaen van der Donck"] = { civ = "New Netherlands",
     traits = {"Charismatic","Mercantile"},
     cp = [[Lived: c. 1618 - 1655<br><br>Adriaen van der Donck was a lawyer and bureaucrat, who became one of New Netherland's most ardent proponents of a participatory government.<br><br>Trained as a lawyer in Holland, van der Donck made the journey to the New World in 1641. There van der Donck found employment in the service of a wealthy landowner, serving as sheriff, counsel and tax collector. His duties held little interest for the young lawyer, however, and van der Donck spent much of his time visiting the local natives, learning the lay of the land and taking in-depth notes about local flora and fauna. This extracurricular activity would prove to be extremely beneficial: when Indian raids threatened the estate of van der Donck's master, van der Donck helped negotiate a treaty between his employer and his native acquaintances.<br><br>Upon the death of his employer, van der Donck took up residence for a time in the city of New Amsterdam, finding employment as attorney to the various powers of the colony. He soon began to involve himself in the pursuit of self government for the colony, growing to become one of the colony's most respected citizens. The money he earned performing various legal duties allowed him to buy an enormous estate up the Hudson River. So vast was his estate that he acquired the nickname of "Jongheer" or "Young Gentleman." This name stuck, and the land on which van der Donck's estate was built eventually became Yonkers, New York.<br><br>It was about this time that an autocratic new governor named Peter Stuyvesant was selected to lead New Amsterdam. Van der Donck, along with several other members of the colony, disgusted by Stuyvesant's iron-fisted methods, demanded that the Dutch citizenry be given a measure of input into the decision-making of the colony. The result was the Board of Nine, a group of nine of the most prominent members of the community who were to advise the governor. In 1649, van der Donck was selected for membership on the board, but soon came into conflict with Stuyvesant and his less than enlightened method of rule. After continually butting heads, Stuyvesant had van der Donck arrested and removed from the Board of Nine.<br><br>After the remaining members of the Board of Nine negotiated his release, van der Donck set sail for the colonial headquarters across the sea in the Netherlands. There he convinced the colonial leadership that Stuyvesant was a menace and secured the promise that they would create a participatory government in New Amsterdam.<br><br>Unfortunately, events intervened and the new policies were never enacted. War with England forced the colonial leaders to restore Stuyvesant, a trained soldier, to power, and do away with their promised changes to the colonial government. With victory snatched from his grasp, van der Donck prepared to return home to his New World estate, but found that he was not allowed to leave Europe. There was fear that his presence could loosen the resolve of the Dutch citizenry in their battle against the English. (Ironically, Stuyvesant had already managed to destroy their resolve all by himself. So alienated had the people become from their iron-fisted governor that the colony fell into English hands without a shot being fired.) Van der Donck languished for months before being allowed to return to the land that had become his home.<br><br>While waiting to return to the New World, van der Donck put to paper his many observations and discoveries about the New World and the natives. This work - "Descriptions of New Netherland" - was an instant hit in the Netherlands and became the first ethnographic study of the natives of the New World.<br><br>When he was finally allowed to return to his estate, van der Donck was not long able to enjoy it. Growing tension with the local Indian tribes led to a series of brutal raids that became known as the Peach Tree Wars. While it is unknown exactly when and where, it is generally believed that van der Donck's life was claimed in these raids.]]}
data["Agueybana"] = { civ = "Arawak",
     traits = {"Impressionable", "Gracious"},
     cp = [[The name "Agueybana," literally meaning "Great Sun" in the Taino language, refers to two brothers, both natives of the island today known as Puerto Rico. Agueybana I, born between 1460 and 1480, was leader of the Taino, a branch of the Arawaks. In 1508, the first Spanish explorers arrived to colonize the island. Agueybana and the Europeans soon negotiated a mutually beneficial agreement. In return for protection from the other tribes of the region, Agueybana's tribe would labor for the Spaniards, mining the island's rich gold resources.<br><br>The equitable terms of the deal would not last for long. The lust for gold drove the Spaniards to require more and more from their volunteer labor force and before long, it became apparent that Agueybana had negotiated his people into slavery. Unfortunately, he was unable to rectify his error. Whether through overwork, old age or illness (European disease had begun to ravage the island), Agueybana passed away in 1510.<br><br>Over the following year, Agueybana's brother took up the mantle of leadership, as well as his brother's name, becoming Agueybana II. Through covert planning, Agueybana II organized a rebellion against the island's governor, Juan Ponce de Leon (the conquistador known for his misguided foray in search of the Fountain of Youth). With the element of surprise on their side, Agueybana's warriors were initially successful, yet their victory would be fleeting. Between the rapidly increasing numbers of Spaniards arriving on the island and the storm of new diseases battering the Arawak population, the natives of Puerto Rico were nearly obliterated over the next thirty years. Agueybana II himself died in the rebellion he worked to foment, passing away in 1511.]]}
data["Cunhambebe"] = { civ = "Tupi",
     traits = {"Prosperous", "Indulgent"},
     cp = [[Cunhambebe was the leader of the Tupi, a collection of native groups that controlled much of modern Brazil, during the mid-16th century. Historically each tribe of Tupi had their own chief; Cunhambebe was one of the few rulers who managed to unite multiple tribes under the same banner. According to legend Cunhambebe lived in a huge fortified palace, littered with guns and artillery that his warriors stole from the Portuguese.<br><br>Under Cunhambebe, the Tupi strove to stymie the efforts of the Portuguese at every turn. When their own efforts proved to be ineffective, they joined forces with the French to push their common foe into the sea. However, in 1557 a new Portuguese governor, Mem de Sa, convinced Cunhambebe to withdraw his support for the French and enter into talks with the Portuguese. Cunhambebe agreed, halting his people's raids on the nascent Portuguese colonies. The peace would not last long, and over the next century the Tupi would be nearly annihilated by the European invaders.]]}
data["George Washington"] = { civ = "New England",
     traits = {"Disciplined", "Tolerant"},
     cp = [[Lived: 1732-1799<br><br>George Washington was born into wealth and gentility (or what passed for it in early American history). His family owned a lot of land in Virginia, and Washington grew up as a gentleman farmer. Early on he displayed a taste for adventure, and when the French and Indian war broke out, Washington was commissioned a Lieutenant Colonel at the age of 22. His British superiors praised him for his gallantry and courage under fire.<br><br>As he matured, Washington grew to dislike the protectionist policies of the British government, and he was elected one of the Virginia delegates to the Continental Congress. Being one of the few men with actual military service, when war was imminent, he was appointed Commander in Chief of the (largely theoretical) Continental Army.<br><br>As a war leader, Washington faced enormous challenges. Lacking money, equipment and trained troops and hampered by the new country's inherent political problems, he had to organize, equip and recruit an army that could stand up to the finest military in the world. In his first engagement, shortly after the "battle" of Bunker Hill, his forces drove the unprepared British out of Boston. But when he next met the foe on Long Island, New York, he was totally outnumbered, outgunned, and out-generaled by the British, and he was lucky to escape the total destruction of his army.<br><br>After this humiliating defeat, Washington began to employ the tactics that would eventually win the war. He realized that time was his best ally - the longer the war continued, the greater the British war weariness would grow. He couldn't hope to defeat the British war machine - but he could hope that the British would eventually give up the fight as not worth the cost. Further, the longer the war went on, the greater the chance that a foreign government would intervene on the American side.<br><br>For the next six weary years Washington fought to keep his army intact. He avoided major engagements. He harried the British troops when they were vulnerable, and retreated into the mountains when they were powerful. His forces dwindled to virtually nothing in the winter, and swelled with temporary volunteers during the summer. Men went shoeless and hungry, and morale plummeted. Only Washington's iron will and strong personal magnetism kept the army alive.<br><br>Finally, in 1781, the long-awaited foreign intervention occurred, and France went to war with Britain. With their invaluable naval assistance, Washington was able to capture the main British army in Yorktown, forcing Great Britain to admit defeat.<br><br>Washington became the first President of the United States. Prone to pomposity, he was an "Imperial" president, giving the new office much of the stature and dignity it has maintained ever since, while strongly reinforcing its democratic underpinnings. He believed in neutrality in foreign affairs - at least until the new country was stronger - and he sought to keep the twin evils of regionalism and factionalism from infecting the federal government. In this he was largely unsuccessful, as the next several centuries would attest.<br><br>Washington retired at the end of his second term. He returned to his family home and once again took up the life of a gentleman farmer. He died three months later, beloved by his countrymen and rightly recognized as the "father of his country."]]}
data["Huayna Capac"] = { civ = "Incan",
     traits = {"Prosperous", "Mentor"},
     cp = [[Lived: c.1460 - 1527<br><br>Huayna Capac was the son of the Incan Emperor Iupanqui. Under his father, Capac led armies against his nation's neighbors to the north. When his father died in 1483 and he became emperor in his own right, Capac continued the campaigns, eventually extending the empire's borders into what is modern Colombia.<br><br>The Inca Empire reached the height of its size and power under his rule, stretching over much of Bolivia, Peru, Argentine, Chile, Ecuador, and Colombia. It included varying terrain, from the high, frozen Andes to the densest swamps, and over 200 distinct ethnic groups, each with their own customs and languages.<br><br>Despite the geographical and cultural challenges, Inca - or Tawantinsuys, the "Realm of the Four Quarters" - was sophisticated for its time and place. At its height it had "monumental cities, temples and fortresses of stone, marvelously engineered roads cut through granite mountain slopes, and massive agricultural terraces and hydraulic works." A dedicated ruler, Huayna did much to improve the lives of his people. In addition to building temples and other works, Huayna greatly expanded the road network, along which he built storehouses for food so that aid could be quickly rushed to any who were in danger of starvation.<br><br>Huayna contracted smallpox while campaigning in Colombia. Smallpox had been introduced to South America by the Spaniards, and the Native Americans had no defense against it; Huayna and about 200,000 other South and Central Americans died in that one epidemic. Before his death Huayna divided his country, leaving the newly-conquered north to his favorite son, Atahualpa, and the rest to his legitimate heir, Huascar. The two brothers fought a long and debilitating war to reunite their country. Atahualpa eventually won, but the victory left his country exhausted and prostrate, unable to withstand attack from the Spaniard; Francisco Pizarro.<br><br>Very little is known about Huayna the man. As was their established practice, the Spanish conquerors did their best to obliterate Incan history in order to detach their subject people from their places in history and make them easier to enslave (and to be converted to Christianity). We know that Huayna was bloodthirsty and vindictive in war, but in his private life he was affectionate, even tender. We can assume that Huayna was smart enough to hold his empire together, ambitious enough to seek to extend its borders, ruthless enough to crush those in his path, and foolish enough to divide his empire to try to satisfy both of his sons.]]}
data["John Adams"] = { civ = "New England",
     traits = {"Libertarian", "Tolerant"},
     cp = [[Lived: October 30, 1735 - July 4, 1826<br><br>A diplomat, politician, lawyer and firebrand, John Adams was one of the driving forces of the American Revolution.<br><br>Born in 1735 in Massachusetts, Adams trained as a lawyer and rose to a prominent position in the colonial legislature, earning himself a reputation as a staunch opponent of the English. In 1770, however, when a group of British soldiers fired on a mob of unarmed American citizens - the so-called Boston Massacre - Adams was selected to defend the soldiers. While fearing that acting as defense on such a trial would tarnish his reputation, Adams discovered his worries were unfounded. After the trial, his reputation only grew as he became known as a defender of the rights of all men - even the English.<br><br>His knowledge of law and history as well as his burning desire to break with England made him a popular voice among those colonists unsatisfied with their second-class status. Adams wrote numerous articles decrying the acts taken by England to restrict the liberties of the unruly colonists. He attended both Continental Congresses, establishing a reputation as a brilliant political thinker. In 1776, when offered the historic opportunity to pen the Declaration of Independence, Adams deferred to Thomas Jefferson, who he saw as better respected by the whole of the Congress.<br><br>When it came time for the states to author their own constitutions, Adams' legal sagacity made him a popular mentor among the individual state congresses. In 1777, Adams was sent abroad to Europe in order to help negotiate a favorable peace between England and the colonies, and secured a significant loan from the Dutch in order to aid his newly birthed home-country. In thanks for his impressive work abroad, upon his return to the United States in 1789, Adams was elected the country's first Vice President.<br><br>In 1796, George Washington stepped down after his second term and Adams was elected the second President of the United States. His successes in office include narrowly avoiding war with France, increasing the strength of the American navy and appointing John Marshall, the Supreme Court judge responsible for ensuring the independence of the judiciary.<br><br>After losing the Presidency in 1800 to Thomas Jefferson, Adams retired from politics. He lived as a private citizen until July 4th, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the United States, before he passed away.]]}
data["Jose de San Martin"] = { civ = "New Spain",
     traits = {"Resourceful", "Conquistador"},
     cp = [[Lived: 1778 - 1850<br><br>Groomed from a young age for the life of a soldier, Jose de San Martin would grow to lead the Peruvian and Chilean people to independence from Spain.<br><br>Born in Argentina, but raised in Spain, by the age of 11, Jose de San Martin was already a member of the Spanish armed forces. In the Peninsular War between Spain and France in 1808, San Martin began as an aide to the Spanish leadership; by war's end he had attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.<br><br>In the midst of the war, the Spanish king abdicated from power to be replaced by an appointment of the opposing French. The citizens of Argentina, upon hearing of the Spanish government's state of disarray, decided that there would be no better time to declare independence. When news of the Argentine revolution reached him, San Martin elected to support the rebels' cause, leaving Spain for the New World. Upon his arrival, he was immediately recruited by the rebel forces to begin mustering and training an elite regiment. His regiment, known as the Mounted Grenadiers, became some of the finest troops South America had to offer.<br><br>Once his troops were ready, the normally reserved drillmaster suggested a daring move - marching an army from Argentina to Chile through the peaks of the Andes. His plan was regarded as madness by many, but San Martin managed to muster more than enough brave souls to join him in the endeavor. Dividing his forces into six columns for easier travel through the difficult terrain, San Martin planned for each column to arrive within two days of one another, a highly unlikely prospect given the extreme terrain and great danger that lay ahead.<br><br>But on February 12, nearly all four thousand troops stepped out from the shadows of the Andes onto the plains of Chacabuco, prepared to face the numerically superior Spanish forces. Despite having just traversed some of the most inhospitable terrain on earth, San Martin's "Army of the Andes," soundly defeated the Royalists. They then marched on the Chilean capital of Santiago, taking the city with little fuss. Despite what many thought to be a crushing loss on the field of Tacla roughly a month later, Chile was to remain in the hands of San Martin and his revolutionary followers.<br><br>The citizens of Chile attempted to appoint San Martin governor of their colony, but he refused. He had his sights set on the bastion of Spanish power in South America - Lima, Peru. San Martin took his forces north, offering the Spanish forces in Lima the opportunity to surrender and set up a new constitutional government. Their refusal sealed their fate - in 1821, San Martin marched into Lima, taking the city for the rebels. He was soon proclaimed the first President of Peru.<br><br>Small pockets of Spanish forces remained scattered throughout the Peruvian countryside and in order to ensure their removal, San Martin requested a conference with Simon Bolivar, the Liberator of the north whose military zone of influence overlapped that of San Martin.<br><br>The two met in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador in 1822. What they discussed is unknown, but the result is - on that day San Martin stepped down from his position, leaving the fate of South America in the hands of Bolivar. San Martin had previously displayed a wavering of passion for his cause, but it took the words of Bolivar to force a decision. Upon stepping down, San Martin settled with his wife and children on a farm in Argentina for two years before migrating to Europe, where he spent the remainder of his days moving from country to country in order to escape the numerous revolutions sweeping the continent at the time. He died in France in 1850.]]}
data["King of England"] = { civ = "England",
     cp = [[The modern English monarchy was born out of a long series of external conquests and internal revolutions. Most historians date the beginnings of the English monarchy to the ninth century, when the Anglo-Saxon House of Wessex successfully established sovereignty over numerous other prominent houses. The House of Wessex would rule England nearly uninterrupted until 1066 AD, with only a brief thirty year gap in the 10th century when they were temporarily removed from power by Viking invaders.<br><br>In 1066 AD, the Norman conqueror William crossed the English Channel, defeated the restored Wessex monarchy at the Battle of Hastings, and began nearly four hundred years of rule over England by kings of French lineage. This lineage, known as the Plantagenets, were descendents of the count of Anjou, a region in northern France. The Plantagenets eventually split into two other English Royal Houses, the House of Lancaster, which ruled England 1399 until 1471, and the House of York, who took control after the removal of the Lancesters and ruled until 1485.<br><br>In 1485 a Welsh nobleman named Henry VII, a member of the House of Tudor, overthrew the House of York, giving rise to the monarchy that would change England to a greater degree than any before it. King Henry VIII, the second Tudor king, turned the small island nation of England from a speck on the periphery of Europe's vision into a formidable player in European politics. Henry VIII's daughter, Elizabeth I, however, would make England one of the most powerful nations on Earth and create an overseas empire.]]}
data["King of France"] = { civ = "France",
     cp = [[After the fall of Rome in 476 AD, the citizens of Gaul were left without a ruler. It would be only ten short years, however, before the region's first King, Clovis I, a member of the House of Merovingian, established the first Frankish kingdom. The four hundred year reign of the Merovingian's dynasty was plagued with uncertainty, betrayal and infighting. Not until the rise of a king known as Charles the Great - also known as Charlemagne - established the Carolingian dynasty in 800 AD did the true beginnings of the French monarchy take hold.<br><br>Roughly two hundred years later, Hugh Capet, a relative through marriage of the Carolingians, would rise to the throne and establish the house that ruled France for the next eight hundred years - the Capetians. From their seat of power in Ile-de-France (the current location of the French capital Paris), the Capetians split into numerous branches over the centuries. Several of these branches came into great power, including the Valois, who ruled France from 1328 until 1589 and the Bourbon, who ruled from 1589 until the French Revolution in 1792. So widespread was the power of the Capetian line that their descendents held thrones from Constantinople to Portugal.]]}
data["King of Netherlands"] = { civ = "Netherlands",
     cp = [[While not a monarchy in the traditional sense, the House of Orange-Nassau played an invaluable role in the history of the Netherlands. The first member of the House of Orange to earn great renown was William of Orange, known colloquially as "William the Silent." His political and military savvy helped to loosen the Spanish hold on the provinces of the Netherlands for the first time in almost a century. He eventually earned the position of Stadtholder, effectively placing the fate of the Netherlands in his hands. William would struggle valiantly, securing numerous concessions for his nation, before being assassinated in 1584.<br><br>The battle for Dutch independence continued after William's death - as did control of the position of Stadtholder by the House of Orange. Finally, in 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia granted the Netherlands complete self-rule. With the passing of William II of Orange - grandson of William the Silent - not two years after the passage of the treaty, and the successor to the Stadtholdership - William III - nothing more than a babe, the position was left vacant.<br><br>During this "Stadtholderless" period , the Netherlands became one of the most powerful commercial bodies in the world, creating an economy that rivaled that of Spain or Portugal. In 1672, England and France, tired of the Dutch meddling in international commerce, declared war on the Netherlands. William III, having already taken up his family's rightful position, led the Netherlands to war and was more successful than any could have expected. Not only did William defend his nation from the two of the most powerful countries in the world, but he took the throne of England as a trophy. In 1689, William III of Orange became King of England as well as the leader of the Netherlands.<br><br>Following William III, the power of the Netherlands began to wane. Yet even in its diminishing global strength, the House of Orange remained among the most important in the Netherlands. When, in 1815, fear of Napoleon was running rampant across Europe, the Prince of Orange at the time, William Frederick, declared himself King of the Netherlands, becoming the nation's first actual monarch. The Dutch monarchy remains to this day, although its powers have always been considerably more limited than those of more absolute monarchies.]]}
data["King of Spain"] = { civ = "Spain",
     cp = [[The Spanish monarchy of the 15th century rose from almost six hundred years of intermarrying between four families - the Houses of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Navarre. The kings of Spain, however, were of little consequence among the crowned heads of Europe until the 13th century. Before that time, they lived in uncomfortably cramped quarters in the north of Spain, shut off from the south by the occupation of the Moors. But with the victory of the Castilian King Alfonso VIII at the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212 AD, the Spanish monarchs began a slow push to reclaim the peninsula that would continue for the next three hundred years.<br><br>In the 15th century, two of the four kingdoms of Spain would rise to supremacy - Castile in the west and Aragon in the east. The marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon - who became known as the Catholic Kings - brought nearly all of Spain together under the control of one monarchy. And in 1492, they would change the face of Spain forever, for in that year the Catholics overtook the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, uniting the country for the first time in history. And of course in the same year a certain Christopher Columbus would make an extraordinary discovery, giving the Spanish monarchs the largest and wealthiest empire since the fall of the Caesars.]]}
data["Logan"] = { civ = "Iroquois",
     traits = {"Indulgent", "Mentor"},
     cp = [[Lived: c.1725 - 1780<br><br>Logan was chief of the Mingo tribe, a branch of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy, living in the frontier land of Virginia in the 18th century. Little is known about his early life before the actions of one misguided English colonist brought the Iroquois leader painfully to English attention.<br><br>In 1774, a man named Daniel Greathouse, responding to the summons of a nervous innkeeper, lead a small militia in what became known as the Yellow Creek Massacre. Roughly a dozen Iroquois were killed by Greathouse and his men, many of them direct blood relatives of Logan - including Logan's sister and daughter.<br><br>In response, Logan organized a party of his fellow Iroquois and led them on a series of brutal raids across the frontier settlements of Virginia. So successful were the attacks of Logan and his small group that the governor of Virginia, one Lord Dunmore, declared war on the whole of the Mingo nation. The Mingo and the English forces met on the field of Point Pleasant, where the superior numbers of the Virginians secured victory.<br><br>Logan, however, was not present for the battle. Instead, he conveyed a message that he saw no further need to battle the whites. This message, which became known as "Logan's Lament" would become a sort of manifesto for the natives and their white proponents, demonstrating that those who were so often called "savages" were actually rational beings just like the English. In his message, Logan said, "During the course of the last long and bloody war [the French and Indian War], Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites - I had even thought to have lived with you but for the injuries of one man...This has called on me for revenge. I have sought it; I have killed many; I have glutted my vengeance; for my country I rejoice at the beams of peace."]]}
data["Louis de Frontenac"] = { civ = "New France",
     traits = {"Militaristic", "Cooperative"},
     cp = [[Lived: 1622 - 1698<br><br>Born to a well-to-do family in 1622, de Frontenac was led from an early age towards the path of the career soldier. By the age of fifteen, he had enlisted and shipped off to Holland to aid in that country's war of independence against the Spanish. By the age of twenty-six, he had attained the rank of Brigadier-General.<br><br>In 1669, de Frontenac was among the first soldiers selected to join in the defense of the Greek island of Crete from the encroaching Turks. Despite failure in the face of the Turkish forces, de Frontenac proved himself a valorous soldier and was selected to become the new governor of New France by King Louis XIV.<br><br>De Frontenac had a single key goal as governor: make New France as glorious as the old one. Upon claiming the powers vested in him by the King, he began a vigorous series of reforms based on nothing more than his own theories of government. He began by organizing a series of committees consisting of noblemen, clergymen and citizens - the three most powerful factions of society in France - who could aid in the management of the colony. He built a massive fortress in the western frontier country of Quebec to help fortify that unsettled region. He even arranged for public elections to allow Quebec's citizens to have a say in their municipal government.<br><br>And while many of his efforts pleased great swathes of society, his headstrong methods angered many others. His democratic efforts would be particularly short-lived: upon hearing of them, the King immediately ordered the elections ended. By 1682, de Frontenac had ostracized nearly all the major officials in Quebec's government and the King had no recourse but to summon his wayward governor back to France.<br><br>Over the next seven years, increasing raids by the Iroquois against Quebec brought the young colony to its knees. In a bold move, the King decided to restore de Frontenac to his position as governor and to allow the life-long soldier and statesman another chance to prove his worth.<br><br>And prove it de Frontenac did.<br><br>Returned at last to Quebec, de Frontenac not only halted the Iroquois raids, but he also captured much territory of the English - the allies of the Iroquois - expanding New France to a previously unattainable size and power. He sacked three English forts in what are today New York, Maine and New Hampshire, claimed Newfoundland in the name of the King and seized all English territory around the Hudson Bay. In only nine years, de Frontenac had managed to not only save Quebec, but turned it into the most powerful colony in North America. He died on November 28th, 1698, known to all as the savior of New France.]]}
data["Mangas Coloradas"] = { civ = "Apache",
     traits = {"Impressionable", "Indulgent"},
     cp = [[Lived:c.1793 - 1863<br><br>Mangas Coloradas was the leader of the Apache during a period of extended conflict between his people and the Americans that later became known as the Apache Wars. Little is known of Coloradas's early life. But by the 1830s, the Apache leader found himself in an exceedingly difficult position. His territory, wedged uncomfortably between the newly-formed and highly ambitious Mexican nation and the manifest-destiny obsessed United States, became even more valuable when great troves of copper and gold were discovered to lie beneath its soil.<br><br>The Mexicans struck first, beginning a campaign of annihilation against the Apache. The Apache fought back with fervor, creating a force that included two of the greatest native warriors in history - Cochise, leader of the Chiricahua Apache, and later, Geronimo, the seemingly invincible medicine man of the Chiricahua. Bloodshed continued between the Mexicans and the Apache until the United States stepped in, declaring formal war on Mexico in 1846. Coloradas granted the American troops safe passage through his lands and even offered Apache support to the Americans if they would guarantee the natives' sovereignty.<br><br>Such a deal, however, would never be struck. The call of gold and copper in the Apache territory was too much for the American miners, who increasingly trespassed on Apache soil. The specific incident that drove Coloradas to war is disputed. Some claim his family was murdered. Others believe he was bound to a tree by miners, whipped, and left for dead. Whatever the cause, the effect is known - Mangas began a brutal war against the Americans, both miners and soldiers alike. Back and forth raids by Apache warriors and American soldiers turned the whole of the American Southwest into a battlefield.<br><br>By 1862, the war had reached an uneasy calm. Coloradas, who had spent nearly all of the past four decades at war, was lured by the offer of peace made by an American general. Upon arriving for the talks, Mangas was bound, tortured and executed. This stunning act of duplicity drove Cochise and Geronimo to resume all-out war against the Americans. Geronimo, the last great Apache leader to be captured, would not cease to fight until 1886.]]}
data["Montezuma"] = { civ = "Aztec",
     traits = {"Prosperous", "Gracious"},
     cp = [[Lived: c.1480 - 1520<br><br>Montezuma was Emperor of the Aztec nation from approximately 1502 until its dissolution in 1520. At the start of his reign he was considered a god and was absolute monarch of the entire known world; at the end of his reign he watched a small group of foreigners destroy his empire with ease.<br><br>Montezuma ruled the Aztecs at the height of their power. His empire controlled a large portion of what is now modern Mexico. They had conquered virtually all other people around them, except for a few other nations, which they deliberately left free (so that they would have somebody left to make war against and to use as sacrifices).<br><br>Though extremely rich and powerful, Montezuma's nation shamelessly squandered a great portion of its wealth and might. Much like the Egyptians, the Aztecs built huge monuments to their gods and held ever-increasing numbers of expensive religious festivals in which they slaughtered tens of thousands of prisoners and their own people. Montezuma himself lived in great splendor, his clothing made of silver, gold, and brightly-colored feathers. His court was brilliant, though much riddled with corruption and intrigue.<br><br>In 1519, Hernando Cortes led 600 Spanish adventurers with 20 horses and 10 cannon to the shores of Mexico on a mission of exploration. Hearing of the great wealth of the Aztecs, he took his tiny force west, determined to conquer this massive nation of five million. At the start of the march Cortes burned his ships to ensure that his men would not desert him.<br><br>The natives that first faced Cortes were primitive and divided. They were terrified of the Spanish "demonic" horses and cannon and broke before their accurate musket-fire. Cleverly exploiting their political divisions, Cortes then enlisted the defeated peoples' aid by promising them revenge against the hated Aztecs.<br><br>Montezuma watched Cortes' approach with fear and bewilderment. His religion told him that one day the god Quetzalcoatl would return in the guise of a light-skinned bearded man, and when that day occurred, the Aztecs were to welcome him with open arms. Surely Cortes was Quetzalcoatl, else how could he command an army of demons? On the other hand, Cortes was clearly bent on the conquest of the empire - should Montezuma not oppose him? Perhaps the sinful Aztecs needed to be punished!<br><br>Eventually, at the desperate urging of his advisors, Montezuma sent an army into the field against the invaders. But they were unable to offer effective resistance and Cortes' forces quickly overwhelmed them. The invaders then marched into the capital city Tenochtitlan virtually unopposed and took Montezuma prisoner. He was eventually killed during an uprising that pushed the invaders out of the city for more than a year.<br><br>One has to wonder what would have happened if Montezuma had shown Cortes' courage and resolve and mobilized his people when the invaders first arrived. Could the Spanish have conquered Mexico against determined and organized resistance? Perhaps, but perhaps the natives would have held on long enough to learn to master the horse and gun - or at least their fear of them. If so, they would have become a formidable foe indeed.]]}
data["Oconostota"] = { civ = "Cherokee",
     traits = {"Impressionable", "Gracious"},
     cp = [[Lived: c. 1715 - 1783<br><br>Oconostota was born among the peaks of the Smoky Mountains in what is today Tennessee. He grew to manhood during a period of great turmoil among his people, with both the French and English bearing down upon them. Oconostota showed impressive abilities in diplomacy, and once appointed chief of the Cherokee, he managed to balance relations between his tribe and the English, French and French-allied Creek Indians.<br><br>Oconostota's aid endeared the native leader to the English. When the French and Indian War began, the English requested the aid of the Cherokee, and an alliance was struck. Yet the English questioned the dedication of their Cherokee allies, who continued to have contact with the French. Whether the Cherokee were attempting to negotiate peace or to betray the English, it mattered not. Upon his return from one such talk with the French, Oconostota was captured by the English, along with numerous other Cherokee chieftains.<br><br>This brazen violation of their treaty embittered relations between the Cherokee and the English. After Oconostota's release, a dispute between an English settler and a Cherokee native over a stock of horses resulted in the murder of a family of natives. This was the final straw for Oconostota, who began to exact his revenge, first with small raids against outlying English settlements, but soon with all-out war. Begun in 1758, the conflict known as the Cherokee War opened with great success for the Cherokees. Oconostota's warriors captured the English bastion of Fort Loudoun, expelling the English presence from the region and dealing a humiliating blow to the Europeans.<br><br>The English response was brutally effective. Red-coated soldiers massacred over a dozen villages in the hopes of forcing Oconostota to surrender. To halt the stunning English brutality, in 1761, Oconostota agreed to a peace treaty with the English. In 1762, as a symbol of mutual good faith, Oconostota and two other Cherokee chieftains visited England and the English King George III. They drew massive crowds wherever they went in England, and so pleased was King George III with Oconostota that he promised that their lands would remain untouched.<br><br>The agreement would have little effect, though, as the English colonists of the New World had no intention of following their king's instructions in this matter. Upon his return to the Americas, the chief was forced to begin his defensive efforts anew, this time as his people found themselves caught in the middle of the Revolutionary War.<br><br>Oconostota continued to strive to keep his people safe from the English and these new "Americans" but he was unable to stem the tide of white expansion. After the Cherokee capital of Chota was destroyed in 1780, Oconostota was forced into exile, living in Virginia until his death in 1783.]]}
data["Peter Stuyvesant"] = { civ = "New Netherlands",
     traits = {"Industrious","Mercantile"},
     cp = [[Lived: c. 1602 - 1672<br><br>Peter Stuyvesant first began his career as a soldier and administrator in the Caribbean, governing the Dutch island colony of Curacao. During his time in the Caribbean, Stuyvesant lost his right leg in a raid against a Spanish outpost and had it replaced with a wooden one. Yet his raw bravado made him popular among the Dutch West India Company's administration.<br><br>Not long after the loss of his leg, Stuyvesant was selected to become governor of the Dutch West India colony of New Amsterdam on the island of Manhattan. In 1647 he began his administration amid much fanfare. He soon established a new court system for the colony, new schools and began securing the under-defended colony against attacks from the natives. Stuyvesant is responsible for the current location of two of New Amsterdam's (which later became New York City) most famous boulevards - Broadway and Wall Street (which in Stuyvesant's time was an actual wall).<br><br>The colonists soon discovered, however, that there was only one way things could be done under Stuyvesant's governorship - his way. Stuyvesant reserved the right to decide any court case he liked, overruling the judiciary as he chose. Such a case arose when two prominent members of the New Amsterdam society spoke out against the previous governor. Although at best a minor infraction, Stuyvesant had the two men severally punished and by so doing he lost much favor with the colonists. Later autocratic proclamations such as taxes on "sins" like beer and wine and the burning of homes outside of his carefully-planned defenses continued to increase the dislike of the citizens for their new governor.<br><br>Increasing his difficulties, Stuyvesant and his administration were plagued by the English colonies that surrounded New Amsterdam. Stuyvesant struck several deals with the English colonists and even took aggressive maneuvers to halt the encroaching English by capturing the colony of New Sweden, but it was not enough. In 1664, the English sailed four hundred men into the colony's harbor, demanding New Amsterdam's surrender. Stuyvesant attempted to rally his citizens to fight back, but no defense was mounted. So reasonable were the English claims - they guaranteed freedom of worship and an acceptable level of self-determination - and so great the alienation between the people and Stuyvesant that the Dutch citizens gladly welcomed English rule.]]}
data["Samuel de Champlain"] = { civ = "New France",
     traits = {"Enterprising", "Cooperative"},
     cp = [[Lived: 1567 - 1635<br><br>A soldier, sailor, and scribe, Samuel de Champlain founded the French colonial capital of Quebec and is widely considered the father of New France.<br><br>Born in 1567 in Brouage, France, Champlain was trained as a navigator, and began his career as an explorer by visiting the French and Spanish colonies of the Caribbean. Upon his return from the islands, he committed his many observations to paper and gave the resulting report to the French king Henry IV. His careful observations helped establish him as an authority on the New World. (Interestingly, Champlain mentions in his report the idea of creating a canal across the thin strip of land known as Panama, marking the first conception of what would become the Panama Canal.)<br><br>Upon returning to the New World, Champlain traveled to the French holdings in the chilly reaches of North America. He aided in the foundation of the island colony of St. Croix, off the coast of what is today the state of Maine in the United States, and continued to transcribe his observations of the natives of the north.<br><br>When the location of St. Croix proved too isolating to make a profitable trading post, Champlain suggested to the patron of the colony, a man known as De Monts, that a trading post along the St. Lawrence could be a successful investment, if given the proper leadership. De Monts agreed and selected Champlain to lead the colony.<br><br>On July 3rd, 1608, after sailing down the Saint Lawrence River, Champlain began the construction of the colony of Quebec. In order to protect his newly founded colony, Champlain established relations with the local Algonquin and Huron natives, and formed an alliance with them against the neighboring Iroquois and their English allies. Despite numerous raids by the Iroquois and skirmishes with the English, Champlain kept the colony alive and thriving. He made frequent trips back to France in order to secure funds to continue to support the continued growth of his blossoming colony.<br><br>In 1629, Quebec was finally taken by the English, and Champlain was captured. He was exiled to England as a prisoner of war before being returned to France. Unable to return to his New World home until 1632, Champlain was able to enjoy Quebec only three more years before passing away.]]}
data["Simon Bolivar"] = { civ = "New Spain",
     traits = {"Determined", "Conquistador"},
     cp = [[Lived: 1783 - 1830<br><br>Simon Bolivar was the founder of Gran Colombia, the first confederation of South American territories free of Spanish rule.<br><br>Born to a wealthy Venezuelan family in 1783, Bolivar enjoyed a privileged upbringing. He was educated by private tutors in the classical thought of the Romans and Greeks as well as in the more contemporary Enlightenment ideals. He studied both in Venezuela and Spain and traveled across Europe to expand his studies. While in France, Bolivar attended the coronation of Napoleon as the Emperor of France, an act the young Venezuelan saw as distasteful and an abandonment of the republican ideals the French Revolution had attempted to instill.<br><br>When he returned home in 1807, Bolivar found that the meddling of Napoleon came with him. Napoleon had deposed the Spanish monarchy, and placed his own brother on the seat of the Spanish throne. This placed Joseph Napoleon in charge of the affairs of all citizens of Spain and the Spanish colonies, including Venezuela. Banding together, Bolivar and other concerned members of Venezuelan society declared their territories independent from Spain in 1810.<br><br>This new Venezuelan republic would last only a year before it was overthrown by forces loyal to the new Spanish king. However, Bolivar and his soldiers successfully retook the Venezuelan capital of Caracas two years later in 1813, an act that would earn the young general the title of "The Liberator." While the title would last, Bolivar's hold on the capital would not, and his army was once again driven out of the city.<br><br>Gathering allies from Haiti, Great Britain and Colombia, Bolivar once again struck against the Royalist forces. Meeting on the field of battle in Boyaca, Colombia, Bolivar and his forces decisively defeated the Royalists in 1819, allowing the republican forces to assume control of the governments of Colombia and Venezuela. In 1821, Bolivar and his compatriots formally declared the creation of the independent state of Gran Colombia.<br><br>Bolivar was yet again successful when his aid was requested by Jose de San Martin - known as the Liberator of Peru - to help drive the remaining Spanish forces from Peru. His victories had allowed large parts of modern Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru to become free and united under the helm of Gran Colombia.<br><br>But despite all his military successes, triumph on the political battlefield eluded Bolivar. The many disparate political groups of South America all sought a significant degree of independent power in the nascent Colombian government, whereas Bolivar believed that only a centralized government with a powerful executive could succeed.<br><br>In an effort to force through his policies, Bolivar declared himself dictator in 1828, but it was a failed gesture. The infighting was too much for Bolivar and in 1830 he left politics and entered a state of self-imposed exile. An unexpected illness claimed The Liberator the very same year.]]}
data["Sitting Bull"] = { civ = "Sioux",
     traits = {"Impressionable", "Mentor"},
     cp = [[Lived: c.1830 - 1890 AD<br><br>Sitting Bull, whose name in Lakota, Tatanka Yotanka, roughly translates to "an Obstinate Bull Buffalo at Rest," was born into the Hunkpapa Sioux branch of the Lakota tribe around 1830 AD. Rising to the position of Chief in 1856, Sitting Bull was a key member of the native resistance against American encroachment into the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory.<br><br>Sitting Bull was a precocious youth, taking to warfare and hunting like a fish to water. At ten, he slew his first buffalo. By the time he had reached middle adolescence, Sitting Bull had been inducted into the prestigious societies of the Strong Heart Warrior and the Silent Eater. A most dangerous and powerful warrior - despite walking with a limp from a bullet wound he suffered as a youth - Sitting Bull became a feared name among the Lakota, the young Chief leading his fellow Hunkpapa into numerous victories over other tribes.<br><br>His expertise in warfare did not keep Sitting Bull from signing the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, which called for the halting of American expansion into Sioux territory beyond the Powder River. But with the discovery of gold in the Black Hills in 1874, a new rush of colonists from the East began violating the treaty. Sitting Bull is said to have had a prophetic dream regarding the American expansion - an American military officer and his men, plummeting from the sky into a Sioux village - which was interpreted as a portent of the Americans' imminent doom. Not long after Sitting Bull's vision, General George Custer and his seventh cavalry launched an attack on a native village, only to be decimated by the assembled Sioux and Cheyenne fighters.<br><br>American wrath quickly fell upon Sitting Bull and his people, and they were forced to flee to Canada where, despite a reception worthy of a foreign dignitary, they were to remain but briefly. A dearth of resources in their new lands threatened the Lakota with starvation, forcing Sitting Bull to guide his people back to the United States in 1881, with the understanding that they would receive land, sustenance and peace in America.<br><br>Upon his return to the United States, Sitting Bull and a number of his followers joined Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West show. Cody was able to provide a better standard of living than Sitting Bull and his Sioux brethren could expect to receive on the reservations to which they were now assigned, and a strong friendship formed between Cody and the native leader.<br><br>In the final decade of the nineteenth century, the "Ghost Dance," a ritual promising to rid the natives of American influence once and for all, began to spread among the Sioux. Tensions again grew between the Lakota and the American military, who had expressly forbade native religious rituals like the "Ghost Dance." Buffalo Bill stepped in to try and negotiate a peaceful truce, but none was to be had. Fearing Sitting Bull's involvement in the growing ritual, the Chief was arrested and assassinated by Indian policemen in 1890, just days before the American opposition to the "Ghost Dance" would bring about the infamous Massacre at Wounded Knee.]]}
 
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