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local data ={
Description=[=[American Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[United States Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[American astronauts land on the moon, July 1969, arguably the single greatest scientific event in the history of mankind.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The American Civil War]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Westward Ho]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[The Early 20th Century - The World Intrudes]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[The Great Depression]=];
HEADING_14 = [=[The Second World War]=];
HEADING_15 = [=[The US at War]=];
HEADING_16 = [=[America in the Second Half of the 20th Century]=];
HEADING_17 = [=[The Cold War]=];
HEADING_18 = [=[The War Against Terrorism]=];
HEADING_19 = [=[The US in the Future]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[The Native Americans]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Enter the Europeans]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The American Revolution]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[George Washington]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Louisiana Purchase]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[The War of 1812]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Mexican-American War]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The United States of America is a world "super-power" (which more or less means that it possesses weapons capable of destroying everything on the planet). A relatively young civilization, the United States formed in the 18th century, nearly self-destructed in the 19th century, and became the most powerful and dominant military, technological, cultural and economical civilization in the 20th. One can hardly guess what will happen to it in the 21st.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[As the eighteenth century progressed, the United States was divided roughly in half between slave states in the south and free states in the north. The South, which had an agrarian economy, needed cheap labor to work the fields. Slaves were far less useful in the North, which had a growing industrial base and access to plenty of cheap labor from Europe. Further, slavery had woven itself into the fiber of Southern life to the extent that many found the concept of "abolition" abhorrent, inconceivable, and (by an extremely twisted interpretation of the Bible) a grave sin. By the same token, a lot of people in the North hated slavery, considering it totally evil - the country's original sin. (It should be noted that many in the South saw the issue in terms of "states' rights" - the Federal government had no constitutional right to meddle in internal conditions in states, but it was the slavery issue that made this question so explosive.)
By the 1850s the situation had become intolerable. Tensions between the North and South were at an extremely high point, and the 1860 election of the moderately anti-slavery candidate Abraham Lincoln started a sequence of events which led inexorably to Southern secession and civil war.
The war started very badly for the Union (the North). The Rebels (South) had a stronger military tradition than the North, and most of the country's best officers came from southern states and felt bound to protect their homes from Northern invasion, no matter how they felt personally about the cause of the war. Further, the South was entirely on the defensive, and it's far more difficult for an untrained army to attack than it is to defend -  and both sides began the fight with untrained armies.
Many people believed that the war would be over after one big battle but they were shockingly wrong. The first big battle (Bull Run) was a Union defeat, but the Southern army was unable to follow up its victory. What ensued was four years of grinding warfare across the length and breadth of the country. Despite its victories the South was unable to break the North's morale (especially that of President Abraham Lincoln), and as the war continued the Northern generals became better at their craft, and the Northern advantage in numbers and industry began to dominate the battlefield. In 1865 the Southern capital fell, and shortly thereafter the remaining Southern armies laid down their arms. President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in April of 1865, shortly after the capture of the Southern capital and the surrender of the South's main army.
The war had a number of major effects on the United States, the most important of which was the abolition of slavery across the country. Unfortunately, many of the gains made by blacks were steadily whittled away during the Reconstruction period following the war. As the 19th century progressed blacks could in no way be considered equal to whites anywhere in the country, but at least they were no longer subject to being bought and sold like cattle.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[The rest of the 19th century saw a steady migration of American citizens west, filling in the vast plains of the mid-west and along the Pacific coast. American engineers built train tracks across the steppes and through the mountains, and cities and towns sprang up in their wake. The surviving Native American populations were forced into smaller and smaller pockets of the least desirable land, but showing a remarkably stubborn refusal to die under the most extraordinarily desperate circumstances. Immigrants continued to pour into the country from all corners of the world, all looking for their piece of the American dream (and many finding it).
In the late 19th century the United States fought another unfortunate war for territory, this time against the moribund Spanish "empire." Spurred on by the jingoistic cries of so-called "yellow journalists" like William Randolph Hearst, the US rapidly defeated the Spanish armed forces, gaining for its trouble the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Spain further lost the island of Cuba, which after a short period as a US protectorate, quickly gained its independence.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[While American industrial and economic power continued to grow, American military power did not. The United States possessed a large enough army and navy to beat up Spain (and to keep Canada and Mexico in line), but it was hardly a world military power in any sense of the word. Primarily it relied on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, which were the domain of the incomparable British Navy, for protection.
As Europe stumbled its way into World War I, most Americans wanted nothing to do with the conflict. (In fact, many had immigrated to the United States to avoid Europe's endless wars.) Americans came from all parts of Europe, including Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Russia and the UK -  so no matter which side the US came in on, they'd be fighting somebody's cousin. Whatever American politicians felt privately, the American government declared neutrality.
In actuality American neutrality greatly favored the British and French, since Britain's dominance of the sea meant that the US could only trade with the UK and her allies. This was bad for the Germans, since they needed to cut Great Britain's supply lines to achieve victory.  In 1917 a German "U-boat" (submarine) sank the ocean liner Lusitania, then Germany declared unrestricted submarine warfare against neutral shipping. The American declaration of war against Germany and her allies followed shortly thereafter.
At the start of the war the United States had just a small professional army, but by 1918 the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) had over 1,000,000 men in Europe. This huge influx of fresh soldiers made a substantial  difference on the battlefield, and also on enemy morale. The war was over by year's end. During its brief stint in France the AEF saw significant combat, suffering some 50,000 deaths and 300,000 injuries.
After the war US President Woodrow Wilson attempted to mediate what he considered a "just peace" and create a League of Nations, but the victorious European nations were more interested in imposing heavy penalties on the losers, understandable given the amount of damage they had suffered, but not conducive to future comity between nations. As a result American public opinion turned against Europe and especially against any further military adventures there. This would have grave consequences some two decades later.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[The aptly-named "Great Depression" is indeed depressing, and so will be covered quickly. The Depression was triggered by the US stock market crash of 1929, and rapidly spread across the country and the world. Banks collapsed, American unemployment rose to 25%, crop prices fell by some 60%. There were bread lines in all major cities. The Depression dragged on for years. The US economy began to revive in the mid-thirties, but did not fully recover until World War II.]=];
TEXT_14 = [=[During the Great Depression the political doctrine of fascism gained popularity around the world, particularly in Europe. Mussolini came to power in Italy, Francisco Franco in Spain, and Adolf Hitler in Germany. Crippled and exhausted by the twin blows of World War I and the Depression and distracted by an excessive fear of Communism, the democracies watched as Germany rebuilt its army, navy and air force and gobbled up the smaller countries around it. It wasn't until Germany (and the Soviet Union) invaded Poland in 1939 that France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. Meanwhile, Japanese forces were carving up China and menacing European interests in the Pacific.
Isolationist sentiment kept the United States officially "neutral" through 1940 and 1941, as France was conquered and German troops ground through the Soviet Union. However, as in World War I, American neutrality heavily favored the British, whose navy still controlled the Atlantic. At home President Franklin Roosevelt built up the American armed forces as quickly as possible, while trying to turn public sentiment towards active military intervention and war with Germany. In the Pacific an American oil embargo on Japan was a crushing military and economic burden and a deep insult to Japanese pride. In response to the growing American pressure, the Empire of the Rising Sun made one of the most catastrophic military and political blunders in modern history.
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed the American Pacific fleet in Pearl Harbor, in the American territory of Hawaii. While many of the nation's battleships were destroyed, its aircraft carriers were not in port at the time of the attack. This would prove to be of decisive importance in the war in the Pacific.
Shortly after Pearl Harbor, Germany also declared war on the United States. This too was a colossal error, as it allowed the United States to intervene heavily in Europe, which President Roosevelt might not have been able to do in the face of "Japan First" sentiment in the US.]=];
TEXT_15 = [=[World War II was an astonishingly complex military, industrial and political challenge for the United States. Although the US had been building up its military forces for some years, it was still woefully underprepared in all areas: manpower, arms, ships, planes, tanks and so forth. The government had to balance the need for manpower with the need for workers to construct arms and vehicles for itself and its increasingly desperate allies.
Further, it had to maintain an extremely difficult alliance with the United Kingdom, its possessions and the Soviet Union, each of which had differing political and military objectives. This was especially tough because before the war the US and UK had been implacable enemies of Communism and the USSR.
And finally, its largely untested military had to face two superb opponents in battle: the triumphant Japanese Navy and the deadly German Army.
As the US entered the war it found itself on the defensive in all theatres. The Japanese Navy captured Allied bases across the Pacific, drawing ever closer to Australia and New Zealand.
The German U-boats destroyed hundreds of thousands of tons of Allied shipping in the Atlantic, nearly starving Great Britain right out of the war. But the incomparable American industrial base roared into action, building warships, planes, and tanks at an astonishing rate. As it fought the US military learned from its early mistakes and with its allies stopped the enemies' advances on all fronts. By 1942 the US was on the offensive in North Africa and the Pacific.
By 1944 American and British troops were in France, and, caught between this new peril and the Russian juggernaut grinding from the East, Germany collapsed in May of 1945. Japan held on for several months longer, fighting bitter rearguard actions on islands across the Pacific until the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.]=];
TEXT_16 = [=[The US had learned two important lessons from World Wars I and II: first, that it ignored the world at its peril. It was clear that while the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans provided enormous security for the American mainland, American security was inexorably bound up in events across the world, if for no other reason than that it needed foreign markets in which to sell its goods. The second lesson it learned was that it was a bad idea to harshly punish a defeated enemy. It was better to help rebuild the enemy so that it would become an ally and buy your industrial output. Thus at the end of the war the United States spent billions rebuilding Europe and Japan, former allies and enemies alike (with one important exception, the USSR).
At the end of World War II the United States found itself the most powerful country in the world. The US mainland had not been invaded or bombed during the war, and its industrial base was bigger and better than ever. Its military was battle-tested and equipped with the best weapons in the world, and it had sole possession of the Atom bomb. On the other hand, the Soviet Union's army was the strongest military force in Europe. In the US there was little appetite for further conflict with the Soviet Union; people just wanted the troops to come home.]=];
TEXT_17 = [=[As World War II ended, the latent hostilities between the US and UK and the Soviet Union became a lot less latent. There were plenty of good reasons for this. The US feared that International Communism backed by the Soviet Union (and later, China) would if unchecked overrun Europe and the world. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, wanted to make it absolutely clear to everyone that it was sick and tired of being overrun by foreign troops every twenty years or so, and it would be as tough and ruthless as necessary to make sure it didn't happen again. (It also despised American-style capitalism and wanted to spread International Communism across the world as well.)
Over the next fifty years the US and the Soviet Union, and later China, spent huge amounts of energy and treasure building weapons, subverting foreign governments, and engaging in proxy wars around the world. The US fought International Communism in Korea (a tie), and later on in Vietnam (a loss). The Soviet Union took over much of Eastern Europe (a win), and later on invaded Afghanistan (a huge loss).
By the late 1980s its many internal flaws (corruption, greed, incompetence and so forth) and excessive military expenditures had virtually bankrupted the USSR. By the 1990s the Soviet Union was no more and the US was trading freely with China.  The Cold War was ended.
By any reasonable measurement the Cold War was a colossal, expensive blunder for everyone concerned. If the US had convinced the USSR that it wasn't its implacable foe, the USSR might have been able to relax its massive overwhelming paranoia and perhaps stop oppressing and killing huge numbers of its own people. The US might have been able to devote its wealth to something other than building more and more dangerous and exotic weapons and supporting foreign despots around the world.
On the other hand, the Cold War drove both sides into outer space for both military reasons and for national prestige. This has led to many critical technological innovations such as communications satellites and Tang, as well as a moon landing, perhaps the most important and coolest accomplishment in all history.
The end of the Cold War brought a new era of peace and happiness to the United States. For maybe a couple of years.]=];
TEXT_18 = [=[On September 11, 2001, a group of terrorists hijacked four jet planes and flew them into the World Trade Towers in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. A fourth attack was spoiled by the heroic actions of a group of passengers aboard another jet plane. The attacks were traced to an organization named "al-Qaeda," a Muslim extremist group based in Afghanistan dedicated to driving foreigners out of the Middle East and to destroying the United States, which they saw as the "Great Satan."
The United States responded by invading Afghanistan and driving its fundamentalist leaders who supported al-Qaeda out of power. Then, in an extremely controversial move, it invaded Iraq, home of its long-time enemy Saddam Hussein.
At present the US is attempting to repair its international image, recruit allies in its war against terrorism, and extricate itself from Iraq. Afghanistan remains an incredibly difficult challenge, and it is by no means certain that the US will emerge victorious in either of its current conflicts.]=];
TEXT_19 = [=[The United States is no longer the sole superpower in the world. It shares that dubious title with China, at least. Internally it's struggling to recover from economic excesses of the late 20th century, as well as trying to finally banish the ghost of slavery and racism that still haunts it. The US is somewhat battered but is by no means broken. It still possesses the resources, drive and human capitol to be a vital and important civilization in the coming century.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The United States spans the continent of North America and includes Alaska in the far north and several islands in the Pacific Ocean. Conditions vary widely across the country, from near-Arctic in Alaska to near-tropic conditions in Florida, to arid desert in Arizona. The continent is bisected by two mountain ranges, the older and lower Appalachians in the east, and the much younger and bigger Rockies in the west. The central plains between the two ranges drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Missouri/Mississippi River system. The country borders on the Great Lakes, some of the largest freshwater bodies of water on the planet.
Despite several centuries of enthusiastic harvesting, the United States still has plentiful forests, coal supplies and other natural resources.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Some historians hypothesize that North America was originally settled by Eurasian people who migrated onto the continent via the "Beringia" land-bridge that once connected Alaska and Russia. This theory is under debate, and even more so is the question of how many waves of settlers there were and when the first settlers arrived. There appears to be some agreement that the natives migrated between 9,000 and 50,000 years ago (which is quite a spread). It's also quite possible that the natives arrived in a series of waves over many years, with some groups migrating south along the western coastline, while later groups moved inland, into the heart of Canada and the United States.
Over time these groups spread across the continents, developing language, hunting skills, arts and crafts, and so forth. They did not domesticate horses, however (having consumed all of the horse's ancestors before figuring out that they might be good for something else).
Estimates on how many natives lived in the portion of North America that would eventually become the United States also vary, ranging from five to twenty-five million. In any event, the first European visitors brought with them a number of extremely unpleasant diseases (like measles and smallpox) that the natives' immune systems were totally unaccustomed to, and 90 percent or even more of the North American native population died from disease within a century of the first white man's arrival.
Having lost 90% of their population, lacking guns or any significant industrial technology, the natives were relatively helpless in the face of massive European assault.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Four European groups set up colonies in North America, beginning in the 16th century: the French in Canada, the British (with a small settlement of Dutch right in the center), and the Spanish in Florida and points south. Over time the English would conquer the French colonies to the north and the Dutch colony at Manhattan, and with the exception of Florida, the entire eastern seaboard would be English. As discussed above, the native population was ravaged by disease and badly outgunned, unable to resist the European incursion.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As the 18th century progressed, the British colonies in North America grew and prospered. Immigrants from Great Britain and elsewhere arrived in the country in great numbers, drawn by the promise of land, wealth, and often to escape religious persecution in the mother country. The slave trade provided plenty of cheap labor, and British North America began to establish agriculture and light industry.
Tensions grew between the colonies and the British government as the century progressed. The colonies were controlled by Crown-appointed governors and they did not have direct representation in the British Parliament. Further, the colonials chafed under what they considered to be unfair trade restrictions from Great Britain. Meanwhile, the government thought that the colonials were in large ungrateful rabble who had no idea how much money the Crown was spending on their protection.
By the late 1770's the American colonies were in open revolt, and on July 4, 1776 the United States declared their independence. As the war opened the Colonists were grossly outgunned and outmanned by the highly-trained British Army, particularly since the British Navy had absolute control of the seas and thus could move large numbers of troops up and down the coast with impunity. The Continental Army, untrained and untested, was no match for the "Redcoats."]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The commander of the Continental Army was George Washington, a wealthy Virginia landowner with some military experience (he was a colonel in the British army in the French and Indian War). His first major battles were nearly catastrophes - his overly-complex battle-plans collapsed in the face of enemy action and his troops' inexperience. Washington had several important qualities: his personal heroism and calm in the face of disaster allowed him to extract his army from almost certain destruction, and he also learned quickly from his mistakes (for more on George Washington, see his Civilopedia entry).
The Redcoats having failed to crush the Continental Army when it had the chance, the American Revolutionary War became a long, drawn-out, grinding war of wills. The British Army couldn't pin down the American forces long enough to defeat them, and as the years passed British war-weariness grew.
In 1778 the French entered the war on the side of the United States, and in 1779 so did Spain. While unable to match the British Navy ship for ship the French were occasionally able to gain local superiority, and this proved decisive. In 1781 the Continental Army besieged the British Army at Yorktown, Virginia. With the French Navy off-shore the British were unable to escape, and British General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on October 19, 1781.
In 1787 the states convened a Constitutional Convention, and the new Constitution was ratified the next year. In 1789 George Washington was elected president.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[In 1803 the United States purchased 828,800 square miles of North American territory from France. This territory included most of the terrain in the Mississippi Valley, from the Rocky Mountains in the west to Ohio in the east. This deal, which doubled the size of the United States, cost around $15,000,000, a shockingly good deal for the US. It was also a good deal for France: France was at war with Great Britain (see below), and as the British controlled the seas, the French had no way to profit from or to protect this territory from the British. The French also saw it as a poke in Britain's eye. French leader Napoleon Bonaparte said of the deal, "This accession of territory affirms forever the power of the United States. I have given England a maritime rival who will sooner or later humble her pride."
President Thomas Jefferson received a good deal of criticism for the purchase at the time, but historians tend to agree that he got one hell of a bargain.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[As the eighteenth century opened, France was convulsed in its own revolution.  Many Americans believed that France would become a democracy, but instead Napoleon Bonaparte emerged as ruler and within a few years had himself declared emperor. As Napoleon extended his power across continental Europe, Great Britain countered with its unmatchable navy, imposing an embargo on trade with France and at times most of the rest of Europe. This hurt American commerce deeply. Further, British warships routinely stopped and searched American vessels looking for deserted British sailors. This was considered an intolerable breach of American sovereignty, and in 1812 the United States declared war on Great Britain. (Some historians believe that the US declared war primarily to justify a land-grab of British possession Canada.)
The primary American weapon in this war was the commerce raiding vessel. Small to mid-sized American ships plied the oceans, snatching up British merchant ships, strangling British trade. On land the Americans launched an invasion of Canada, which the British and Canadian forces repelled without great difficulty. The British navy, stretched thin by the decade-old conflict with France, found it almost impossible to blockade the American coast or track down its commerce raiders. It was far more successful on land, and in fact a British army fought its way to Washington, DC, the American capital, and burned much of it to the ground.
Despite this stinging blow to American pride, the British and American governments both realized that neither had much of a chance of winning the war, and that further conflict would merely expend valuable treasure and lives to no purpose. In December of 1814 the two countries signed the "Treaty of Ghent," which simply called for the cessation of hostilities: neither side gained or lost territory, and none of the root causes of the war were addressed. The war was a tie.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[In 1835, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna abolished the Mexican constitution, replacing it with a new constitution that concentrated power in the Mexican central government. Several Mexican states revolted at that time, including the state of Coahuila y Tejas (which included the territory that would become Texas). Despite early successes (including the capture of the Alamo fort), eventually Santa Anna was defeated and captured. Bargaining from this position of extreme weakness, Santa Anna grudgingly agreed to Texan independence.
The Mexican government deposed Santa Anna while he was captive and disavowed the treaty. Low-level fighting continued between the new "Republic of Texas" and Mexico, while parties in Texas and the United States schemed for ways to get Texas into the Union. In 1845 the American Congress passed a bill that would allow the US to annex Texas, and then president John Tyler signed it into law. At the same time, Mexico saw an influx of other American citizens into its northern territories (including California), some of whom openly avowed that they were going to take those into the US as well. Late in 1845 Texas was made into a state, and in 1846 American troops were occupying the disputed territory. When Mexican cavalry clashed with an American patrol, killing 11 soldiers, the US government used that as an excuse to declare war.
The war was short and decisive. After a few opening skirmishes in Texas and northern Mexico, an American army of some 12,000 soldiers landed at Veracruz, Mexico, and marched west. The Mexican army was defeated at every turn, and in short order United States troops occupied Mexico City. Defeated, the Mexican government signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ceding to the United States the land that would become the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, and parts of Wyoming, Oklahoma and Colorado. In return the US paid Mexico $18,250,000, or roughly half a billion in today's dollars.
In addition to stealing large chunks of valuable land from Mexico, the war had one other benefit: it taught a number of American soldiers their craft. These men would use these skills to great effect fifteen years later in the American Civil War.]=];
TITLE = [=[United States]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Welcome, President Washington! You lead the industrious American civilization. Formed in the conflagration of revolution in the 18th century, within a hundred years the young nation became embroiled in a terrible Civil War that nearly tore the country apart. But it was just a few short years later, in the 20th century, that the United States reached the height of its power, emerging triumphant and mighty from the two terrible wars that destroyed so many other great nations.
The United States is a nation of immigrants, filled with optimism and determination. They lack only a leader to help them fulfill their promise. President Washington, can you lead the American people to greatness? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Arabian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Arabian Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[During the rule of the Caliph in the 7th century AD, the earliest known examples of pension and welfare were adopted. The elderly and disabled, as well as widows and orphans were all eligible to receive assistance and income from the government treasury.
It is said that Harun Al-Rashid presented Charlemagne with an early Islamic example of the "Water Clock," a sophisticated device that would record the passage of time by measuring the flow of water from one vessel to another.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Umayyads]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Abbasids]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Harun al-Rashid]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Middle Ages]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Decline and Fragmentation]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Modern Arabia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Muslim Empire of the Caliphate - also known as the Islamic Empire or the Arab kingdom - came into existence after the Prophet Mohammed's death in 632 AD, created by Mohammed's disciples as a continuation of the political authority he established. During its long existence the Caliphate would grow to enormous size and power, dominating Spain, North Africa, the Middle East, Anatolia, the Balkans and Persia, ruling an empire that at least rivaled that of the Romans at the height of their power.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The Arab Empire began in Medina, on the Arabian Peninsula, in what is now known as Saudi Arabia. The interior is generally inhospitable desert - barren, sandy and hot with summer temperatures reaching as high as 130 degrees F. Medina and Mecca occupy the more fertile coastal regions along the Red Sea.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The first "caliph" (head of state) of this empire after Mohammed's death was Abu Bakr, who in turn was followed by three other "Rightly Guided Caliphs" in succession. After the death of the fourth, Ali ibn Abi Talib, in 661, a power struggle ensued between factions backing rival claimants, with the Umayyad family eventually emerging victorious. Argument about who was the legitimate caliph would rage for millennia and have had a significant effect upon Islamic and world history that continues to this day.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The Umayyads were a merchant family based in Mecca. They had converted to Islam in 627, becoming prominent supporters of Mohammed and his successors. The early Umayyad caliphs were based in Damascus, Syria, and the Syrian army formed the backbone of the Arab military forces. The Umayyads expanded Arabian power east, building outposts and sending expeditions into Central Asia and northwestern India. In addition the Umayyads launched the invasion of North Africa. In the 7th century they constructed a Mediterranean fleet with which they launched a series of unsuccessful raids against Christian Constantinople.
The Umayyad Caliphate reached its zenith under the reign of Abd al-Malik (reigned 685-705). In the west, Abd's armies overran much of Spain, while in the east the Caliphate invaded Sind in India and conquered Bukhara, Samarkand, Khwarezm, and many more places too hard to spell. al-Malik also oversaw a reorganization of the Caliphate's bureaucracy, economy, and the institution of a post service. During his reign the arts flourished, particularly architecture.
The empire suffered a decline after Abd al-Malik's death. A series of mediocre caliphs combined with economic troubles and military reverses in the east and west fueled tribal rivalries within the Caliphate, and in 750 the Umayyads were defeated and overthrown at the Battle of the Great Zab River.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The Umayyads were defeated by the Abbasids, another powerful family. The first Abbasid Caliph, Abu al-Abbas, was a ruthless leader who upon achieving power immediately set about exterminating anyone else who might have a legitimate claim upon the throne. He was successful, as the Abbasids would remain in power for another three centuries. Not without a certain grim panache, he gave himself the name as-Saffah, which translates as "the bloodletter."
The Abbasids shifted the capital of the Caliphate to Baghdad. This reflected its concentration on events in the east - Persia, India, Central Asia - and subsequent de-emphasis on North Africa and the Mediterranean. The Abbasids were more overtly religious than the Umayyads, and under them the Caliphate more closely followed Islamic law.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Harun al-Rashid (reigned 786-809) was the fifth Abbasid caliph. He ruled Arabia at the height of its wealth and power. In his early years Harun led military expeditions against the Byzantine Empire; his successes earned him the nickname al-Rashid, "the one following the correct path." While Rashid did have to put down a number of internal revolts, the empire was mostly at peace during his reign, and the Caliphate grew monumentally, spectacularly wealthy. For more details on Harun al-Rashid, see his Civilopedia entry.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The Arab empire of the medieval period was far more advanced than contemporary Europeans; Harun al-Rashid's Baghdad may have held a million people at the same time that Charlemagne's Aachen was a "capital" of ten thousand. Centers of learning attracted scholars from across the Muslim world to great cities such as Baghdad, Damascus, and Cordoba. The Arabs of this period made many advances in medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and other areas, as well as translating many of the classics of the Ancient Greeks into Arabic, thereby saving them from destruction.
During the period of the Crusades, Christian Europe began a sustained assault against the Arabic world. The greatest of Muslim generals from this period was Salah al-Din, better known as Saladin, who successfully defeated the Third Crusade and recaptured Jerusalem for the Arabs.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[As the Middle Ages ended, however, the Empire began to fragment under increasing pressure from both external and internal forces. The sheer size of the Empire made centralized government nearly impossible, and the caliphs were forced to put down numerous insurrections by rebellious local leaders. The debate over the rightful heirs to Mohammed's leadership continued to fester. In the west the Europeans wrested control of Spain from the caliphate, while in the east the Ottomans began their inexorable expansion into the heart of the Arabian Empire.
In 1258 a Mongol army under Hulagu Khan captured Baghdad and executed Caliph al-Musta'sim, bringing the Arabian Empire to an abrupt end.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[For most of the past five centuries, much of the Arab world has been ruled by foreigners; first by the Ottoman Turks, then by the Western colonial powers. Since the onset of de-colonization in the 1950s, traditional Arab values have been modified through the combined pressures of urbanization, industrialization, and Western influence. However, the ancient tenets of Islam are still followed by millions of faithful across the globe.
Although now divided between dozens of different countries, the lands once part of the greater Arabian Empire owe much to their ancient common ancestor.]=];
TITLE = [=[Arabia]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Blessings of God be upon you, oh great Caliph Harun al-Rashid, leader of the pious Arabian people! The Muslim Empire of the Caliphate was born in the turbulent years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 AD, as his followers sought to extend the rule of God to all of the people of the earth. The Caliphate grew mighty indeed, at the height of its power ruling Spain, North Africa, the Middle East, Anatolia, the Balkans and Persia, an empire as great - or even greater than - that of Rome. The arts and sciences flourished in Arabia during the Middle Ages, even as the countries of Europe descended into ignorance and chaos. The Caliphate survived for 600 years, until finally succumbing to attack from the Mongols, those destroyers of Empires.
Great Caliph Harun al-Rashid, your people look to you to return them to greatness. To make Arabia once again an enlightened land of arts and knowledge, a powerful nation who need fear no enemy. Oh Caliph, will you take up the challenge? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Aztec Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Aztec Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Spaniards were surprised to learn that Montezuma bathed twice a day. Europeans hardly bathed at all.
Montezuma II's headdress was made from the feathers of over 250 birds.
The cocoa bean was highly treasured in the Aztec Empire. In fact, the bean was used as currency, as well as Aztec food.  The word chocolate comes from an Aztec/Mayan word chocolatl.
There are actually three Aztec calendar wheels - there is a third big wheel called the calendar round.  The two major cycles (the tonalpohualli and the xiuhpohualli) were interlocking, and every 52 years they would align again.  This was a sort of Aztec "century", and was a reason for religious celebration.
The Mexica people of the Aztec empire had compulsory education for everyone, regardless of gender or class. People in the Aztec society were generally well educated, though boys received a wider education than girls.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Fall of the Aztecs]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Aztec Origins]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Triple Alliance]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Montezuma I]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Tlacaelel]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[The Empire Ascendant]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Good Stuff (a.k.a., Human Sacrifice)]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Aztecs were a Native American civilization that occupied central Mexico for roughly one hundred years in the 15th and 16th centuries. The Aztecs ruled a mighty empire and possessed a rich culture, producing some of the most impressive pre-Columbian architecture in North America. Today the Aztecs are best remembered for the bloodiness of their religious practices and rapidity with which they collapsed in the face of external assault.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[In 1502 the ninth emperor Montezuma II (1502-1520) succeeded his uncle Ahuitzotl as the ruler of an empire that had reached its greatest extent, stretching from what is now northern Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua. The Aztec empire was still expanding, and its society still evolving, when its progress was halted in 1519 by the appearance of Spanish adventurers on the Gulf Coast.
In February of 1519, Hernan Cortes led an expedition into Central America, leading a force of 500 men, 13 horses and a small number of cannon. In mid-August he marched on Tenochtitlan after burning his ships to discourage retreat. Along the way he gathered many Native American allies eager to assist in the downfall of the hated Aztecs.
According to Spanish records, Cortes was greatly assisted in his conquest by Aztec religious traditions that said that the God Quetzalcoatl would return as a white man from across the water. The Aztecs were not certain if Cortes was Quetzalcoatl, which made them reluctant to fight him. Cortes' godhood was further confirmed by his command of horses, dogs, firearms and cannon which the Aztecs had never seen, and which at first naturally terrified them.
By the time Cortes reached Tenochtitlan, he had a huge following of native allies. Montezuma II welcomed the Spaniards into the city peacefully, whereupon Cortes made him prisoner. Through Montezuma Cortes ordered the Aztecs to provide the Spanish with huge amounts of treasure. Eventually, the Aztecs stoned Montezuma to death and drove the Spanish out of their capital, but Cortes got reinforcements and returned, laying siege to the city. In 1521 the city fell and was razed, and in August the last ruler of the Aztecs was captured.
The Empire was vanquished, destroyed by ambitious foreigners with advanced weapons who took advantage of the native majority's hatred for their Aztec overlords. Unfortunately for the natives, the Spanish were not especially nicer to their subject people and it would be some time before they would once again be free from oppression and once again have some control over their own destinies.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The Aztec Empire was located in the "Mesa Central" or central plateau in the heart of modern Mexico (Mexico City is built atop the ruins of the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlan.) The Valley of Mexico is dominated by a number of conjoined lakes: Zumpango, Xaltocan, Texcoco, Xochimilco, and Chalco. The area features abundant rainfall and a temperate climate, and the land is incredibly fertile.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The origin of the Aztec people is uncertain, but their origin stories suggest they were a tribe of hunter-gatherers on the northern Mexican plateau before they migrated down to Meso-America in the 12th century. The word "Aztec" comes from "Aztlan" ("White Land"), an allusion to northern Mexico. The Aztecs reached central Mexico sometime around 1250; what happened to them before that period is mostly speculation and myth.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[At the time of the Aztecs' arrival, the population of central Mexico was divided between hundreds of small tribes or city-states, the most important of which were the Azcapotzalco and the Culhuacan. During the early period the Aztecs were vassals of the Azcapotzalco, who in 1325 gave them permission to settle on a small island in Lake Texcoco, where they founded their capital city, Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs remained subject to the Azcapotzalcos for around 100 years.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[By the fifteenth century, the Azcapotzalcos had become a strong regional power. In 1427 the Azcapotzalco leader, Maxtla, had the Aztec leader Chimalpopca assassinated and laid siege to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. To defeat the Azcapotzalcos, Chimalpopca's successor Itzcoatl allied with two other powerful city-states, Texcoco and Tlacopan. The allies successfully raised the siege of Tenochtitlan and shortly thereafter conquered the Azcapotzalcos themselves.
Over the next century the "Triple Alliance" would come to control all of central Mexico, eventually extending its power across the entirety of the country, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Tenochtitlan would become the dominant member in the alliance, making the Aztecs de facto rulers of a vast continental empire.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[In 1440, Montezuma I succeeded his uncle Itzcoatl to become ruler of the Aztecs. During his reign Montezuma solidified the Triple Alliance. He extended the Alliance's control to the Gulf coast, subjugating the Totonac and the Huastic people. He also led successful campaigns against other neighbors, including the Mixtecs, Cotaxtla, and Orizaba. (It's important not to confuse Montezuma I with his unfortunate and incompetent namesake, Montezuma II, about whom see below). Montezuma I died in 1469. For more details on Montezuma I, see his Civilopedia entry.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[While Montezuma I held the throne, his half-brother Tlacaelel was engaged in reforming the Aztec state. He literally rewrote the Aztec religion, according to some sources ordering the burning of hundreds of texts because of historical inaccuracies. Under Tlacaelel, the Aztec religion stated that the Aztecs were chosen people, destined to be above all others. Tlacaelel also emphasized the importance of militarism and ritual sacrifice in the Aztec religion, a change which would have far-reaching and devastating effects upon the Aztecs and the region as a whole. Tlacaelel oversaw the creation of many temples and religious buildings, including the Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan, dedicated to the Aztec god of war Huitzilopochtli.
Politically, Tlacaelel was one of the architects of the Triple Alliance. He is said to have ordered the burning of conquered people's histories to ensure that his people's worldview was dominant. He also strengthened the Aztec nobility and priesthood at the expense of the peasants.
Tlacaelel died in 1487, probably much to the relief of Central American historians everywhere.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[At the height of its power, the Aztec Empire dominated an area of nearly 200,000 square miles (slightly under a third the size of modern Mexico), with some five to six million subjects. Somewhat like the Mongols, the Aztecs left the subject tribes to their own devices as long as the requisite tribute was paid. The Aztecs were great traders, and Aztec merchants happily did business with allies and enemies alike. Lacking a monetary system, trade was based upon the barter system.
Possessing no draft animals or wheeled vehicles, the Aztecs constructed a vast road network designed for foot travel. In addition to merchants, these roads were in constant use by soldiers and military couriers, making them safe enough for women to travel on alone.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The Aztec religion as revised by Tlacaelel believed that a steady stream of sacrifice was required to keep the universe operating properly. Sacrifice was required to keep the rain falling, the crops growing, the sun rising, and so forth. Sins were expiated by sacrifice. The Aztecs sacrificed animals, wealth, food, their own blood - and human beings. The Aztecs claimed that they sacrificed over 80,000 prisoners to reconsecrate the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487,  though many historians believe this to be a massive exaggeration, with 5,000 or fewer being the most that would be logistically possible given the size of the sacrificial table. Even if the smaller number is closer to the truth, that's still quite a lot of blood and beating hearts to deal with.
The Aztec religion placed a premium upon the sacrifice of enemy warriors captured in battle, which became something of a problem once the Empire had conquered pretty much everybody within reach. This led to a form of ritualized combat known as the "Flower Wars," under which two sides would meet at a prescribed time and place for the specific purpose of battling to acquire prisoners. Once the battle was over, each side would take their prisoners back to their cities for religious sacrifice.]=];
TITLE = [=[Aztecs]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Aztecs]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Welcome, oh Divine Montezuma! We grovel in awe at your magnificence! May the heavens shower all manner of good things upon you all the days of your life! You are the leader of the mighty Aztec people, wandering nomads from a lost home in the north who in the 12th century came to live in the Mesa Central in the heart of what would come to be called Mexico. Surrounded by many tribes fighting to control the rich lands surrounding the sacred lakes of Texcoco, Xaltocan and Zumpango, through cunning alliances and martial prowess, within a mere two hundred years the Aztecs came to dominate the Central American basin, ruling a mighty empire stretching from sea to sea. The empire at last fell under assault from foreign devils - the cursed Spaniards! - wielding fiendish weapons the likes of which your faithful warriors had never seen.
Oh Great King Montezuma! Your people call upon you once more to rise up and lead them to glory! Bring them wealth and power, and give them dominion over their foes and rivals! Will you answer their call, Glorious Leader? Will you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Chinese Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Chinese Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Great Wall of China is not visible from space, contrary to common belief - it's too narrow.
Fingerprinting was used in China as early as 700 A.D.
Ice cream was invented in China around 2000 BC: the Chinese packed milk and soft rice together in the snow to make the treat. Marco Polo took the recipes for ice cream and noodles back with him to Europe.
Three of the world's ten longest rivers have their sources in China, and a further three originate in Mongolia.
The world's largest billboard was 300 meters long and 45 meters high, overlooking the Yangtze River at Chongqing in southeast China. However, this area was so continuously foggy that no one advertised on it since 1998. It was recently torn down.
People have been drinking tea in China for over 1800 years. Chinese White Tea is little else but boiled water.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Later History]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Chinese Inventions]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[China and the World]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[China Today]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Summarizing the rich history of China in several paragraphs is a daunting task indeed. China is a civilization spanning some six thousand years and comprising a large fraction of humanity. There is evidence of man's prehistoric ancestors living in China some two million years ago, and modern man has lived in the area for at least 18,000 years, possibly much longer.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Geographically, China can be divided into three main areas: the mountainous highlands of the west, the rugged south, and the eastern lowlands bordering the Yellow and East China Seas. Bisected by a number of major rivers, the incredibly fertile lowlands have been the center of power in China, and whoever controls that area controls Western Asia.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The Xia Dynasty is the earliest known centralized political entity in China. While the specific dates of the dynasty remain open to debate, many reputable scholars agree that the Xia existed from around 2000 BC to 1600 BC. The Xia did not control all of China; their power was largely centered in northern China, the area which would eventually become known as Manchuria. The Xia were eventually overtaken by the Shang, who lasted from around the 18th to the 12th century BC. The Shang were in turn ousted by the Zhou, who held power until around the 9th century BC. From the 9th century to the 2nd China suffered through the unending agony of near-constant civil war during the so-called Spring and Autumn period, which in turn was followed by the Warring States period. Eventually, in the second century BC, the Qin Dynasty conquered its rivals and established the first truly unified Chinese state. Their successors, the Han, introduced the office of the Emperor, the single leader who would rule all of China.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Over the succeeding centuries China would be ruled by the Tang and the Song dynasties. In 1271 AD the country would be conquered by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who would begin his own dynasty, known as the Yuan. A century later, the Yuan would be overthrown and the Ming dynasty would gain power, lasting until the 16th century AD. The Qing replaced the Ming, ruling until 1912 AD, when the Republic of China was established. The Republic lasted some fifty years, until it was overtaken by the People's Republic of China in 1949. As of this writing, the People's Republic remains China's current ruler.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[A creative and innovative people, China has given the world some of the most important inventions in history, including paper, gunpowder, the compass, and movable type. (This section is mandatory whenever Chinese history is discussed, in case you were wondering. It's a law.)]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Throughout much of its history China has remained an insular and isolated civilization, largely ignoring - and ignored by - the rest of the world. This was not difficult, as for many centuries China long held a distinct technological and military edge over any and all external foes. And any threats it could not defeat militarily (such as the Mongols, who conquered China in 1271), it simply absorbed into its own dominant culture.
This changed during the 18th and 19th centuries. By this period, the European powers and Japan had achieved a significant technological advantage over the Chinese. This edge, combined with vastly superior naval forces, better armaments, superior communications and advanced military tactics, allowed the foreign powers to dominate much of the rich Chinese coastal cities, where they could engage in extremely profitable business (including the infamous opium trade). The weak and corrupt Chinese central government was unable to oust the hated foreigners, who remained until most were driven out by the Japanese during and following World War II.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Emerging triumphant over the Nationalists shortly after World War II, the Communist government spent the subsequent fifty years consolidating power, modernizing infrastructure, and improving the lives and education of its vast population, a process which included a number of massive missteps, including the idiotic "Cultural Revolution" which did its best to destroy China's intellectuals. In the past 40 years China has emerged as a major world power, an economic behemoth which will soon dwarf all other economies including the once unstoppable United States.
China is not without its difficulties, however. Much of its energy is expended simply supporting its huge and growing population base. Pollution is becoming a major problem as more and more factories are built, and more and more automobiles are clogging the bigger cities. Tibet - which depending upon your point of view is either a captive nation or an integral part of China - remains an open wound and major political distraction for China. None of these are insurmountable, though, and China stands poised to dominate the 21st century.]=];
TITLE = [=[China]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[The Blessings of Heaven be upon you, Empress Wu Zetian, most beautiful and haughty ruler of China! Oh great Empress, whose shadow causes the flowers to blossom and the rivers to flow! You are the leader of the Chinese, the oldest and the greatest civilization that humanity has ever produced. China's history stretches back into the mists of time, its people achieving many great things long before the other upstart civilizations were even conceived. China's contributions to the arts and sciences are too many and too wondrous to do justice to - the printing press, gunpowder, the works of Confucius - these are but a few of the gifts China has given to an undeserving world!
You, great Queen, who, with cunning and beauty, rose from the position of lowly concubine to that of Divine Empress - your people call out to you to lead them! Great China is once again beset on all sides by barbarians. Can you defeat all your many foes and return your country to greatness? Can you build a civilization to stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Egyptian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Egyptian Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Egyptians were the first people to make wine.
According to some ancient myths, bees were created from the tears of the sun god Ra.
Egyptian workers organized the first known labor strike.
The first known documented peace treaty occurred between Ramesses the Second of Egypt and Hattusili III of the Hittite empire.
Contrary to popular myth, it is not known how the Sphinx lost its nose. There are sketches of the Sphinx without a nose in 1737, over 60 years before Napoleon reached Egypt. The only known person to have damaged it was an Islamic cleric, Sa'im al-dahr, who was lynched in 1378 for his vandalism.
Also contrary to popular belief, excavated skeletons show that at least some pyramid builders were actually Egyptians, not foreign slaves, some of whom were permanent employees of the pharaoh, and others peasant farmers employed after the growing season.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Origins]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Early Dynastic Period]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Old Kingdom]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Further Periods]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Art and Culture]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Religion]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Summary]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Few civilizations have left such an indelible mark on history as that of Egypt. Living astride the mighty Nile River for some 5,000 years, Egypt is one of the oldest surviving civilizations on the planet. Among many other firsts, Egypt is credited with the invention of writing around 3000 BC. Using sophisticated mathematics, Egyptian scholars plotted the movement of the planets with great precision. And of course, the Egyptians were the ancient world's greatest architects, creating monuments and temples that still awe and inspire us today.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Egypt is a riparian (river-based) civilization lying alongside the Nile, which, at some 4000 miles in length, is the longest river on the planet. Egypt occupies the northern section of this river in a narrow but extremely fertile corridor running through otherwise harsh desert terrain of the North African Sahara desert. While the physical area of Egypt extended a great distance to the east and west, the vast majority of that terrain is empty useless desert, and through its history almost all Egyptians have lived within walking distance of the river.
Until the implementation of damming projects in the 20th century, the Nile flooded its banks in the summer of every year. Egyptian farmers relied on these floods to bring water and fresh nutrients to their fields, and a dry year could easily spell famine and disaster to the population. The Nile also provided a good deal of protein to the Egyptians, who were adept fishermen and who early on mastered the construction and handling of small watercraft.
The Mediterranean Sea lies to the north of Egypt. A mild and generous sea, the Mediterranean encourages exploration and trade between all civilizations who live on its borders.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The first settlers of the Nile valley are thought to have arrived around 7000 BC, driven to the river as climate change turned the surrounding once-fertile lands to desert. By 5000 BC crops were being raised in local settlements along the river, and, as agriculture improved, the settlements grew in size and power. Luxury items such as mortuary pottery, copper ornaments, beads, and cosmetics begin to be seen in burial sites from that period, suggesting a significant growth in wealth and leisure in the culture.
Increased wealth also allowed for the creation and maintenance of military forces which could be used to conquer other nearby cultures. By approximately 3000 BC much of Egypt was unified. The first king mentioned in the historical records is Menes, who founded the capital Memphis, is credited with many irrigation works. His "First Dynasty" would last for some two centuries.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The First and Second Dynasties are known collectively as the "Early Dynastic Period" and last from approximately 3100 BC to 2600 BC. During this period Egypt extended its control south along the Nile and east and west along the coast of the Mediterranean.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[This period spans the years from approximately 2600 BC to 2100 BC. The Old Kingdom period is best known for the large number of pyramids constructed as tombs for pharaohs. Egyptian vessels traveled the Mediterranean and Red Seas, trading for items such as food, spices and Lebanese cedar, as well as luxuries like myrrh (a type of incense), ebony, and gold. The Old Kingdom ended when a severe drought caused the collapse of the central government, already weakened by corruption and civil war.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The Old Kingdom Period is followed by the First Intermediate Period, then the Middle Kingdom Period, the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom Period, the Third Intermediate Period, then the Late Period. During these periods (lasting from 2100 BC to perhaps 600 BC) the Egyptian government would rise and fall several times, and periods of strife and internal conflict would be followed by periods of great peace and prosperity. External foes would invade when Egypt was weakened, and the pharaohs would extend their empire when Egypt was strong.
In 525 BC Egypt was captured by Persia, who would control the country until it was taken by Alexander the Great in 332 BC as he systematically dismantled the Persian Empire. After Alexander's death the Greeks established the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
The able Ptolemies ruled in an unbroken line until the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. Her suicide marked the end of Pharaonic rule and the beginning of Egypt's centuries as a Roman and Byzantine province. Although swept by the Islamic tide in 642 AD, Egypt was to remain under foreign occupation - Arabic, Ottoman, French, and British - until after World War I, when she finally gained her independence from a British administration weary of overseas conflict. From 1922 through 1952, Egypt appeared to be one of the world's most successful constitutional monarchies. But it was ripe for revolution; the military coup of July 1952 led by Gamal Nasser, ironically, finally made Egypt an island of stability in a turbulent Middle East.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Egypt's mastery of monumental architecture is virtually unmatched in history. The Egyptians were also great sculptors, creating many quite beautiful statues of their pharaohs and gods. They also made beautiful and delicate works of gold, jewels and other precious metals, many of which have been discovered in tombs and vaults. Actually, much of Egyptian culture and arts seems to have been dedicated to death, entombment and the afterlife (or perhaps art on those subjects was most likely to have been entombed and thus has survived better than non-death-related artwork).]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Religion was extremely important to Egyptian society. The religion has an incredibly rich pantheon of gods, and a detailed and complex creation mythos. The pharaoh was both a man and a god, and he was responsible for interceding with the gods on his subjects' behalf. The priests also served as the society's civil servants. (If the Egyptians ever heard of the concept of separation of church and state, they wanted nothing to do with it.) The Egyptians believed in an afterlife for those judged worthy, and they believed in sorcery and magic. Many historians believe that the Egyptians saw the pyramids as pathways to the realm of the gods for those buried inside.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Clearly, it is impossible to do justice to a 5000-year-old civilization in the space of these short paragraphs. At her height Egypt was a mighty, continent-spanning empire, whose scientific and cultural advancements brought incalculable benefits to humanity. And its greatest works, the pyramids, can still astonish the modern viewer, much as they did to those who saw them 4,000 years ago.]=];
TITLE = [=[Egypt]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[We greet thee, oh great Ramesses, Pharaoh of Egypt, who causes the sun to rise and the Nile to flow, and who blesses his fortunate people with all the good things of life! Oh great lord, from time immemorial your people lived on the banks of the Nile river, where they brought writing to the world, and advanced mathematics, sculpture and architecture. Thousands of years ago they created the great monuments which still stand tall and proud.
Oh, Ramesses, for uncounted years your people have endured, as other petty nations around them have risen and then fallen into dust. They look to you to lead them once more into greatness. Can you honor the gods and bring Egypt back to her rightful place at the very center of the world? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[English Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[English Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The English consume more tea per capita than any other country in the world: three times that of Japan and an unbelievable twenty-two times more than America or France.
The world's first public zoo opened in London in 1829.
The bank of England is one of the few with its own nickname:  The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street.
Before the invention of the mechanical clock in the 14th century, the most complex machine in Europe (and perhaps the world) was a pipe organ in the cathedral in Winchester, England, completed in around 950AD.  It had 400 pipes, and 70 men were needed to operate its 26 bellows.
Queen Berengaria, the wife of Richard the Lion-Hearted, never set foot on English soil - she instead ruled from Italy and France.
The delicious Colchester oysters were one of the main reasons for the Roman invasion of Britain in 43AD.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The United Kingdom]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Rule Britannia]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[The UK at War]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[The Present and Future]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History: Enter The Romans]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Rise and Fall (And Rise) of The Saxons]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Vikings]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Norman Conquest]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Middle Ages]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Queen Elizabeth I]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Stuarts]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[England is located on Great Britain, a "green and pleasant" island off of the western coast of Europe. It is the largest member of the political entity known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Historically a seafaring people, for much of the past 500 years the English have used their incomparable navy to project their power into Europe and across the globe.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[In 1707, the "Acts of Union" united the kingdoms of Scotland with that of England and Wales. The English and Scottish Parliaments were merged, and England ceased to exist as a political entity. However, England was the largest, wealthiest and most powerful part of the United Kingdom, so much so that many still use the terms England and the United Kingdom interchangeably, much to the annoyance of the Welsh and Scots (and later, the Northern Irish).
In 1800 the United Kingdom attempted to unite with Ireland, becoming the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland." Many of the largely Roman Catholic Irish were bitterly opposed to the union, leading to a terrible insurgency that lasted for over a century. In 1922 the southern portion of Ireland was granted its independence, and the UK was once again renamed, this time becoming "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland."]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[Queen Elizabeth's reign saw the first British colony established in the New World, while the powerful British navy protected the growing British interests across the world. England's earliest colonial interests lay in the Caribbean and North America, but over time they expanded into Asia and the South Pacific as well. As British power grew in India, all European competition was driven out, and the English East India Company came to rule the subcontinent in everything but name.
In the late 18th century Britain lost control of much of North America to the Thirteen Colonies (later, the United States of America) in a long and difficult revolution. While this was a great blow to British prestige, the Empire continued to expand unabated, and by the early 20th century the British Empire was the largest and most powerful in history, encompassing one quarter of the Earth's landmass and human population.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[For much of its history, the UK has sought to keep anyone from becoming a dominant power in Europe, and to keep anyone from developing a navy to rival that of the UK's. During Elizabeth's reign Spain was the biggest threat, and the UK sought to bankrupt Spain by intercepting the Spanish treasure fleets from the New World and to support insurgencies taking place in Spanish possessions. In the 17th century the UK fought a series of wars against the Netherlands when Dutch ships threatened British naval primacy.
In the 19th century the UK faced off against the mighty French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte.  The French had an incomparable army and perhaps the greatest general in human history, while the UK had its navy and the wealth from its worldwide empire. The titanic struggle lasted some 12 years, but eventually Napoleon was defeated and the UK emerged victorious.
The 20th century of course saw the UK pitted against Germany (and allies) in two terrible conflagrations, World Wars I and II. These wars would test the British to the limits of human endurance, and though the UK would be on the victorious side, the cost in wealth and human lives would leave the nation exhausted and virtually bankrupt, bereft of much of its once-great empire.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[It has taken some years, but the UK has recovered from the devastations of the wars of the 20th century. Although it is no longer a dominant world power - the United States and increasingly China are the world's "superpowers" - it retains a powerful navy, a thriving culture and a strong economy. While an integral part of the increasingly united and powerful Europe it is also the strongest ally of the United States of America. There is no doubt that the "green and pleasant land" will continue to affect the course of world events for now and the foreseeable future.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[England occupies the greater part of the island of Great Britain (along with the Welsh to the west and the Scots to the north). At some 80,000 square miles in size, Great Britain is slightly larger than the state of Kansas in the USA. Until approximately 6000 BC a land bridge connected Great Britain to Europe; since that time the two have been separated by the English Channel, which is some 20 miles wide at its narrowest point.
England is endowed with rolling hills and plentiful natural resources, including coal and (at one time) extensive forests. Benefitting from warm water brought to its shores by Atlantic Ocean currents, England enjoys plentiful rainfall and relatively mild winters.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The first detailed written description of England comes from the Romans, who under Julius Caesar invaded Great Britain in 55 BC. Caesar found an island of perhaps one million Celtic people divided into various warring tribes and possessing an Iron Age level of technology. Caesar led two expeditions to the island in total, and though he fought several successful battles, unrest in Gaul drew him off the island before he could solidify his conquests.
The Romans returned to Great Britain 90 years later - and this time they came in force. In 43 AD four legions (some 20,000 soldiers) under Aulus Plautius landed somewhere on the southern or south-eastern coast (the exact location is unknown) and made their way inland. After a number of stiff battles they crushed the local opposition, establishing a provincial capital at Camulodunum (Colchester). Over the next fifty years the Romans extended their borders west, conquering Wales despite fierce resistance, and north as far as the river Tyne. In 122 AD construction was begun on Hadrian's Wall, a fortification designed to protect Roman Britain from the fierce Picts (proto-Scots) in the northern highlands.
The Romans remained in power in Great Britain for another three centuries, until approximately 410 AD. They had a profound effect upon the natives during their occupation, introducing important advances in agriculture, technology, architecture, and letters.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[As the Roman military presence retreated from Britain and Western Europe - under pressure from invading Germanic tribes such as the Vandals - local warlords appeared to fill the power vacuum. But none were strong enough to hold off the ever-increasing attacks on the island by the Picts, the Irish, and other barbarian invaders. According to legend, King Vortigern invited the Germanic Saxons into Britain to fight the Picts, but in 442 AD the Saxons turned on their hosts and conquered much of the lowlands. The Saxons remained in power for roughly fifty years until they were driven out largely thanks to the skilful use of cavalry by the surviving British.
In the mid-sixth century a fresh wave of Germanic invaders, the Anglo-Saxons, reappeared, and they all but annihilated the original inhabitants, driving the remnants of the population west into Cornwall and Wales. The Anglo-Saxons would remain in power for several centuries, a period which saw the conversion of the population to Christianity, and a great increase in scholarship on the island, largely centered on the new Christian monasteries. It is during this period that the inhabitants of south-east Great Britain began to consider themselves "English."]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[By the ninth century England (and Scotland and Ireland, not to mention much of Europe) was under continuous assault from Scandinavian raiders known as the Vikings. The Vikings captured cities and towns along the North Sea, and by the middle of the century they controlled almost half of Great Britain, including London. In 877 Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, was able to stop their advance into Southern England, and over the next 50 years he and his heirs fought relentlessly to retake all of the Danish conquests. Athelstan, Alfred's grandson, was the first man to rule all of England in 927.
However, the Danes were not finished with England, and another wave of raids began in 980. Worn down by 20 years of continuous fighting, in 1013 the English surrendered and accepted Sweyn of Denmark as their king. Sweyn was succeeded by Canute, who ruled until 1035. The Danes and the English coexisted fairly peacefully for the next 30 years until 1066, when England was once again subject to invasion.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[On September 27, 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, launched a major invasion against England, leading 6000 knights and foot soldiers across the English Channel. After defeating the English army and killing the English King Harold at the Battle of Hastings, William marched on London. By December of 1066 most of the English nobility had sworn allegiance to William, and he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas. Under Norman rule the country's historical ties with Scandinavia were largely severed and England came into much closer contact with Europe.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Lots of history occurred in England over the next 400 years. There were bitter power struggles, revolts, civil wars, as well as wars in Europe, Scotland and elsewhere. There were several Crusades, a number of plagues and famines, and there were many kings named Richard and Henry, some of whom appeared to be quite mad. Unfortunately, space and time constraints require us to move rapidly to the 16th century, and the rise of Elizabeth.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Queen Elizabeth I was one of the most remarkable rulers in English history. The daughter of King Henry VIII, Elizabeth took the throne in a period of great social and religious upheaval in England (and across Europe). Intelligent, beautiful, and with a great deal of courage, Elizabeth inherited a country that was virtually bankrupt, on the brink of religious civil war, and under threat of conquest by its much stronger neighbor, Spain. During her reign Elizabeth I united the country, confounded Spain's attempts at conquest, and ushered in one of the great golden ages of arts and literature in human history. She also oversaw a major expansion of the English navy, which would dominate the world's seas for centuries.
For a more detailed discussion of Queen Elizabeth I, see her Civilopedia entry.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Elizabeth I died childless, and the English throne passed to James, the Stuart King of Scotland, who became James I of England. Charles I, James's successor, was overthrown by Parliament after the English Civil War (1641-1645). The crown was reinstated in 1660, but much weaker, serving "at the will of Parliament."]=];
TITLE = [=[England]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Praises upon Her Serene Highness, Queen Elizabeth Gloriana; you lead and protect the celebrated maritime nation of England. England is an ancient land. Settled as early as 35,000 years ago, the island has seen countless waves of invaders, each in turn becoming a part of the fabric of the people. Although England is a small island, for many years your people dominated the world stage, their matchless navy, brilliant artists and shrewd merchants giving them power and influence far in excess of their mere numbers.
Queen Elizabeth, will you bring about a new golden age for the English people? They look to you once more to return peace and prosperity to the nation.  Will you take up the mantle of greatness? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[French Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[French Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Quote:
"Only peril can bring the French together. One can't impose unity out of the blue on a country that has 265 kinds of cheese."
- Charles de Gaulle
Every summer more than 100 cyclists compete in the Tour de France; the course spans roughly 2,000 miles and takes three weeks to complete.
Built from 1666 to 1681, Europe's oldest functional canal, the Canal du Midi, lies in France.
The French have the highest female and third highest male life expectancy in Europe.
French was the official language of England for over 300 years (from 1066 until the early 14th century).
France produces some of the world's most famous liqueurs, such as Grand Marnier, Cointreau, and Triple Sec, and upwards of 8 billion bottles of wine a year.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Wars of Reformation]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[The Seventeenth Century]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[The Eigtheenth Century]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[The Revolution]=];
HEADING_14 = [=[Napolean Bonaparte]=];
HEADING_15 = [=[The Nineteenth Century]=];
HEADING_16 = [=[The Great War]=];
HEADING_17 = [=[World War II]=];
HEADING_18 = [=[Modern France]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early Gaul]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Later Gaul]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Fall of Roman Gaul]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Middle Ages]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[After the Empire]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Hundred Years' War (1328 - 1429)]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Located in Western Europe, bordering six (or seven, depending upon how you count them) European countries and with coasts on the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, and the Mediterranean, France has long been one of the great political, military and cultural powers of the Western world.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[By the 16th century, there was a good deal of resentment against the Catholic Church across Europe, which was seen to be greedy and corrupt. In 1517 Martin Luther nailed up his "Ninty-Five Theses," condemning the excesses of the Church. Martin Luther's movement gained many followers in France, and by 1534 the king issued the first of a series of anti-Huguenot (Protestant) edicts. This did little to stop the spread of the movement. By 1562 the two sides were in open warfare, which continued on and off for decades. It ended in 1598, when the Edict of Nantes granted tolerance to the Huguenots.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[In the seventeenth century the power of the crown was enhanced, largely through the work of one man, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal and Duke of Richelieu. Richelieu was an extremely able minister and one of the most colorful characters in history. Brilliant, calculating, and ruthless, he worked ceaselessly to expand the king's power and prestige and to destroy his enemies. He also moved against the Huguenots, who retained their religious freedom but lost their military power.
In 1643, the remarkable Louis XIV took the throne. Known as the "Sun King," Louis seduced and tamed the French aristocracy, establishing the Palace of Versailles as the most opulent court the world had ever seen. Underneath the foppish trappings Louis was an ambitious ruler. During his reign he fought in three major wars and several minor conflicts. Louis would reign for an astonishing 72 years, dying in 1715. He still holds the record for the longest reign of a European monarch.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[The eighteenth century saw an increase in power and wealth of the nobility, the emergence of a French middle class, and the further destitution of the peasantry. Philosophically, the Enlightenment tended to undermine the belief in the traditional institutions such as the Church and the monarchy. In 1776 the American Revolution broke out, and the French saw a free people throw off an oppressive monarchy in favor of democracy and self-rule. This would further stoke unrest already building throughout the country.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[In 1789, close on the heels of the American Revolution, the French peasants and middle class revolted against the nobility and the king. The Revolution was a brutal, bloody affair, with the king and perhaps 50,000 other French citizens being executed by the newly-invented guillotine (a triumph of Enlightenment science).
In the early phases of the Revolution the people marched on the Bastille, abolished the nobility, and forced the king to accept a constitutional monarchy. But the new Assembly degenerated into warring factions struggling for primacy and was unable to govern. Without government sanction the Paris Commune murdered some 1350 prisoners. In September 1792 a Constitutional Convention met and abolished the monarchy, declaring a republic. Austria and Prussia demanded the restitution of the king, threatening retaliation against the French population if they resisted. The revolutionary government saw this as evidence that the king was conspiring with the enemy; he was condemned to death and executed in January of 1793.
Later in 1793 the "Committee for Public Safety" unleashed the "Reign of Terror," ensuring public safety by guillotining some 15,000-40,000 of the public, many without trial. Several local revolts broke out, primarily caused by peasant outrage at the treatment of the Catholic Church at the hands of the Revolutionaries, but these were crushed with great ferocity.
In 1795 the new French constitution established an entirely new form for the French government. Executive power was held by "The Directory," a panel of five directors elected annually by the new bi-cameral legislature. However, the new form of government proved unmanageable, and in 1799 a man named Napoleon Bonaparte seized power.]=];
TEXT_14 = [=[This extraordinary man was born in French-owned Corsica and trained in artillery in the French army. In 1799 he staged a coup d'etat, installing himself as First Consul, a position he pretty much invented. Within five years he crowned himself Emperor. For sixteen years he ruled France, taking a bankrupt, revolution-torn country and making it into the most powerful force in Europe. Time and again he fought and defeated every other country within reach, singly and in alliances against him, save one, England. Unable to create a navy that could stand up to the unmatched British Navy, he could not reach and destroy his most implacable foe.
For fifteen years Napoleon marched and counter-marched triumphantly across Europe, until finally defeated by yet another coalition at Leipzig, and then a year later at Waterloo. For more details about this extraordinary warlord, see Napoleon's civilopedia entry.]=];
TEXT_15 = [=[After Napoleon's final defeat, the victorious countries instituted a constitutional monarchy in France, which lasted for some 40 years, until Napoleon's nephew, Louis Napoleon was elected president by popular vote in 1848, declaring himself king in 1852. He remained in power until 1870, when, goaded by Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck, he made an unfortunate decision to go to war against Prussia. The war was a humiliating disaster. The Prussians made brilliant use of their rail network to concentrate before the French were ready to fight, and on September 2, 1870, Napoleon and his entire army were captured.
The war resulted in the overthrow of the monarchy once more, replaced by the Third Republic, the humiliating loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Prussia/Germany, and a burning desire for revenge which would serve France badly in the coming years.]=];
TEXT_16 = [=[The First World War was caused by a huge failure of European diplomatic common sense and imagination, as countries formed a bewildering web of alliances and treaties, binding their fates together in ways that they barely comprehended. The war was initiated by a blatant land-grab of Serbia by Austria-Hungary, using as casus belli ("our excuse for shooting at the neighbor") the murder of an Archduke by a Serbian terrorist. The Archduke was killed on June 28, 1914, and by August Europeans were killing each other on three different continents.
There were two sides in the conflict, the Central Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria, facing off against the Triple Entente, of the United Kingdom, France, and Russia. On the Eastern Front the Germans struck quickly, destroying a completely outclassed Russian army and nearly driving them out of the war. On the Western Front, they drove deep into French territory before being stopped east of Paris by desperate defensive operations from France and the UK.
For the next four years France was divided by a hellish 5000 foot-long line of trenches across the countryside, with men fighting and dying in the tens of thousands, and success being measured in advancing inches. The land was poisoned by thousands of corpses, exploded and unexploded ordnance, and chemical warfare. In 1917 the United States entered the war, and German morale began to collapse. By 1918 the German government fell and the new government signed an armistice.
France had been bled white by the war, with two million dead (four percent of their entire population) and over four million wounded. The territory that had been at the front or behind enemy lines was a wasteland of festering corpses and cities and villages in ruin. Their fury at Germany resulted in a demand for huge reparations, both to help France rebuild and to punish the enemy. While this policy might have had short-term benefits, it had two major negative results: it embittered the German people, making them thirst for revenge, and it disgusted the Americans, making them less inclined to become involved in European messes in the future.]=];
TEXT_17 = [=[The Second World War was a painful and humiliating disaster for France. As the Germans rebuilt their war machine after World War I, the French, who were desperately short of manpower following the Great War, constructed the Maginot Line, a rather magnificent line of fortresses, underground bunkers and trenches on the border facing Germany. If the German army had tried to punch through that line, it would have certainly suffered great losses of manpower, and more importantly, taken precious time.
Unfortunately, for political reasons the French had not extended the Line to the sea, as it would have placed Belgium outside of the defenses, and for their part the Belgians refused to fortify their border with Germany for fear it would anger the Germans. Thus when the Germans decided to invade France they simply bypassed the Line and drove through Belgium. The French and British were never able to establish a stable defensive line against the crushing German blitzkrieg, and France was overrun in weeks, surrendering on June 22, 1940.
On June 6, 1944, British, American and Free French troops landed at Normandy and began liberating France from German occupation. The German army retreated slowly, putting up a stubborn defense, but with Soviet troops closing in on German soil from the east, catastrophic troop losses on all fronts, the total loss of air superiority and an unending rain of Allied bombs on German factories and cities, defeat was inevitable. Paris was liberated on August 25, 1944, and Germany surrendered on May 7-8, 1945.]=];
TEXT_18 = [=[The years following World War II saw France grudgingly divesting itself from its overseas possessions, fighting painful and ultimately futile wars in Vietnam and Algeria. At the same time it was rebuilding at home, creating a new and modern country out of the ashes of the Great Wars. It possesses a large immigrant population, including many Muslims, and it too is suffering through the difficulties caused by the current painful clash of cultures between Islam and the West.
French arts are flourishing as never before, and Paris - the "City of Lights" - is once again the cultural center of the world. France has become a leading member of the European Union, alongside its former enemy Germany. In historical terms this is an  astonishing triumph of common sense and suggests a bright future for France, Europe, and the world.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[France is a country of plains and green forests with ancient mountain ranges on its south-east and west borders. A beautiful, fertile land, France is blessed with some of the best wine-growing climate and terrain in the world. Located in a temperate zone and bordered on the south by the warm Mediterranean, the French climate is generally kindly and conducive to agriculture.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The gentle waters of the Mediterranean facilitated exploration and settlement of the coast of southern France. Greece founded the colony of Massilia (modern Marseille) as early as 600 BC, but the earliest written records of exploration of the country's interior comes hundreds of years later from the Romans, who began campaigning in "Transalpine Gaul" (Gaul across the Alps) in the first century BC. There the Romans encountered mostly Celtic people, plus a few surviving pre-Celtic Iberians and Ligurians. They also met many Germanic people emigrating into Gaul from points north and east.
Roman control over Gaul was gradual but inexorable. In 121 BC Rome sent armies into Gaul to assist Massilia against encroaching Celts, and also to defend its overland route into Spain (where it had important possessions). This led Rome to claim a chunk of southern Gaul as a province, which survives today as the "Provence" region of France. In 58 BC Caesar launched a major campaign against the interior of Gaul. The war lasted some eight years, at the end of which Gaul was more or less securely a Roman possession.
With the exception of a few notable but easily-crushed rebellions, Gaul remained fairly content as a Roman province for several centuries. The country thrived under Roman rule, and remnants of wealthy Roman-style villas can be found across the French countryside. As it was pacified Gaul became a springboard for further Roman expansion, both northwest across the Channel into Great Britain, and northeast into the barbarian Germanic lands.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[During the third and fourth centuries AD, as Roman power began to wane across Western Europe, Gaul came under increasing pressure from invaders from the north and east. Rome concentrated its power upon holding the Danube River and stopping barbarians from crossing into Italy, leaving Gaul under-defended. In the mid-third century Gaul suffered major incursions by the Germanic Alemanni and Franks, and the territory wasn't retaken by Rome until 274. As the countryside grew hostile and dangerous, the cities and towns fortified, a process which would continue through the Middle Ages.
Christianity, which was introduced to Gaul around 250 AD, had taken root across the country by the end of the fourth century.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In 395 AD, Rome was divided into an eastern and western half, and Western Rome all but abandoned Gaul as it tried desperately to protect Rome itself from barbarian invasion out of Austria and Germany. As a result, in 405-406 a large number of Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine into Gaul, carving out permanent homes for groups such as the Franks and Burgundians. The Visigoths drove far south, occupying land in Aquitaine. By 476 the Romans had been totally driven from power in Gaul by Germanic invaders.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[During the Middle Ages (400-1200 AD), France was divided into a number of smaller kingdoms ruled by the heirs of the various Germanic invaders. In the late 5th century King Clovis of the northern Franks unified most of the country (with the exception of some stubborn Visigoth holdouts in the south). Clovis was the first of the "Merovingian" kings to rule the unified country. He moved his capital to Paris, and he gained a degree of recognition from the Roman Emperor, which gave his rule legitimacy.
When Clovis died in 511, the kingdom was divided between his four sons, who spent the next five decades fighting each other for the country. As a brother died, his land was apportioned among the surviving brothers. This continued until 558 when there was only one brother standing. The Merovingian kingdom remained united a whopping nine years, until that king died and the kingdom was once again apportioned between his sons. This cycle of conquest and division would continue for centuries, costing the lives of thousands every generation.
As the eighth century opened, another strong Frankish family arose to challenge the Merovingians. Based in northern Austrasia, the Carolingians defeated their local neighbors and came to dominate northern France/Germany. At first they threw their support behind the Merovingians, but when King Theodoric IV died in 737, the Carolingian King Charles Martel was strong enough to assume direct power, leaving the throne empty. During his reign Charles was able to stop the Muslims' incursions into France and extend his power into Germany as well.
Charles was followed by Pippin the Short, who, with the blessing of the Pope in Rome, openly assumed the throne. Upon his death the kingdom was divided between his two sons, Carloman, who didn't last long, and Charlemagne, who did.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Charlemagne's father died in 768, and his brother in 771, leaving him sole king of France. He pursued a policy of expansion into Germany and Muslim-held Spain, having more success against the Germans than he did against the emirs in Spain. He intervened in Italy on the side of the Pope, whose territories were under threat from the Lombards to the north. He conquered the Lombards and had himself crowned their king, and he created the Papal States, earning a good deal of gratitude from the Church.
By the end of the eighth century Charlemagne was the undisputed power in Western Europe, ruling much of the territory which would become modern France, western Germany, the Benelux countries and northern Italy. In 800 AD Pope Leo III crowned him emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, making him the legal successor to the Caesars of the western Roman Empire.
Following Charlemagne's death in 813, his son Louis the Pious inherited the throne. When he died Charlemagne's grandsons once again began fighting over the kingdom, and in 843, at the Treaty of Verdun, the Holy Roman Empire was divided into three sections along north-south lines. These were Francia Orientalis, the eastern territories,  Francia Occidentalis, the western territories, and Francia Media, perilously wedged between them. Although smaller, Francia Occidentalis approximated the borders of modern France, and some scholars date the creation of the modern country to the Treaty of Verdun.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[The new kingdoms weren't especially stable, and the people of France endured another 300 years of incessant warfare and familial backbiting as the various kings and nobility struggled for dominance. Life wasn't made any easier by the arrival of the Vikings, who raided as far inland as Paris, often demanding a huge ransom before they would go away. They remained active through the ninth and tenth centuries, some settling permanently in Normandy. The rulers also had to deal with English monarchs who claimed territories in the west, including portions of Aquitaine, Brittany, and Lombardy. It took several centuries to push the Brits entirely off of the continent.
As the new millennium approached, the Capetian family gained the French crown. They too spent much time fighting each other as well as the various nobility who challenged their reign.
King Philip II, who reigned from 1180-1223, did much to strengthen the monarchy. When not off fighting at the Crusades with his friend Richard the Lionheart, Philip reorganized the government, modernized the French economy, and defeated the English, Flemish and Germans singly and in groups. King Louis IX (reigned 1226-1270), further consolidated the country.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[As the fourteenth century opened, France was the most powerful country on the continent. In 1328, Philip VI assumed the throne. Edward III, King of England, owned Aquitaine and also had a slender claim to the French throne, which he hadn't pressed at the time of Philip VI's succession. However, in 1337 Philip VI confiscated Aquitaine, and in response Edward III reinstated his claim, bringing France and England to war.
The English pursued the war on the seas and by fomenting rebellion among France's Flemish subjects. In 1346 an English army won a famous battle at Crecy but were unable to follow this up with any further success and were forced to evacuate the continent more or less empty-handed. In 1347 the Black Death struck, killing huge numbers of people and delaying the war. Hard fighting broke out anew in the 1350's, during which the French king managed to get himself captured by the English, who demanded a huge ransom for his release. The French refused to pay, and the king died in captivity in London. The war continued to drag on until 1420, when the Treaty of Troyes declared the unification of the French and English crowns on the infant head of Henry VI, king of England and France.
This did not sit well with everyone. The French nobleman Charles VIII had a fairly strong claim to the throne, and many French patriots preferred him to any English ruler. This included a strange young peasant woman named Joan of Arc. Within a few years Joan had led the French on to victory, driving the English back on all fronts. Charles was anointed king in 1429, and Joan was burned at the stake a year later.]=];
TITLE = [=[France]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Long life and triumph to you, First Consul and Emperor of France, Napoleon I, ruler of the French people.  France lies at the heart of Europe. Long has Paris been the world center of culture, arts and letters. Although surrounded by competitors - and often enemies - France has endured as a great nation. Its armies have marched triumphantly into battle from one end of the world to the other, its soldiers and generals among the best in history.
Napoleon Bonaparte, France yearns for you to rebuild your empire, to lead her once more to glory and greatness, to make France once more the epicenter of culture and refinement.  Emperor, will you ride once more against your foes?  Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[German Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[German Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The German Autobahn is the oldest motorway network in the world - it has no enforced speed limit and only a maximum advisory speed of 80 mph.
The world's oldest savings bank was established in Oldenburg in 1786.
There are over 1,300 beer breweries in Germany, making almost 5,000 different kinds of beer.  The Germans consume the 3rd largest amount of beer per year, after the Irish and the Czechs, roughly 31 gallons per person per year.
The Ulm Cathedral is the tallest church in the world - its main spire measures 530 ft in height.
Gummi Bears were invented by a German confectionist, Hans Riegel, in 1922.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Fall of Germany (Part I)]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[The Rise of Germany (Part II)]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[The Fall of Germany (Part II)]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[The Rise of Germany (Part III)]=];
HEADING_14 = [=[The Fall of Germany (Part III)]=];
HEADING_15 = [=[The Rise of Germany (Part IV)]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pre-History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Romans]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Enter the Huns]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Franks]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[The Rise of Germany (Part I)]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Middle Ages]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[While various "Germanic" peoples have occupied northern-central Europe for thousands of years, the modern political entity known as "Germany" is extremely young, created almost singlehandedly by the brilliant Prussian politician Otto von Bismarck some 140 years ago. During its brief existence Germany has had a profound effect - for good and for bad - on human history.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Frederick's heirs were unable to unify the increasingly fragmented Germany, and when Frederick II, Barbarossa's grandson, died in 1250, the crown was left vacant for some time. Although others would eventually claim the crown, none would again wield true monarchical power.
By the late 14th century the dissolution of Germany was all but complete.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[Germany would remain divided for some five long centuries. By the 18th century Austria (under the Habsburgs) and the kingdom of Prussia were the two dominant powers; at the beginning of the 19th Century both were engaged in the desperate struggles of the Napoleonic wars that convulsed Europe. In the Congress of Vienna in 1814 which followed Napoleon's defeat, many of the states which comprised the old German empire were joined together in the German Confederation. Austria and Prussia both sought to dominate the Confederation; their incessant squabbling and jockeying for position left the new state weak and divided.
In 1861 King William I of Prussia appointed Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister of Prussia. Three short years later Bismarck led his country into war with Denmark, adding that country to the growing Prussian empire. In 1866 Prussia went to war against Austria, after Bismarck's cunning machinations left the Habsburg Empire isolated and vulnerable. Prussia easily defeated its once mighty competitor, driving Austria from the Confederation.
In 1870 Prussia went to war with France, utilizing its incomparable railroad network to launch a lightning assault that the French were totally unprepared for. The French were crushed and the Prussians claimed the disputed territories of Alsace-Lorraine. Having decisively beaten the only two land powers who might have stopped them, Bismarck and the Prussians announced the formation of the German Empire, the direct ancestor of modern Germany. Germany would dominate central Europe for the next 50 years.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[The story of World War I is well known. At heart, that war was a horrible failure of diplomacy as lesser men tried to emulate Bismarck's tactics. In the years leading up to that cataclysmic event, the Great Powers of Europe found themselves almost helplessly falling into two armed camps, each side linked together by a labyrinthine of diplomatic agreements which left little room for actual diplomacy. Country A was treaty-bound to Country B, who had promised to come to Country C's aid if it went to war with Country D, who was similarly allied to Countries E, F, and G.
In 1914 the entire house of cards came tumbling down following a blatant attempt to engulf Serbia by Austria-Hungary. Using the assassination of an Austro-Hungarian nobleman by a Serbian anarchist as an excuse, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia honored its treaty with Serbia and declared war on Austria-Hungary, and Austria-Hungary's ally Germany mobilized its forces to attack Russia, which caused France (still smarting from the loss of Alsace-Lorraine 40 years earlier) to mobilize against Germany. England, France and Russia's ally, had little choice but to also declare war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Although it enjoyed great initial success early in the war, crippling Russia and overrunning half of France, Germany and its allies were unable to deliver the final killing blow to its enemies, and the war degenerated into a hideous stalemate which lasted for four horrible years of trench warfare. Britain's command of the seas and the United States' entry into the war finally broke Germany's will to resist. Sick of war, under pressure on all fronts and seeing no chance of victory, the German people revolted. The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands; the Germans declared a Republic, and on November 11 1918 they signed an Armistice agreement. By war's end some 15 million people had been killed and much of Europe was a stinking wasteland of mud, corpses and unexploded ordnance.
The victors were not overly kind to Germany following the war. France took back the disputed territories of Alsace-Lorraine, and the allies imposed huge war reparations on the already-destitute country, which was forbidden to maintain a significant military. (Austria-Hungary fared no better: the empire was dismembered on ethnic lines into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, and the Ottoman Empire was similarly hacked into pieces.)
Germany was prostrate, bankrupt, and under threat of occupation if it did not pay huge sums of money to its neighbors (who it should be noted in fairness were not in much better shape themselves and who desperately needed the money to rebuild). Many wondered if Germany would ever be able to recover from the catastrophe of World War I.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[Again, the events leading up to World War II are well-known. Trading upon the anger and humiliation felt by the German people, Adolf Hitler and his fascist Nazi (National-Socialist) party gained control of the German government. The Germans rebuilt their country, economy and military with astonishing rapidity, while Jews, homosexuals, Gypsies and other minorities were persecuted with increasing ferocity.
While Germany's former enemies watched supinely, Hitler united Germany with Austria, then gobbled up Czechoslovakia. Isolated by France, England and the US, Stalin's Communist Russia helped Germany dismember helpless Poland. This caused France and England to declare war against Germany, but neither country had the military power to launch an offensive war against Hitler's growing army.
In 1940 Germany invaded France via the Netherlands, Belgium and the Low Countries. France's defenses were outflanked, and the German tanks made short work of the inferior French and British armaments. In a little over a month France had surrendered and the British had been driven off of the continent.
In 1941 Germany turned its attention to the East. The mighty German war machine carved a bloody swath into the belly of the Soviet Union, destroying entire Soviet armies hurled into its path to stem the assault. By late 1941 Germany seemed on the verge of destroying Soviet Russia and achieving undisputed mastery of continental Europe.]=];
TEXT_14 = [=[Despite its early astonishing successes, Germany was unable to destroy the Soviet Union. Crippled by Stalin's purge of the officer's corps some years before and ill-equipped and ill-trained, the Soviet army fought heroically to stem the German advance. Though it cost them huge, terrible casualties to do so, the Red Army halted the Germans before they could capture Leningrad or Moscow, buying Stalin time to train and equip a huge military force with which to launch his counter-offensive.
In the Western Front, things were looking no better for Germany The United States had entered the war (following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor), and American and British forces began to undermine German power first in Africa and then Italy. As the Russian forces ground their way west against extraordinary German resistance, the Americans and British invaded France, opening up another front against Hitler's forces. Bled white and unable to defend fronts, the German army finally collapsed. Hitler committed suicide, and in May 7-8 1945 Germany surrendered.
Germany paid heavily for its transgressions. Millions of Germans died in the war, including a staggering number of German Jews who were murdered by their Germany countrymen. The Soviet Union (which itself suffered tens of millions of casualties) expanded its borders westward into Polish territory and Poland was in turn awarded German eastern territory, including all of Prussia, where fifteen million Germans were driven from their homes into what remained of Germany. Germany herself was divided and occupied by the Allies, Russia occupying Eastern Germany while France, the United Kingdom and the United States occupied Western Germany and half of Berlin.]=];
TEXT_15 = [=[In the years after World War II Germany has made yet another remarkable comeback. Following the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, East and West Germany have reunited, becoming once again an economic powerhouse unrivaled in Europe. Germany has become an enthusiastic member of the European Union, and perhaps most astonishingly, a close friend and ally of France. The German people seem to accept responsibility for their nation's horrible crimes in World War II and seem determined to make sure that they never reoccur. In short, Germany has become a powerful force for world peace and unity in the twenty-first century.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Germany encompasses a variety of terrains, from snow-covered mountains in the south to rolling hills in the west to the flatlands of the east. It is crossed by several major rivers which provide water for crops and transport for goods. Its hills and mountains are rich with natural resources and its plains are fertile. Germany has a temperate climate and abundant rainfall, ideal for European-style agriculture.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[For centuries northern-central Europe has been occupied by Germanic people, roughly defined as people who speak Germanic languages (rather than say the Romantic languages of Italy, France and Spain). Evidence suggests that Germanic tribes lived in northern Germany as far back as the Bronze Age. It appears that during this period Southern Germany was originally populated by peoples of Celtic origin; they were however eventually "Germanized" as the Germanic tribes' influence spread south.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The first historical information on the Germanic tribes comes to us from about 50 BC, when the Roman general Julius Caesar encountered and fought various tribes while conquering the province of Gaul (an area roughly encompassing modern France). Caesar established the eastern border of Gaul at the Rhine River, beyond which most of the "barbaric" German tribes lived.
The Romans and Germanic people maintained an uneasy peace (punctuated by various raids and border skirmishes) for some forty years until approximately 10 BC, when the Roman armies invaded Germanic territory from two directions, crossing the Rhine to the west and the Danube to the east. This proved to be a catastrophic miscalculation: the barbarians were astonishingly tough opponents and a number of Roman legions were destroyed. The humiliated Romans retreated to the previous borders of the Danube and the Rhine, no further incursions were attempted for several centuries, and the two sides coexisted more or less peacefully until 350 AD.
During that period there was a good deal of commerce between the Romans and the Germans, with the Germans trading raw material in exchange for Roman manufactured and luxury goods. Over time the Germans learned pottery and advanced agricultural techniques from the Romans, and they even began using Roman money.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As the fourth century progressed, the Germanic tribes began to come under increased pressure from "Hunnish" tribes migrating into Germanic territory from further east. This pushed the Germanic people into Roman territory. Over the next fifty-odd years parts of Rome were overrun by the Visigoths, Suebi and Vandals. The city of Rome itself was sacked several times, and several Roman emperors died fighting the invaders. The Romans eventually came to terms with some of the invaders, granting them territory and some measure of protection from the advancing Huns.
With the death of Attila in 453 the Hun Empire collapsed, and the Germanic tribes no longer needed Rome's protection. A number of tribes declared their independence from Rome, and within a short period a Visigoth kingdom was established in southwest Gaul, a Burgundian kingdom was declared in southeast Gaul, a Frankish kingdom was established in the north, and the Lombard kingdom was created on the Danube - and the Western Roman Empire ceased to exist.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Once established in north-western Gaul, the "Franks" (the Germanic peoples in Roman Gaul) began to expand eastward across the Rhine and back into non-Romanized Germanic territory, where the non-Romanized Germanic tribes remained as stubbornly independent as ever. The subjugation of the tribes spanned three centuries of war, conquest, rebellion, treachery, punishment, and more war. Religion was one of the great impediments to peace: the Franks had become Christian and they sought to spread the gospel into the barbarian lands. The Germanic tribes were pagans and did not want to abandon their religion. Christianity would emerge victorious, eventually, but it was a long and difficult (and often bloody) process.
The Franks themselves were not a unified monolithic entity: they spent as much time fighting themselves as they did battling external foes. The earliest line of rulers, the Merovingians, remained in power until the middle of the seventh century, when they were overthrown by the Carolingians, a rival faction from the north. The Carolingians were blessed with a series of extremely able kings who, allied with the Catholic Church, extended Frankish power across much of central Europe.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The greatest of the Carolingians, Charlemagne (742-814) was a brilliant military leader and a canny politician. He continued his father's and grandfather's subjugation of the Germanic tribes, and he extended his empire into southern France and then Italy. In exchange for protecting Rome from the Saracens and the Byzantines, the Pope crowned him Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Today Charlemagne is considered to be one of the founders of France and of Germany, not to mention the first man to unite Western Europe since the Romans.
Upon Charlemagne's death, his only son Louis I (Louis the Pious) assumed the throne. Louis had more than one son, and when he died the Empire was divided between them. Many years would pass before any single person would again rule so large a portion of Europe.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Louis the Pious' son, Louis the German, inherited the eastern portion of the Holy Roman Empire, which included the Kingdom of Bavaria and other territories in what would become Medieval Germany. Much of his reign was spent fighting the Slavs, the Vikings and his brothers, inheritors of the middle and western portions of Charlemagne's empire (the areas which would later become France and the Benelux countries). Louis the German ruled for some 50 years (ca. 825-876), providing political stability to his war-torn kingdom. When not engaged in battle with his neighbors, Louis was an early patron of German letters who promoted the creation of monasteries in his kingdom.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[In the two centuries following Louis' reign, external pressure from Danes, Saracens and Magyars, weakened the central government, and as it proved incompetent to protect its citizens from attack, power devolved to local authorities, resulting in a patchwork of smaller mostly independent duchies who became independent political units in everything but name. Following the death of the last Carolingian German king, the German dukes elected first a Frankish duke to be king, but when he proved incompetent the title went to a Saxon duke.
The Saxons remained in power for some centuries. They successfully held off the attacks of the eastern barbarians (though an attempt to expand German power east proved disastrous). By the late 10th century Otto I had invaded and conquered much of Italy. Pope John XII crowned him Emperor, beginning a powerful alliance between the German state and the Church that lasted over a century.
This alliance was not permanent, however. Eventually, the popes grew to resent the German kings' increasing power over the Church's property and personnel. Reformers within the Church decried the corruption of bishops and abbots who purchased their positions from kings and duchies (the sin of "simony"), claiming that only the pope should make such appointments. Matters reached a peak in 1075, when King Henry IV demanded that Pope Gregory VII abdicate; Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry. Facing a civil war, Henry was forced to beg the pope for forgiveness. The pope gave it, but Henry was badly weakened and was unable to quash the rebellion, which dragged on for some 20 years. Although Henry IV survived, the German monarchy was permanently weakened by the struggle.
During this period German power continued to grow in Central Europe, as German kings and duchies conquered and colonized non-German territory to the east and west. King Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa), who reigned from 1152-1190, campaigned to reconquer Lombardy and Italy. Although unsuccessful against the Lombards, he (and his heirs) did make substantial gains in Italy. Frederick died in 1190, while leading the ill-fated Third Crusade towards the Holy Land. According to legend he drowned while bathing.]=];
TITLE = [=[Germany]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Hail Mighty Bismarck, First Chancellor of Germany and her Empire! Germany is an upstart nation, fashioned from the ruins of the Holy Roman Empire and finally unified in 1871, a little more than a century ago. The German people have proven themselves to be creative, industrious, and ferocious warriors. Despite enduring great catastrophe in the first half of the 20th century, Germany remains a world-wide economic, artistic, and technological leader.
Great Prince von Bismarck, the German people look to you to lead them to greater days of glory.  Their determination is strong and they turn to you, their beloved Iron Chancellor, to guide them once more. Will you rule and conquer through blood and iron, or foster the Germanic arts and industry? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Greek Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Greek Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[No part of Greece is more than 85 miles from the sea.
The National Anthem contains 158 verses; to date no known person has memorized all 158.
Tossing an apple to a girl was a traditional way of proposing marriage.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Persian Wars]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[The Peloponnesian War]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[Philip II and Alexander of Macedonia]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[The Conquest of Persia]=];
HEADING_14 = [=[After Alexander]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[The Mycenaeans]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Archaic Period]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Greek Colonization]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Rise of the Polis]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Spartans]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[The Athenians]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Classical Greece (510 BC - 323 BC)]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[It is difficult to overstate the impact that Greece has had upon Western culture and history. Classical Greece has given birth to some of the greatest artists, philosophers, scientists, historians, dramatists and warriors the world has known. Greek warriors and colonists spread their culture throughout the Mediterranean and into the Near and Far East. The heirs to Greece, the Romans, further promulgated Greek thought throughout Europe, and from there it spread across the oceans and into the New World.
Greece and her people are credited with an astonishing number of inventions and discoveries, including the first theatrical performance, work of history, and philosophic treatise. The Greeks provided the West's first recorded sporting event, poem, and building dedicated to theatre. In politics, the Greeks created the world's first known democracy and republic. Greek influence is still all around us: today's doctors still take the Hippocratic Oath, and modern architects still look to classical Greek forms for inspiration. To a large degree, Western civilization is Classical Greek civilization.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[At the start of the fifth century BC, the Greek cities on the coast of Anatolia (Ionia) were under the control of the Persians, a vast and powerful empire to the south-east. In 499 BC the Greek cities revolted. Although several mainland Greek cities came to their aid, they were unable to stand up to the strong Persian response, and all were retaken.
Seven years later (492 BC), the Persians launched a massive assault on Greece in retaliation. The Persian invasion came in two wings - a huge army accompanied by a powerful naval force which covered its flank. The army advanced through Thrace and Macedonia, but the force's general was wounded, and the army retreated back to Asia Minor.
In 490 BC the Persian fleet landed a huge force (somewhere between 20,000 to 100,000 soldiers) in Attica. They were met by a much smaller force of perhaps 9,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plataeans, who defeated the Persian army in detail. This bought the Greeks some 10 years of peace.
In 480 BC, the Persian king Xerxes I launched another massive attack on Greece, this time leading some 300,000 troops onto the peninsula. The huge force rapidly overwhelmed the central Greek cities and marched inexorably towards Athens. The invaders were met by a far smaller group of Spartan and other troops at Thermopylae; the defenders fought tenaciously and to the last man, buying enough time for the Athenians to evacuate their city. Although homeless, the Athenians still had their powerful navy, which they used to destroy the Persian ships and cut off supplies to the Persian army in Athens. Within a year the Spartans gathered a great army and attacked the occupiers, who were defeated and largely destroyed.
By 478 BC the Athenians had returned to their largely ruined city and began reconstruction. They formed an alliance (the "Delian League") with various island cities, and permanently expelled the Persian navy from the Aegean Sea.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[Following the defeat of Persia, the Athenians demanded large amounts of money from the other members of the Delian League, which they planned to use to rebuild the destroyed city. As the Athenians had by far the biggest navy, the island cities were forced to comply. The Athenians grew richer and more powerful than they had ever been in history, and the Delian League became in fact, if not in name, the Athenian Empire.
Alarmed at Athens' growing power, Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League, an alliance with other concerned Greek land powers including Corinth and Elis. By 458 BC war broke out between the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League. The war ground on inconclusively for several years, until a peace treaty was signed in 445 BC. The uneasy peace lasted until 431 BC, when the two sides once again came to blows.
The war continued for decades. The Spartan forces invaded Attica and besieged Athens, and the city fell victim to a massive and deadly plague which killed thousands, including the great leader Pericles. But Athens survived, and the Spartans were driven back. The Athenian navy harassed the enemy coastlines and overseas allies, draining the Peloponnesian League's larders and treasuries. Neither side was able to gain an advantage, and in 421 BC they signed another peace treaty.
The "Peace of Nicias," lasted six years. It ended in 415 BC when Athens launched a massive invasion of Sicily, which contained a number of cities allied with Sparta. The Athenian attack was a long, costly catastrophic failure which resulted in the annihilation of the invading army and the almost total destruction of the Athenian navy. Athens was badly crippled, both at land and at sea.
In 405 BC the Spartan navy (with the help of the Persians) defeated the Athenian navy and imposed an impenetrable blockade on Athens. Starving and with no hope of external aid, Athens capitulated. The victorious Spartans imposed heavy penalties on Athens, divested it of its overseas possessions and forbid it from building a navy.
TEXT_12 = [=[With the city-states of southern Greece badly weakened by decades of brutal warfare, the balance of power moved north, to Macedon. In 338 BC Philip II led an army south, accompanied by his 16 year-old son, Alexander, who had already proven himself in battle, having led a small Macedonian army to crush a Thracian revolt. After dispatching several smaller forces, Philip and Alexander thoroughly defeated a combined Theban and Athenian army at the Battle of Chaeronea. He then moved to Corinth, which capitulated without a fight.
Philip made preparations to launch a major invasion of Persia, at the head of a large army of Macedonian and other Greek warriors. However, he was assassinated in 336 BC and at the age of 20, Alexander was proclaimed King of Macedonia.
Upon news of Philip's death, the southern Greek city-states attempted to revolt, but Alexander moved south at the head of 3000 Macedonian cavalry, and the terrified city-states quickly surrendered. He then headed north into the Balkans, where, in a lightning campaign he defeated several armies much larger than his force.
While Alexander was securing his northern borders, a number of southern city-states including Thebes and Athens rebelled once more. In response Alexander burned Thebes to the ground, selling most of its citizens into slavery. Athens immediately capitulated and pleaded for mercy. Having made his point, Alexander had no further trouble with the southern Greek city-states.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[In 334 BC Alexander led an army of 40,000 Greeks across the Hellespont into Persian territory. The details of his extraordinary campaign are described elsewhere in this Civilopedia (see Alexander the Great); for here suffice it to say that in 10 short years Alexander conquered all of Asia Minor, Persia, Egypt, and parts of Western India. He died at the age of 32 in 323 BC with no heir, leaving his fragmented empire in the hands of his generals and their children.]=];
TEXT_14 = [=[Greece did not remain unified after Alexander's death. As the poleis returned to their squabbling, they fell piecemeal under the control of Rome, the growing power to the west. By 146 BC Macedon was a Roman province, and over the next century the rest of the country was taken.
In 330 AD, the Byzantine Empire supplanted the Roman rule in Greece. The Byzantines remained in power for some 1,000 years, until they were supplanted by the Ottomans. The Ottomans ruled Greece from the mid-fifteenth century until the early nineteenth, when Greece regained its independence in 1829, almost one thousand, eight hundred and fifty years after the Roman conquest.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Greece occupies a large, wide peninsula which juts south from the Balkans into the Eastern Mediterranean, between the Ionian Sea and the Aegean. The peninsula is almost bisected by the Gulf of Corinth, which opens into the Ionian Sea and runs east almost all the way across the landmass, leaving only a narrow isthmus connecting north and south. Greece is quite mountainous, with narrow fertile valleys separated by imposing hills and peaks. Summers are warm and winters are mild in the coastal lowlands, but snowfall is not uncommon in the mountains.
Historically the Aegean Sea has been a Grecian lake. Classical Greece dominated the hundreds of islands of the Aegean as well as the rocky coast of Anatolia (Turkey) to the east.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Little is known about the earliest inhabitants of Greece. They were all but destroyed during the Bronze Age, circa 1900 BC, when a large wave of Mycenaean tribes migrated into Greece from the Balkans. The new inhabitants were largely dominated by the Minoan civilization of Crete for some 500 years until approximately 1400 BC, when the Mycenaeans threw off Minoan control. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey date from the Mycenaean period. Although altered by time, they nonetheless provide at least a glimpse into Mycenaean warfare, politics, religion, and daily life.
Mycenaean civilization collapsed in 1100 BC, for reasons that are still under debate, but which might be linked to the influx of yet another new group of immigrants from the north, the Dorians. For approximately 300 years following the Mycenaean collapse, Greece entered a period known as the "Greek Dark Ages," from which little written record survives.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The so-called "Archaic Period" begins in the mid-seventh century BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Ages. During this period the Greeks begin once again keeping records; however, the Mycenaean written language had been lost in the Dark Ages, so the Greeks borrowed from the Phoenicians, modifying their letters to create the Greek alphabet.
The first recorded date in Greek history is 776 BC, the year of the first Olympic Games. This earliest Olympics apparently consisted of one event, a foot race of some 200 yards in length, and it was won by Coroebus of Elis, a cook. The Games were held every four years. Over the next decades the Greeks added other events, including a 400 yard race, a marathon, wrestling, the javelin and discus, and eventually boxing and chariot racing.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The Archaic Period is marked by a great Greek colonization movement, in which a large number of communities sent out groups of citizens to colonize the islands and coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean. Exactly why the Greek citizens left their homes to form colonies is open to speculation; some think the settlers were motivated by greed, believing that they could more easily make their fortunes elsewhere, while other historians believe that population pressure was at least partly responsible. Over the next several centuries Greek colonies were formed on the coast of North Africa, Sicily, Mainland Italy, Anatolia, Egypt and the Middle East. The colonies tended to be independent, but they generally maintained close ties to the colonizing polis.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The term "polis" is used to denote the ancient Greek city-state. Traditionally the term denotes the classic Athenian-style political unit - a large central city dominating much smaller nearby towns and villages, but the term also describes a group of allied smaller towns with no totally dominant central city (this is closer to the organization of Sparta).  Both forms began to appear in the eighth century BC. Some historians believe that the major cities grew up around religious temples, while others believe that the Greeks copied the organization from the Phoenicians, who had been building similar political organizations for years.
Each polis was a sovereign political organization, answerable only to its own citizens. Although the citizens of the city-states shared a common language, history and nationality (Greek, of course), that did not stop them from bickering among themselves constantly and going to war with one-another as the mood took them. The polis might band together to face a common enemy, but such alliances were quickly abandoned when the immediate crisis was over.
There were four dominant Greek city-states - Corinth, Thebes, Sparta and Athens. Of those four, Sparta and Athens were the most powerful. Eventually the battle for supremacy between the two would shake the Greek world to its foundations.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The Spartan polis was located in a relatively poor and forbidding area in central southern Greece. In the 8th Century BC Sparta went to war with nearby Messenia. Sparta was victorious, conquering Messenia and enslaving its people, who came to be known as the "Helots." The Helots bitterly resented their enslavement and attempted several revolutions. In order to keep their slaves in place Spartan society became highly militarized, with every Spartan male required to leave home and enter military service at an extremely young age. The Spartan soldiers were highly disciplined and virtually fearless, and were generally acclaimed as the best foot soldiers in Greece.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Athens was located in south-eastern Greece, in a wealthy and fertile region known as Attica. In stark contrast to Sparta, the Athenians were a mighty sea power. They celebrated arts and culture and learning rather than the austere military life of the Spartans. (However, lest one become overly-fond of Athens and overly-censorious of Sparta, it should be noted that the Athenians too had slaves and were not adverse to conquering rival cities for plunder.)
In the late 6th century BC Athens was ruled by the tyrant Peisistratos, followed by his sons. An Athenian aristocrat asked the Spartan king Cleomenes I to help overthrow the tyrants; after doing so the Spartan king appointed his own puppet ruler in their place. In response the Athenians kicked out the Spartan puppet and formed a new government in which all citizens (excluding women and slaves, of course) shared power equally, thus creating the world's first democracy. The Spartans attacked Athens, seeking to restore their puppet, but the Athenians defended their city with great tenacity, and the Spartans were forced to withdraw. This began a rivalry between the two powers that would last for centuries.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The period known as "Classical Greece" begins when the Athenians overthrow their last tyrant and continues until the death of Alexander the Great. The Classical period sees an explosion of art, architecture, literature, science and political thought, a glorious Renaissance of human culture and knowledge. Consider how many Greeks from this period that we are familiar with - Leonidas I, king of Sparta, Pericles, the leader of Athens, the historians Herodotus and Xenopohon, the philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the playwrights Euripides, Sophocles, and Aristophanes, Hippocrates the physician - these men lived 2500 years ago, and we still remember them. Is there any other period in history that can claim so many great men appearing at one time, in one tiny corner of the map?
While this was an extraordinary era, this period also contained a whole lot of really bloody, nasty warfare, and many of the great men of the time devoted much energy and effort to killing one-another. It is interesting to speculate whether this was a golden age in spite of the incessant warfare, or because of it.]=];
TITLE = [=[Greece]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[May the blessings of the gods be upon you, oh great King Alexander! You are the ruler of the mighty Greek nation. Your people lived for many years in isolated city-states - legendary cities such as Athens, Sparta, Thebes - where they gave the world many great things, such as democracy, philosophy, tragedy, art and architecture, the very foundations of Western Civilization. Although few in number and often hostile to each other, in the 5th century BC they were able to defeat their much larger neighbor, Persia, on land and sea.
Alexander, your people stand ready to march to war, to spread the great Greek culture to millions and to bring you everlasting glory. Are you ready to accept your destiny, King Alexander? Will you lead your people to triumph and greatness? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Indian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Indian Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Indian film industry, Bollywood, makes more films each year than the United States, France, Italy, and the People`s Republic of China.
The only country in the world that has a Bill of Rights for Cows is India.
The longest station name on the Indian Railways is Venkatanarasimharajuvariapeta.
Technically speaking, there is no such thing as an Indian 'curry' - the word, an anglicized derivative of the Tamil word kari (black pepper), was used by the British as a term for any dish including spices.
The board game chess was invented in India.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Muslims]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Enter the Europeans]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[The British Rule]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[Indian Independence Movement]=];
HEADING_14 = [=[Gandhi]=];
HEADING_15 = [=[Independence]=];
HEADING_16 = [=[Modern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pre-History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Early Vedic Period]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Caste]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Growth of Indian States]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Maurya Empire]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Religion in India]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Gupta Dynasty and Beyond]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world and the largest democracy. A land of contrasts, India contains great wealth and grinding poverty. It possesses high-tech cities and primitive villages. In it one can find beauty and squalor, hope and despair. It is one of the oldest civilizations on the planet, yet India is considered an "emerging" market. In short, India is one of the most fascinating civilizations on the planet.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[The Muslims began raiding the Indian coast in the seventh century AD. However, the first significant military incursion into northern India occurred in the late 12th century by Muslim Turks under Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, who conquered the Punjab and led many successful raids into northern and central India. Delhi was conquered in 1193, and the Delhi Sultanate was established. The Mamluk dynasty ruled the sultanate until 1290, when they were supplanted by the Khalji dynasty. The Khalji were in turn overthrown by the Tughlaq, and so forth. The fun continued until 1526, when Babur of Kabul defeated whoever happened to be in charge at that time and established the Mughal Dynasty, which would survive some three centuries.
While the Muslims would never quite manage to conquer all of India, they did rule a large majority of the country. Much of the population remained Hindu, despite several Muslim rulers' vigorous attempts to convert them to Islam. Over time the Mughal Empire gradually declined, coming under increasing attacks from the Afghans, Sikhs, and Hindus. It received its death blow at the hands of the British.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[The first European known to sail from Europe to India was Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese explorer who reached Calicut, India on May 20, 1498, after a voyage of some nine months. Upon leaving India, da Gama left behind several men to start a trading post, the first of many such European posts upon the long coast of India. The Portuguese quickly followed up da Gama's success with both trading and military vessels, setting up strategic bases in India and East Africa, seeking to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. The sturdy Portuguese ships were easily able to defeat any Arab and Indian vessels that might dispute their mastery. (It was the Indian weakness at sea which ultimately made them so vulnerable to European conquest.)
The Portuguese maintained their trading posts through the 16th century, until they were annexed by Spain in 1580. The Spanish concentrated their naval power to protect their vast interests in the New World, allowing the Dutch and English to challenge their dominance of India.
In the 1600s the Dutch began setting up their trading empire in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. They had no interest in conquest or in spreading their religion: they just wanted the spices. The majority of their trade was with the East Indies (Indonesia), although they did establish a few posts in southern India (for pepper and cardamom). The Dutch successfully dominated Indian trade for years, defeating other European countries' attempts to cut into their monopoly.
In the early 17th century the English sought to challenge Dutch dominance over the East Indies, hoping for a piece of the spice trade. They were decisively rebuffed by the Dutch navy. Looking for somewhat easier prey, they attacked the Portuguese forces in India. After defeating the Portuguese in 1612, they received a favorable trading treaty with the Mughals, who had resented the Portuguese dominance of the sea. The English traded peacefully with the Mughals for 70 years, until they unsuccessfully attacked the Mughals in 1686. Having learned a lesson, the English returned to peaceful relations with the Mughals for the next 50 years.
The French too sought to establish trading relations with India in the 16th century. They enjoyed success for some years, but events in Europe (read: wars) left them open to attack from other European powers. Their fortunes rose and fell in inverse proportion to those of the British and the Dutch.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[In 1757, the British East India Company's army fought the forces of the Nawab of Bengal, who was angry at the company's refusal to pay taxes. The Company's army was victorious, and the victors occupied Bengal, the first of many cities and provinces it would conquer in the name of "free trade." Over the next century the Company expanded its rule, taking advantage of the fractured Indian landscape of small, weak kingdoms and princely states. The British used bribery, threats and military means to expand their power, and by 1850 they controlled most of the sub-continent.
In 1857 the Indians rebelled against the British. This rebellion is variously called "The Indian Mutiny" or the "First War of Independence." While the rebellion enjoyed initial success the British Army sent in large numbers of troops to reinforce the Company's beleaguered forces; these professional soldiers quickly defeated the rebellious Indians. Following the rebellion the British Crown took over governance of India from the British East India Company. India would remain the "Jewel" of the British Crown for the next ninety years.
While the British Empire profited greatly from its domination of India, British rule was not entirely without benefit to the Indian people. The Brits educated the Indians, bringing them into contact with more advanced European science and technology. They constructed a solid network of telegraph lines, roads and railroads across the country. They also united the Indian people against them, giving everyone an equally-detested common enemy. It is this last effect that made an Indian independence movement possible.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[At the turn of the 20th century, the Indian Independence movement was fueled by growing frustration of Indian intellectuals who were barred from participating in their own government. The British constructed institutions of higher learning in India, giving the Indians the general understanding that they could take over control of the instruments of government once they had received the proper education and served the necessary apprenticeships. It soon became apparent that these were hollow promises, as the British kept the higher offices for themselves and froze out the most promising native candidates, no matter how brilliantly they did in university. This was a disastrous policy for the British, for it created a class of highly-educated, highly-dissatisfied Indians.
The first Indian National Congress convened in December, 1885 with 73 representatives, most of whom were lawyers, businessmen, and landowners. Among other things, it demanded parity between Indian and British candidates for governmental positions, a reduction in the amount of money that India paid to its British government, and an end to the Anglo-Burmese War (largely fought with Indian soldiers under British officers). By the turn of the twentieth century, the Indian National Congress was calling for self rule.
In the meantime, Muslim Indians feared that their interests would not be served by the majority Hindu Indian National Congress, and they created a parallel organization, the Muslim League, to fight for Muslim independence. The Muslim League and the Indian National Congress worked together only with great difficulty, and eventually differences between the two organizations would have catastrophic results for the country.
When World War I broke out, the Indian National Congress enthusiastically backed the British war effort. In fact, Gandhi himself toured Indian villages urging men to join the British army. The support was given on the assumption that Britain would repay Indian loyalty with political concessions, if not dominion status or even independence. In any event, the British did not move quickly enough to satisfy the Indian expectations, and Indian resentment grew.]=];
TEXT_14 = [=[In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi (1869 - 1948) assumed leadership of the Indian National Congress. He implemented a policy of "satyagraha," resistance through non-violent civil disobedience. He led mass rallies, marches and protests, including the famous "Salt March" in 1930, in which he and thousands of followers marched to the sea to make salt in protest of the British tax on that vital mineral. He was imprisoned on a number of occasions, including a two-year stint in 1942 during which his wife died and he contracted malaria. He was eventually released because the British feared he would die in prison.
Despite his enormous popularity in India and around the world, Gandhi was unable to bridge the growing differences between Indian Hindus and Muslims. Even as he was bringing independence to his country, religious strife was tearing it apart.
For more on Gandhi, see his Civilopedia entry.]=];
TEXT_15 = [=[Weakened by two World Wars and unable to find an answer to Gandhi's satyagraha tactics, in 1947 the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act. The Act recognized two countries: Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. Pakistan was divided into two sections, one on the east and the other on the west, separated by 1000 miles by the much larger India between them. Something like 15 million people were displaced during the disintegration of India: Hindus fled from the newly-created Pakistan into Hindu India, and Muslims fled India into Muslim Pakistan. Perhaps one million people died during the upheaval.
The new nations were openly hostile to each other, and over the years have fought a number of wars. Much of the tension has been related to border disputes. In 1971 India intervened in a civil war in East Pakistan, which gained its independence from West Pakistan and became the nation of Bangladesh.]=];
TEXT_16 = [=[The three nations that once comprised historical India have taken very different paths in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.  Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy, a highly-dense country much subject to floods, cyclones and famine, though life for its population has steadily improved since its independence in the '70s.
Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and the second most populous Muslim country. While its economy has done well in the past 25 years, it remains locationally-challenged. To the east is India, its old enemy, with whom it has an ongoing border dispute, and both sides have recently acquired nuclear weapons. To the west is Afghanistan, which is loaded with Taliban terrorists who use Pakistan as a refuge, and really angry American soldiers equipped with the finest and most powerful weapons the world has ever seen. If Pakistan can achieve some kind of stable peace with India and figure out a way to keep the Taliban and Americans from tearing it apart from within, it might have a glorious future.
India is the world's second most populous country and a thriving democracy. It is loud, boisterous, and has a growing and vibrant economy. It has a technological base second to none, and an education system that rivals that of the United States. It also has a large army and an arsenal of nuclear weapons, both mostly pointed at Pakistan. If it can figure out how to step down hostilities with Pakistan, it stands poised to be one of the great powers of the next century.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[India is a diamond-shaped country. It borders the Himalayan Mountains to the north, while to the south a relatively flat plane juts out into the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The plains are bisected by a regular series of west-to-east running rivers, many of which are prone to flooding in the Monsoon season.
India is some 1,270,000 square miles in area, roughly one-third the size of the United States of America. Its climate tends to be tropical/sub-tropical, with a more mountainous climate to the far north.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Archaeologists have discovered evidence of agricultural cultivation in India dating as far back as the 7th millennium BC, with the first signs of urban communities appearing around 2500 BC. The so-called Indus civilization flourished for eight centuries. Some experts believe that the Indus had an empire of some 500,000 square miles in size, with a (more or less) uniform language and currency and which supported an extensive trading network.
For reasons that remain unclear, the Indus civilization collapsed some time around 1800 BC. The major cities all but disappeared, as did all traces of central authority. Some scholars believe that this was the result of environmental degradation resulting in widespread starvation, making larger urban populations unsustainable, while others suspect that large migration into the area by foreign invaders are responsible for the collapse. Whatever the cause, this post urban period lasted for almost one thousand years.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The "Early Vedic Period" is dated from approximately 1500 to 800 BC. It is named after the "Vedas," which are the earliest surviving Indian written material, composed some time during this period. Four major Vedic texts have thus far been discovered - the Rigveda, the Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the Atharvaveda. These texts describe religious/mystical practices of the so-called "Aryan" people of India, a group which probably migrated from Europe into India some time around 2000 BC. The Hindu religion traces its origin back to this period.
At the beginning of the Vedic period many people had returned to a nomadic way of life, and the clan was the major political unit. Over time the population returned to a more stationary existence, and the clan chief evolved into a king with political and religious - as well as military - authority. As taxation evolved, the state grew in wealth and power.
This period also saw the widespread use of iron and the return to urban life, especially in the Ganges valley. Indian civilization was once again on the rise.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The Rigveda, the earliest of the Vedic texts, describes the mythological basis for the Indian "caste" system, which apparently developed during this period. Caste is hereditary: a person is born into his or her station, and no advancement is possible.
There appear to have been four major castes in Indian culture during this period:  the Brahmans, the priestly caste, the Kshatiriyas, the military and land-owning caste, the Vaishyas, the merchants and skilled workers, and the Sudras, the unskilled workers.
The caste system has proven remarkably persistent throughout Indian history. Vestiges can still be found in modern times, despite the Indian government's rigorous attempts to stamp it out.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[By around 500 BC more than a dozen major states could be found in India. Some of these states were monarchical, while others had a more oligarchic system of government. They fought with each other regularly, seeking to expand their influence and power.
In addition to their internal conflicts, the Indian states were under pressure from forces outside of India. In 326 BC Alexander the Great invaded northwest India, conquering the province of Punjab before turning back. In the early 2nd century BC Demetrius, the Greek king of Bactria, conquered a large portion of northwest India, and his heirs ruled the area for some time. In the meantime, the eastern portions of India were invaded by Central Asian nomadic tribes, driven out of China by the Han emperors. Over time the invaders were driven out or assimilated, leaving behind a powerful influence on Indian history and culture.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Chandragupta Maurya (340 - 290 BC) was the founder of the Maurya Empire. A great military and political leader, he unified much of the Indian subcontinent under his rule. The empire was further expanded by his son Ashoka the Great (304 - 232 BC). Ashoka continued his father's conquests for some years, but later in his life he embraced Buddhism and non-violence, constructing many Buddhist temples across India and doing much to further that religion in Southern Asia. The Maurya Empire went into decline after Ashoka's death, and in 185 BC the Brahmin general Sunga assassinated the Maurya king and seized power, establishing the Sunga dynasty.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Religion has always been a powerful force in India. Three major world religions were established in the sub-continent, and other external religions have found significant favor among the populous.
Hinduism is the predominant religion of India. The roots of Hinduism date back to the Vedic period, making it the oldest surviving religious tradition. Approximately one billion people practice Hinduism, 90% of whom reside in India. Hinduism is less a specific creed and mythology than a collection of religious traditions and tenets. A remarkably open belief system, Hinduism embraces monotheism, polytheism, pantheism and several other "isms" as well. Dharma, ethics, Samsara, the cycle of life, death and rebirth, Karma, cause and effect, and Yoga, the paths to enlightenment, are important concepts in the Hindu religion.
Buddhism is a set of beliefs based upon the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama (563 BC - 483 BC), the Buddha. Buddhism teaches its followers how to achieve nirvana and escape the endless cycle of suffering and rebirth through ethical conduct, meditation, exercise, and study. Buddhism spread slowly throughout India until it was embraced by Ashoka the Great, who constructed many Buddhist temples throughout India and actively exported the religion to other countries. Over time Buddhism was supplanted in India by Hinduism (and later Islam), until it was virtually extinct by the twelfth century AD. It has enjoyed a slight resurgence in India in modern times.
Jainism is a religion that teaches its practitioners how to achieve the highest state of consciousness through study and self-discipline; it is a non-violent religion. It originated in the 9th century BC and survives today with perhaps 4 million followers in India and 100,000 more worldwide.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The Gupta Dynasty ruled Northern and Central India from AD 320 to AD 540. Some scholars have called this period the "Golden Age" of India, a period in which Indian literature, art, architecture, and philosophy flourished. However, by the mid-fifth century much of the Gupta Empire had been overrun by Central Asian invaders known as the "Hunas." (It's unknown whether this group had any relation to the Huns who invaded Eastern Europe.) This period brought further Central Asian influence into India.
Following the collapse of the Guptas, India saw the rise and fall of a series of smaller kingdoms, none of whom rose to the size or power of the Guptas.]=];
TITLE = [=[India]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Greetings, President Gandhi, great-souled leader of India! You are the ruler of one of the oldest countries in the world, with history stretching back almost 10,000 years! A spiritual country, India is the birthplace of three of the world's great religions - Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. It is a passionate land of music and color, and it is a land of great wealth and grinding poverty. For centuries India was divided into kingdoms who fought constantly with each other and against outside invaders. In the 12th century AD India was conquered by Muslim Turks. In the early 17th century the English arrived, and through a combination of shrewd diplomacy and technological superiority they conquered your fragmented country. England remained in power for some two centuries until driven out by a rising wave of Indian nationalism, a peaceful rebellion unlike any before seen in history.
Gandhi, your people look to you to lead India to even greater heights of glory! Can you help your people realize their great potential, to once again become the world's center of arts, culture, and religion? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Iroquois Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Iroquois Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Watauga Association at Sycamore Shoals near Elizabethton drafted the first constitution ever written by white men in America in 1772. It was patterned after the constitution of the Iroquois League of Nations, a federal system of government developed 200 years earlier for five eastern Native American tribes.
Antonín Dvořák was familiar with the work "Hiawatha" in a Czech translation. In an article published in the New York Herald on December 15, 1893, he stated that the second movement of his Symphony No. 9, From the New World, was a "sketch or study for a later work, either a cantata or opera ... which will be based upon Longfellow's Hiawatha" and that the third movement scherzo was "suggested by the scene at the feast in Hiawatha where the Indians dance."]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The End]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[The Name]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Origin Story]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Iroquois Government]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Beaver Wars]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The French Response]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Enter the English]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The American Revolution]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[According to tradition the Iroquois Confederation came into being around AD 1570. The Confederation was a union of five (later six) Native American tribes. The Iroquois are an amazing people: with a population that probably never exceeded 20,000, lacking a written language and possessing no manufacturing base at all, for two centuries the Iroquois managed to hold their own against the French, English, Dutch, and later Colonial Americans.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[The Iroquois Confederacy basically ended with the end of the American Revolution. A group of Iroquois moved north into Canada, onto land given to them by Britain in gratitude for their help in the American Revolution. Others chose to stay in upstate New York, trying to maintain their tribal existence in the face of American colonial and cultural imperialism. Many still survive today despite some two centuries of terrible hardship, a testament to the amazing spirit of the Haudenosaunee people.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The Iroquois occupied a large section of upper New York State bordering Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The land is hilly and forested, and in the 17th century teemed with abundant game including deer and beaver. The Iroquois had access to many waterways, including Lake Ontario, the St. Lawrence, the Finger Lakes and dozens of rivers, which provided excellent fishing, as well as rapid movement by canoe.
Winters in Upstate New York can be long and bitterly cold - particularly when Arctic air is blowing southeast across the Great Lakes - and heavy snowfall is not uncommon. Summers are cool and pleasant.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Members of the Iroquois Nation call themselves "Haudenosaunee," which translates roughly as "People Building a Long House." The term "Iroquois" was used by non-Iroquois. Its original meaning is unclear, but it may be a bastardization of a Huron word meaning "snake." (The Hurons and the Iroquois did not much like each other.) Alternatively, it might be a corruption of a Basque (Spanish/French ethnic group) term meaning, "killer people." (The French didn't much like the Confederacy either.)
With apologies to the Haudenosaunee we will use the more common term, "Iroquois," because few non-natives would recognize Haudenosaunee - and because Haudenosaunee is too long to fit on the game screen. For similar reasons we have chosen to use the name "Hiawatha" for the Iroquois leader rather than "Ayonwentah" (see below).]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[According to legend, the Confederacy began when a Chief named Dekanawidah or "the Great Peacemaker" convinced a warrior named Ayonwentah to give up violence and cannibalism and advance "peace, civil authority, righteousness, and the great law." (Ayonwentah is believed to be the basis for the poet Longfellow's character "Hiawatha.") Together the two great men unified five tribes who formed the league: the Seneca, Onondaga, Mohawks, Cayuga, and Oneida. A sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined the Confederacy many years later, in 1722.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The Iroquois had a remarkably advanced government, particularly for people with no writing. The Confederacy was governed according to a constitution known as the Gayanashagowa, or "Great Law of Peace." Each tribe governed its own internal affairs; the Great Council dealt only with issues which faced the entire nation - treaties, border disputes, war and peace, and so forth.
The Great Council was comprised of 50 sachems (roughly, "chiefs"). Each tribe provided between 8 and 14 sachems (depending upon the tribe's population and status) to the Council. The sachems were elected by councils of clan mothers. The Tadadaho was the symbolic leader of the Grand Council but had no real political power; the Council worked on consensus and required majority agreement before any action could be taken.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Once united, the Iroquois rapidly became the most powerful native group in northeastern America. In 1609 the Confederacy went to war with the French and their Canadian Indian allies. The fight was over control of the fur trade, particularly the skin of the beaver.
In the early 17th century, Europe craved beaver pelts, which they made into hats. Having hunted the European beaver nearly to extinction, European traders turned to the New World, where there were still plenty of beavers left. When native Americans discovered that Europeans would give them metal tools and even guns for the pelts, competition for the lovable toothy rodent became quite fierce.
In 1610 the Iroquois made contact with Dutch traders at Fort Orange, New Netherland (present-day Albany, New York) who supplied them with large numbers of firearms in return for pelts. This increase in firepower allowed the Iroquois to beat back the French and their allies and expand their empire west to Lake Michigan and south to the Tennessee River. Access to guns also accelerated the extinction of the beaver in Iroquois territory, which in turn caused the Iroquois to attack north, seeking land where the beavers were still plentiful.
For several decades the bloody war persisted. By the middle of the 1600s the Iroquois had defeated the Huron, Erie, Neutral and Susquehannock tribes, assimilating thousands and driving the remainder out of their territory.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[By 1660 the Iroquois had secured their southern and western flanks and were launching regular raids against New France. The French Canadians were unable to stop the attacks and appealed to the motherland for support. France responded by sending a regiment of French troops, the first professional European soldiers seen in Canada. The French troops went on the offensive and invaded Iroquois territory several times, with mixed results.
In the meantime the English captured the Dutch colony of New Netherland, cutting the Iroquois off from their major European trading partner. Under mounting pressure from the reinforced French forces and unable to resupply themselves with weapons, the Iroquois made peace with the French. However they continued their westward and southern expansion, finding easier prey among the native tribes with little or no access to modern European weapons.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[After taking over the Dutch territories, the English made contact with the Iroquois. As always the English were happy to stick a thumb in the eye of the French, and they cheerfully resumed trading weapons to the Iroquois, urging them to use them against the northern foe. By the 1680s war had resumed between the French and Iroquois.
In 1687 the French launched another invasion of Iroquois territory, this time with a massive army of some 3000 soldiers and militia. The French employed "scorched earth" tactics, burning Iroquois villages and crops, and many Iroquois died of starvation in the subsequent winter. The Confederacy responded with a number of reprisal raids, killing colonists and burning French supplies as far east as Montreal.
In 1688 England went to war with France over some European issue that seemed extremely important at the time (the conflict variously named, "King William's War" and the "War of the English Succession"), and each side's colonies dutifully began to do their best to destroy each other. The Iroquois allied with the English colonies, the Canadian Indians with the French, and both combatants engaged in brutal raid and counter-raid, resulting in indiscriminate slaughter of those unable to run away very quickly (e.g., women, children, and the aged). Eventually everybody pretty much ran out of money and decided to call the whole thing off, and fighting ceased in Europe and the New World.
By the beginning of the 18th century, the Iroquois' attitudes toward the two European powers began to change. As English power on the continent grew, English settlers began to encroach on Iroquois territory. In the meantime, the French too were feeling pressure from England, and they sought allies against the southern menace. The Iroquois played one power against the other, buying time for their tribes to recover from decades of fighting.
In the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Iroquois sided with the British against the French. The British were victorious, pushing the French right out of North America. This greatly increased British power over the native populations, including the Iroquois, who were totally dependent upon the British for weapons.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The American Revolution began in the 1770s. At first the Grand Council remained neutral, but by 1777 they decided to join the war on the side of the British. Like the previous wars against the French, the Iroquois and Colonial forces engaged in bloody hit and run raids, burning villages and crops, killing the weak and unlucky on either side.
The American Revolution ended in 1783. The treaty between the United States and Great Britain ceded all Iroquois territory to the United States, ignoring the unfortunate fact that a sovereign nation happened to already be living on that land.]=];
TITLE = [=[Iroquois]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Iroquois]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Greetings, noble Hiawatha, leader of the mighty Iroquois nations! Long have your people lived near the great and holy Lake Ontario in the land that has come to be known as New York State in North America. In the mists of antiquity the five Peoples - Seneca, Onondaga, Mohawks, Cayuga, and Oneida - united into one nation, the Haudenosaunee, the Iroquois. With no written language, the wise men of your nation created the "Great Law of Peace", the model for many constitutions, including that of the United States. For many years your people battled great enemies, the Huron, and the French and English invaders. Though outnumbered, and facing weapons far advanced from the ones your warriors wielded, the Iroquois survived and prospered until they were finally overwhelmed by the mighty armies of the new United States.
Oh noble Hiawatha! Listen to the cries of your people! They call out to you to lead them in peace and in war! Rebuild the great longhouse and unite the tribes once again. Will you accept this challenge, great leader? Will you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Japanese Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Japanese Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[There are 5 million vending machines (jidohanbaiki) in Japan. That's one for every 25 people.
The oldest festival in the world is reputed to be the Aoi Matsuri, held every May 15th or 16th in Kyoto. It originated during the reign of Emperor Kinmei, sometime between 539 and 571 AD.
The longest suspension bridge in the world is the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge connecting Kobe with Awaji Island. Opened in 1998, the central span is 6,570 feet in length - about 1.5 times the size of the Golden Gate Bridge, and 4 times the size of the Brooklyn Bridge.
The oldest novel in the world was written in Japan over a thousand years ago. The Tale of Genji was written in the 11th Century by Murasaki Shikibu, a member of the Imperial Court. Her lengthy (over 500,000 words) novel concerns the romantic and sexual exploits and intrigues of the Imperial Court centered on the main character of Genji.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Warring States Period]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Oda Nobunaga and The Unification of Japan]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[The Opening of Japan and the Meiji Restoration]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[The Sino-Japanese War]=];
HEADING_14 = [=[The Russo-Japanese War]=];
HEADING_15 = [=[Imperial Japan]=];
HEADING_16 = [=[The Slide into World War II]=];
HEADING_17 = [=[World War II]=];
HEADING_18 = [=[Post-War]=];
HEADING_19 = [=[Japan Today]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pre-History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Early Written History]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Tumulus (Tomb) Period, c.AD 250 - 550]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Clan System]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[After Yamato: Confucianism, Buddhism and the Law]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[The Rise of the Samurai]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Collapse of Central Authority]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The islands of Japan are born of the unimaginable violence of plate tectonics, arising as the Pacific Plate is ground beneath the Eurasian Plate. The result is a mountainous land of great beauty and peril, where the people live and thrive in a narrow corridor between volcano and sea.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[The years 1338-1573 are known as the "Warring States period." This period saw near-incessant warfare, as the shogunate and the imperial family were both nearly powerless, and battles for primacy among the daimyos raged across the countryside. Many castles were constructed during these years, and Japanese warriors grew quite adept at siege warfare, especially after European traders taught them how to manufacture muskets.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[In 1549 the father of a young nobleman named Oda Nobunaga died, leaving his son some land, some money, and a group of Samurai retainers. Within eleven years he had defeated all opposition and taken control of Owari province. A brilliant visionary and military leader, Oda quickly adopted the new musket firearms, using them with deadly efficiency against those who stood against him. In 1562 he allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu, a neighboring feudal lord who would turn out to be one of the great leaders of all time.
In the 1560s Nobunaga marched on and captured Kyoto, the historical center of power of Japan. In 1573 he deposed the Shogun, consolidating his actual and ceremonial power. By the time of his death by assassination in 1582 Oda had unified nearly half of Japan. See Oda's Civilopedia entry for more details on this remarkable leader's life.
Oda was succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the son of a peasant who rose to prominence as a warrior and later commander in Oda's service. By 1590 Hideyoshi had unified all of Japan. As part of his policy to strengthen the central government, he disarmed the peasantry and instituted tax reform. He also instituted a feudal system, forcing farmers to stay in their villages and artisans and merchants to remain in the cities. Hideyoshi died in 1598, and Tokugawa Ieyasu took his place. In 1603 he assumed the title of shogun.
Having happily utilized western weapons and personnel to achieve the unification of Japan, Tokugawa quickly came to see them as potential threats to his rule. He (and his heirs) all but obliterated Christianity in Japan, ousted virtually all westerners from the islands, and forbid the use of muskets to any but his warriors. For the next several centuries Japan remained stubbornly isolated from the west, a state that probably saved it from the humiliating European occupation and colonization suffered by so many of its Asian neighbors.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[In the 19th century the Netherlands were the only European power trading with Japan, and their contact was quite limited. By mid-century several attempts had been made by various European powers to establish diplomatic relations with Japan, but with no success. Seeking ports to fuel its merchant and fishing fleet, the United States decided to press the issue, sending a modern fleet under the command of Commodore Matthew C. Perry into Uraga Bay in 1853. The shock of foreign military power displayed right at Japan's hitherto inviolate shores destroyed the ancient Tokugawa shogunate, and power at long last reverted back to the Emperor.
The young Meiji emperor, who succeeded to the throne in 1867, began a policy of radical reform in Japan, seeking to make it militarily and economically equal to the western powers whose modern warships ruled the seas around it. The so-called "Meiji Restoration" was an extraordinary effort in which in a period of less than a century Japan abolished feudalism, almost entirely disbanded the Samurai class, and returned ownership of land to the farmers who worked it. The government initiated a program of industrialization, which proved remarkably successful in a very short period of time. In the late 19th century Japan adopted a constitution roughly based upon European models.
By the early twentieth century, Japan had emerged as a major power - the great power in the Pacific, save for the United States - though other countries were slow to recognize it, much to their misfortune.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[In 1894, China went to war with Japan over who would control Korea. Japan won easily, gaining nominal independence for Korea from China, plus Formosa, the Liaotung Peninsula, the Pescadores Islands, and several other pieces of territory for itself. Japan also extorted unfair trade agreements from China. The western powers insisted that Japan return the Liaotung Peninsula to China, who then leased it and its important naval base to Russia. This infuriated Japan.]=];
TEXT_14 = [=[In the Boxer Rebellion (1900), Chinese citizens rose up against all of the foreigners busily selling them opium and robbing their country blind. The western powers and Japan responded by sending in troops who slaughtered the Chinese citizens and occupied yet more Chinese terrain. Russia occupied Manchuria, which Japan saw as a threat to its Korean and Chinese possessions. In 1904 the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet without warning (a strategy which they would reemploy later against other inattentive westerners with great effect). The Japanese were spectacularly successful against the Russians, proving to an astonished world that they could take on a major western power and lick it.
In the peace treaty with Russia, Japan received primacy in Korea, plus it acquired Russia's possessions in China. President Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize for brokering the treaty. (There were not many Chinese or Koreans on the Nobel committee at that time.)]=];
TEXT_15 = [=[Bolstered by its success against China and the west, Japan seized the opportunity to increase its power in East Asia. It tightened its grip on Korea and its portion of China, and in World War I it seized Germany's possessions in Asia and the Pacific. In the post-war period a series of military treaties between European powers, the United States and Japan sought to limit Japanese expansion while assuring Japan of its independence.
In the 1930s the militarists came to power in Japan, in part as a response to the hardships the country faced during the Great Depression. Western and Chinese tariffs (and anti-Japanese racism) limited Japan's ability to earn money through exports, money it needed to purchase food for its growing population. The militarists argued that the only way to open foreign markets was through force. That, plus fear of communists and growing anger with the government caused the Japanese military to seek to expand its power structure. In the late 1920s the military increased operations in Manchuria without government approval, and the government was too weak to stop them.
In May of 1932 naval officers murdered the prime minister, and in 1936 several important politicians were assassinated as rebellious military units took over central Tokyo. Though the rebellion was quickly put down, it was clear that the government survived only at the military's pleasure. The new young Emperor Hirohito was believed to be a progressive, but he remained silent over fears that the throne itself would be imperiled if he spoke out. It was clear that the Japanese military was in charge of the country, in fact if not in name.]=];
TEXT_16 = [=[By the 1930s Japan's relations with the USSR, England and the United States were bad, and getting worse. The USSR resented its defeat by Japan thirty years before, and it also hoped that the Japanese government would be overthrown and the country would become a workers' paradise just like Russia. England and the US were opposed to Japan's brutal policies in China and Korea, and feared that Japan's growing naval might would threaten their own considerable interests in Asia and across the Pacific. Attempting to counter the English/American pressure, in 1936 Japan signed a mutual defense pact with Germany and Italy, and another in 1940. Facing a growing German threat on the west, the USSR sought to shore up its eastern borders by signing a non-aggression pact with Japan in 1940.
After the Nazis attacked Russia in 1941, Japan occupied northern Indochina, seeking to block British supply routes into China, where it supported the Nationalist Chinese forces against Japan. In response the United States froze Japanese assets and, worst of all, implemented an oil embargo against Japan. Japan had two choices: agree to US terms and retreat from Indochina and possibly China itself, or seize the rich oil fields of the Dutch East Indies. Negotiations between the US and Japan went nowhere, and the Japanese government decided upon war.]=];
TEXT_17 = [=[World War II started out remarkably, shockingly well for Japan, with hugely successful surprise attacks on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and in the Philippines. The Japanese Navy nearly drove the battered US forces right out of the Pacific Ocean, but they were never quite able to deliver the final killing blow. Over the next few years the United States industry built ships, planes, guns, and submarines, more than replacing their early losses. The US Navy and Army learned quickly and soon began the grindingly, heartbreakingly difficult task of driving the tenacious Japanese back across the Pacific.
In August of 1945 the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan, largely destroying the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and Japanese surrender followed quickly.]=];
TEXT_18 = [=[After the war Japan lost all of its overseas possessions. In addition, it was subject to United States occupation, and the USSR occupied some northern islands (the ownership of which still remains under dispute).
American occupation was relatively benign, as these things are judged. The Americans imposed a democratic constitution on Japan and barred Japan from possessing a military. The US also helped (forced) Japan to dismantle the remnants of its feudal system and institute a vast program of land reform. It also helped Japan to rapidly rebuild its infrastructure and monetary system. The US hoped that Japan would become a vital, thriving democracy and capitalist nation, a counter-balance to the growing Communist power in Asia. In this it has succeeded far beyond its wildest dreams.]=];
TEXT_19 = [=[Benefitting from the terms imposed upon it by the victors of World War II, Japan has used the money other nations have had to spend on militaries on more beneficial and profitable endeavors. Japan today is indeed a thriving democracy and an economic powerhouse. Although it has suffered from government/business cronyism which led to a collapse of the Japanese banking system in the '90s, overall Japan has enjoyed a meteoric rise in economic power since the war. Its people are highly educated and motivated and quite technologically advanced.
As the United States' position in the Pacific has weakened and other powers have grown, Japan has cautiously begun to rebuild its military. It still relies on the US for the bulk of its defenses, but for how long it can continue to do so remains unknown.
Assuming that Japan can maintain cordial relations with its neighbors, Russia, China and South Korea - and assuming that North Korea doesn't implode - Japan's future is bright.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Japan is a small country, with a total landmass approximately equal to the size of the American state of Montana. Mountain ranges cover 80% of the country. Japan is made up of four main islands, Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, plus dozens of smaller islands. The land is young in geologic terms, meaning the mountains are high and rugged and the rivers are narrow and torrential. There are many volcanoes in Japan, some quite active. Earthquakes are not uncommon (nor are attacks by giant radioactive monsters).
Japan possesses a monsoonal climate - its climate is governed by wet and dry seasonal winds. In the winter the western side of the country faces cold, wet air from Siberia and the Sea of Japan, resulting in steady rain or snow. In the summer the eastern portion of the country gets steady wet air from the Pacific.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[It is generally believed that settlers moved into Japan some 20,000 years ago (give or take 10,000 years) during the Paleolithic Period, the stage of human development characterized by the use of primitive stone tools. The migrants probably crossed the Sea of Japan via several land-bridges which for a time connected the islands with Korea and Asia.
While little is known about the pre-historic Japanese, it is clear that at some early point they gained enough sea-craft to travel safely and easily between islands, as Japanese culture and language is remarkably homogeneous throughout the chain. (This would not be the case if the island populations were isolated from each other for an extended period of time.)
The "Pre-Ceramic" culture was followed by the Jomon, which occurred from 7500 - 250 BC. (The term "Jomon" refers to a style of pottery in which cords are pressed into the clay to make artistic patterns.) In addition to the invention of pottery, this period saw the important progression from chipped to polished tools. The Jomon people were largely hunter-gatherers and fishermen.
The Jomon culture was followed by the Yayoi, which ran from roughly 250 BC - AD 250. This culture originated in Kyushu and featured advances in pottery, basic agriculture, plus utilization of iron and bronze implements. The Jomon also adopted ceremonial burial practices, irrigation, and textile weaving. Some of their technological and cultural advances were likely self-discovered, while others were probably gained from contact with China and Korea. With these advantages, the Yayoi culture quickly spread across Japan, overwhelming the more primitive Jomon culture.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The earliest surviving written accounts of Japan are found in China, dating from the Han period of that culture. It stated that in approximately AD 50 the "state of Nu in Wo" sent emissaries to the Later Han court. "Nu" was one of more than 100 states that made up "Wo" (Japan). Chinese court later states that some time after AD 250 a "Queen Himiko" ruled over a confederation of more than 30 states, with a capital at Yamatai. No one is certain where Yamatai was located, and no written Japanese records survive from that period.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Because of the scarcity of Japanese records, there is a lot of controversy on exactly when and how Japan unified. It is known that some time during the 4th century Yamatai disappeared and the Yamato kingdom arose. By the mid-4th century Japan had sent a large army on a mission of conquest to the Korean peninsula; to do so would require a great deal of central control fairly early in that century.
During the Yamatos' reign, farmers began using iron tools for cultivation, and the land saw more advanced creation and flooding of the fields used to grow rice, a tasty and highly-nutritious grain that would quickly become the cornerstone of Japanese cuisine. These advances meant that fewer farmers could grow greater amounts of food, allowing the Yamatos to dedicate surplus manpower to conquest and to the construction of large tombs for themselves. At this time the Japanese imported a number of technological advances from their neighbors, the most important of which may be writing from China; along with Chinese script came Confucianism.
The 5th century saw the Yamatos change to a more militant posture. The reasons for this are under debate. Some believe it was the result of an invasion and conquest of the kingdom by external warriors, while other historians believe that the Yamatos simply began more aggressively utilizing their advanced military and agriculture technology without any particular foreign influence. Whatever the cause, the Yamatos made use of their military to attack southern Korea, evidently in order to seize control of iron resources found in the area. The need for access to resources unavailable on the home islands would be a primary driver of Japanese foreign policy in the coming centuries.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[This period also saw the genesis of the "uji-kabane" system in Japan. The term "uji" can be translated as "clan," while kabane refers to a hereditary title of nobility. Under this system people living in an agricultural community became members of a single clan, each member of which had a specific place within the communal hierarchy. It was believed that a bountiful harvest could be assured by paying proper respect to one's ancestors and clan gods, and thus ancestor-worship became an important component of the uji-kabane system.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The 6th century saw the decline of Yamato status and influence as the military suffered reverses at home and abroad. As the Yamatos lost power, local clan leaders gained it. The loss of central authority naturally resulted in greater internal conflict, as warlords sought to fill the growing power vacuum.
The 6th century also saw the introduction of Buddhism in Japan, probably from Korea. Prince Shotoku was a proponent of Buddhism. Ruling at the turn of the century, he took the principles of peace and salvation as the ideal for his court. Interestingly, Chinese Confucianism was also gaining ground among the Japanese nobility; Shotoku apparently looked to Confucianism for guidance as well. Shotoku was in power from 592 - 628 BC; the Yamato clan saw a temporary revival of its power and influence during his reign.
The Japanese court fell into chaos following Shotoku's death. The powerful Shoga family seized power and killed Shotoku's heirs. They in turn were overthrown in 645 by Prince Nakano Oe and Nakatomi Kamatari, who killed all of the Shoga and anyone else who opposed the imperial family. After destroying their foes they instituted political reforms which increased the strength of the central government and weakened the more powerful clans.
At about the same time that the Japanese codified their administrative laws, they instituted criminal and civil laws as well. In doing so they borrowed heavily from the T'ang Chinese codes, altering them as necessary to fit Japan's specific needs. Under the Japanese system the people were divided into free men and slaves. Less than 10% of the entire population of Japan were slaves; the majority of people were freemen engaged in farming.
The political system survived reasonably intact for several centuries, but by the 10th century flaws in the structure began to undermine the government. Several great clans gained control of important government positions, using their power to funnel huge amounts of wealth into their coffers. Taxes were increasingly high, and power and wealth continued to accrue to the central aristocracy, at the expense of the provincial clans and the farmers everywhere. Partly as a result of growing dissatisfaction with central government, a new class of warrior aristocrats known as "Samurai" began to emerge.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[The tenth and eleventh centuries saw the rise of the Samurai as a major new power in Japan. Outside of court Samurai warlords conquered entire provinces; inside the court they became bodyguards and generals for the aristocracy. Towards the end of the 11th century the Samurai general Taira Kiyomori gained so much power and influence that he became the prime minister and virtually ran the Imperial court. In fact, his son Antoku ascended to the Imperial throne in 1180. Taira rule did not last long, however; in 1185 they were destroyed by the Minamoto clan in a sea battle which culminated a five-year bloody struggle for primacy known as the "Gempei War."
After the victory, Minamoto leader Joritomo established a military government, or "shogunate," in which the shogun (short for seii taishogun, or "barbarian-quelling generalissimo") would rule Japan in the name of the Emperor. This form of government proved remarkably persistent, surviving almost 700 years before it was abolished in 1868.
Over the next several centuries power passed to the Hojo family, who in the early 12th century beat back an attempt by Emperor Go-Toba to regain actual power. At the end of the 12th century they defeated several Mongol attempts to invade Japan, helped by two fortuitous typhoons which destroyed large numbers of attackers at crucial points in the battles. The Japanese called these storms kamikaze, or "divine winds" sent by Heaven to protect them from the barbarians.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The Hojo clan remained in power until 1333, when Emperor Go-Daigo launched a coup to return actual power to the imperial family. He was assisted in the battle by a large group of aristocrats, plus several Samurai clans and some militant Buddhist monks. A number of important allies of Go-Daigo were unhappy with their cut of the spoils, however, and in 1336 they revolted, driving the emperor north into the Yoshino Mountains. For the next 60 years there were two imperial courts, the Northern and Southern, with control of Japan split between them. The Southern emperor remained a figurehead, with real power in the hands of the Southern shogunate. In 1391 the imperial courts were reunited, with power held by the great shogun Ashikaga Takauji.
The 14th century saw growth in the power of the farming families and communities, and a concomitant increase in resistance to the warlords. Large uprisings broke out in 1428, 1429 and 1441, and almost yearly afterwards. In 1467 civil war broke out over who should succeed the shogun Ashikaga; this war would drag on for some 10 years and see the destruction of many large temples and the displacement of great numbers of civilians. Although the war ended in 1477, central authority was badly eroded, and the era saw numerous local rebellions and the rise of a new class of local warlords known as "daimyo."]=];
TITLE = [=[Japan]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Blessings upon you noble Oda Nobunaga, ruler of the land where the sun rises - may you long walk among its flowering blossoms. You are the ruler of Japan, the land of the Rising Sun. The Japanese are an island people, proud and pious with a rich culture of arts and letters. Their civilization stretches back thousands of years, years of bloody warfare, expansion and isolation, great wealth and great poverty. In addition to their prowess on the field of battle, your people are also immensely industrious, and their technological innovation and mighty factories are the envy of lesser people everywhere.
Legendary daimyo, will you grab the reins of destiny?  Will you bring your family and people honor and glory? Will you once again pick up sword and shield and march to triumph?  Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Ottoman Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Ottoman Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Temple of Artemis (Diana), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was outside Ephesus.  It was destroyed by an arsonist who merely wanted to be remembered in history as doing something "grand."
Istanbul is the only city in the world built on two continents.
Tradition in Turkey says that a stranger at one's doorstep is considered "God's guest" for at least three days.
The first church dedicated to Virgin Mary is in Ephesus.
St. Nicholas, the inspiration for the modern Santa Claus, was born in Demre, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Turkey is one of the few countries in the world that is agriculturally self-sufficient.
It was the Turks who introduced coffee to Europe.  (God bless them.)]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Decline of the Empire]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[The End]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[Eulogy for a Forgotten Empire]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[The Beginning]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Advance into Europe]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Tamerlane on the Flank]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Ottoman Recovery and Expansion]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Janissaries]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Constantinople]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Suleiman]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Ottoman Empire was born in Anatolia (in modern Turkey) at the start of the 13th century. It expanded into three continents and thrived for some six centuries. Many Americans know very little about the Ottoman Empire (it occupies the blind spot Americans have for pretty much everything between Greece and China). This is a great pity, for the Ottoman Empire was vast, powerful, and extremely interesting.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Over the next few centuries the Ottoman Empire endured a slow, steady decline. Although it remained a powerful and vital state for many years, it never again reached the height of power it had attained under Suleiman. By the mid to late 16th century the Janissaries had gained almost total ascension in Istanbul (the new name for Constantinople), and with greater power came greater corruption. The position of grand vizier became more powerful as the sultans grew more decadent. Eventually the viziers overstepped their bounds and were overthrown, with power first going to the harem (the "Sultanate of the Women") from 1570 - 1578, and then to the military from 1578 - 1625.
The basic problem facing whoever was in charge was that the empire was simply too large to rule effectively, and over time more and more of it began to slip into something approaching anarchy. Because of increasing corruption as well as external trade pressure the economy of the Empire all but collapsed, with rampant inflation occurring during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Despite its internal weakness the Empire remained a potent international power, greatly feared by Europe. Although it suffered the occasional defeat, it was still far more powerful than any external enemy. It continued to expand over the years, gaining Tunis, Fez and Crete in the Mediterranean, as well as Azerbaijan and a portion of the Caucasus.
However, at the end of the 17th century the Ottomans pushed their luck just a bit too far. In 1683 Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasa once again besieged Vienna. The defenders, led by Polish King Jan Sobieski, held out easily against the Ottoman assault.
Emboldened by the weakness the Ottomans displayed, Sobieski was able to assemble a massive coalition of European forces against the common enemy. The Hapsburgs sought their lost territory in the Balkans, the Venetians wanted their lost Adriatic bases back, while the new power of Russia sought (as always) a warm-water port in the Mediterranean.
This was an uneasy alliance at best, and the allies would periodically break off the assault to fight each other. In addition, the Ottomans were supported by France (still seeking to weaken the Habsburgs) as well as Britain and the Netherlands, who feared that whoever took over the Ottoman Empire would dominate Europe and threaten their growing naval ascendency.
Still, the allies were victorious, and they gobbled up much of the Ottomans' European possessions over the next century. By 1792 the Ottomans had been driven back to the Danube, losing possessions they had held for nearly two centuries. Soon thereafter they lost the northern coast of the Black Sea, the Caucasus, southern Ukraine and the Crimea.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[In the mid-19th century, several sultans began earnest efforts to modernize the Ottoman state, attempting to enact huge reforms to the army, government, and education system. These reforms occurred slowly, not only because of resistance from those whose power was threatened by the new ideas, but also because the state was nearly bankrupt and under increasing pressure from the external forces who sensed its weakness and who wanted to be in on the kill. Still, by the 20th century thousands of primary schools were in existence, as were a growing number of secondary schools and universities. Advanced military colleges were created on the European model. The government even experimented with a parliamentary system, but this was abandoned after less than a year.
In 1909, a group of reformers known as the "Young Turks" led a revolt to restore the parliament that had been abolished 30 years earlier; this in turn led to a wider mutiny which overthrew the existing government. A new sultan was put in place; he was compelled to reinstate parliament, but real power resided in the military that had put him in power.
In 1914 the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers (Germany, Austria and Bulgaria). During the war they held off a spirited but ill-planned assault on the Dardanelles by forces of the British Empire, stopping the British fleet from linking up with Russia. They fought against the Allies in Europe, Egypt, the Balkans, and the Middle East. They also perpetrated a ghastly massacre against Armenian nationals living in Asia Minor, killing perhaps half a million men, women and children.
By late 1918 it was clear that the Central Powers were going to be defeated; the Ottomans agreed to an Armistice on October 30. The victorious Allies dismantled what was left of the Empire, with Britain, France and Italy dividing up North Africa, Egypt and the Middle East as well as portions of Asia Minor. Other sections that no European power especially wanted were carved off and made into new independent countries. The Ottomans were left with just Istanbul and a portion of Thrace.
Much of the Allies' plans came to naught, however, because by 1923 a brilliant Ottoman general named Mustafa Kemal, later called "Ataturk" or "Father of Turks", had reunited much of Asia Minor in a new country called "Turkey." By doing so he finally brought to an end the political entity known as the Ottoman Empire, 600 years after it was born.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[To summarize: the Ottoman Empire lasted six centuries. It took on all of Europe and beat it. It conquered Persia, Egypt, and North Africa, not to mention a goodly chunk of the Balkans. It destroyed the Byzantine Empire. The Ottoman Empire was cool.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[At its peak, the Empire stretched from Hungary in the north to Basra in the east to the shores of the Indian Ocean in the south to Morocco in the west. With enormous holdings of land on three continents, it's impossible to generalize about the Ottoman terrain or weather. They ruled over mountains, hills, plains, swamps and desserts. Temperatures in Egypt in the summer can rise to as high as 110 degrees Fahrenheit, and in Hungary they can fall to well below freezing during the winter.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The Ottoman Empire is named for Osman I (1259-1326). Osman was a prince of Bithynia, a small province in Anatolia (Turkey), strategically located bordering the Black Sea, the Bosporus, and the Sea of Marmara. Bithynia had until recently been a part of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, a Muslim empire that had ruled much of Anatolia for over two centuries. As the Sultanate declined in power (following crippling invasions by Mongols), the neighboring power of Byzantium sought to expand into Anatolia. It was unable to fully pacify the region, and Osman I took advantage of Byzantine weakness to push west toward Byzantium.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[In the 14th century, Byzantium power was fading rapidly. The eastern heir to the Roman Empire, Byzantium once possessed enormous holdings in Italy, Eastern Europe, Anatolia, the Middle East and North Africa, but by 1300 its domain was reduced to portions of Greece, the Balkans, and western Anatolia. Over the next century the Ottoman Empire would steadily grind away at the fading empire, first in Anatolia, then in the Balkans. When the Ottomans captured the Bulgarian capital of Nicopolis, located on the strategic Danube river, the Bulgarian king appealed to Christian Europe for assistance against the growing Muslim menace. In 1396 an army of Knights from Hungary, Burgundy, Venice, the Knights Hospitaller and Bulgaria set forth to defeat the Ottomans.
The Battle of Nicopolis is often called the "Crusade of Nicopolis." The numbers of combatants involved is unknown, with estimates ranging from around 10,000 knights, footmen and archers on either side to 200,000 on either side. (The latter numbers are generally agreed by modern historians to be absurdly high.) According to early historians, one side in the battle was outnumbered by at least two to one, though they tend to disagree vehemently on which side that was. In any event, the invading Crusaders marched south from Hungary and laid siege to Nicopolis.
From all accounts the Crusaders suffered from divided command and gross overconfidence, a not uncommon problem among mixed armies of the day. The siege was sloppy and the Crusaders posted no sentries. However, one Burgundian leader, the experienced veteran Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy, disobeyed orders and sent out a reconnaissance in force that encountered the approaching Ottomans, saving the Crusaders from an extremely rude surprise.
On the morning of the battle, the Ottoman forces, under the command of Sultan Bayezid I, were arrayed on a hillside overlooking the city of Nicopolis. The Crusaders were lined up opposite the Muslims in front of Nicopolis, their backs to the Danube.
One of the Crusader leaders noted that the first line of Ottoman troops were militia, untrained and ill-equipped, designed to blunt the force of an attacker before it met the main Ottoman infantry. He recommended that the infantry lead the assault against these troops, and that the Crusader knights be stationed on the flanks, supporting the infantry and engaging the dangerous Ottoman sipahis (cavalry). The French knight Philippe d'Eu denounced this plan, claiming that it was dishonorable and demanded that the knights have the honor of leading the charge against the enemy. This plan was adapted.
The Ottomans had placed a wall of sharpened stakes in their front lines, designed to kill advancing horses and stop a determined cavalry charge. Although the Crusader knights crushed the Ottoman militia, many were unhorsed in the charge, and the attack became quite disorganized. The Ottoman infantry retreated and the Christian knights followed triumphantly without reforming, believing they had crushed the cowardly enemy.
However, the Ottomans had kept a force of sipahis in reserve, and Bayezid committed them at this point - a large force of fresh cavalry facing the exhausted and unhorsed knights. At the same time other Ottoman troops began to flank the exposed Crusader positions. Badly outgeneraled at every point, the Crusader force collapsed and surrendered. Many of the European noblemen were ransomed for a good deal of treasure, while a lot of the common soldiers were massacred in retaliation for similar European behavior earlier in the campaign.
The capture of Nicopolis secured the Ottoman holdings in the Balkans for some time. Now all that remained of the once mighty Byzantine Empire was the city of Constantinople.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In 1399 the Mughal leader Tamerlane (Timur) declared war on the Ottoman Empire, disrupting Bayezid I's European campaign. Tamerlane was a descendant of Mongol conquerors who led his troops triumphantly through Persia, India, central Asia and Anatolia. In 1402 Bayezid's troops met Tamerlane's army at the battle of Ankara.
Once again it's almost impossible to determine the number of forces involved in the battle, with numbers ranging from 1,000,000 on each side to as few as 140,000 for Tamerlane and 80,000 for Bayezid. Whatever the number, it is generally agreed that Tamerlane's army significantly outnumbered Bayezid's.
The battle opened with a large attack by the Ottomans which was broken up by accurate arrow-fire from the enemy horse archers which inflicted significant damage to the attackers. As the battle progressed a significant portion of Bayezid's troops deserted and joined Tamerlane's army. Now badly outnumbered and exhausted, Bayezid's army was defeated and he was captured shortly thereafter, dying in captivity. Having secured his flank against the Ottomans, Tamerlane left Anatolia and returned to India to continue his own empire's expansion.
After Bayezid's death civil war broke out in the Empire as his four sons fought over the crown. The so-called "Ottoman Interregnum" lasted for some 11 years until 1413, when Mehmed Celebi, the last surviving brother, assumed the title of sultan.
Sultan Mehmed I and his son Murad II spent a number of years restoring central power within the Empire, repairing the damage done during the Interregnum.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Having secured his control of the Ottoman Empire, in 1423 Murad II besieged Constantinople, leaving only after he had extorted an exorbitant sum from the Byzantines. Murad then went to war with Venice, an extended affair that ended with an Ottoman victory but on terms that kept Venice as a major mercantile power in the Eastern Mediterranean. He also began a long-running war with Hungary over control of Walachia.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[As the Ottoman Empire grew, so too did the power of the Turkish nobility, who Murad II saw as an increasing threat to his rule. To counter the Turks, Murad created the Janissaries, a military force of Christian slaves. He gave the Janissaries lands from his latest conquests, the income and status from which made them an effective balance to the old-moneyed Turks in the Empire. Murad continued to attempt to expand further into Europe until 1444, when he made peace with all of his enemies and retired, passing the throne to his son Mehmed II.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Sultan Mehmed II reigned for some thirty years, 1451-1481. One of his early acts was to once again lay siege to Constantinople. His vizier and other Turkish nobles bitterly opposed the attack, which they rightly saw as a prelude to still further Ottoman expansion and diminution of their power within the Empire.
The siege lasted less than two months. Mehmed had a force of 100,000 at his command, and Constantinople was defended by perhaps 7,000 soldiers. The defenders fought stubbornly, beating off waves of Ottoman assaults accompanied by heavy cannon fire. Eventually the Ottomans broke in and flooded the city, overwhelming the defenders through sheer weight of numbers.
Although the Ottomans enthusiastically sacked the city, Mehmed treated its citizens with mercy, sparing their lives and leaving them their houses and possessions (or at least those that hadn't already been looted). He treated the non-Muslims with respect, and many Jews emigrated to the Ottoman Empire, seeking protection from European persecution.
Mehmed II made Constantinople the capital of his Empire, giving him a strategic foothold at the edge of Europe.
Over the next century the Ottoman Empire continued to expand into Europe, as well as into the Middle East and Africa. In addition to its superb land forces, the Empire had developed a powerful navy. The Ottoman navy dominated the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, and it had a significant force in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, where it competed with growing European naval powers such as Portugal.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) continued the Ottoman expansion into Europe, primarily targeting Hungary. His chief European rivals were the Habsburg family, who at the time ruled Hungary (along with much of the rest of Europe); however, he had a powerful ally in the King of France who feared the Habsburgs' designs on his kingdom and was happy to aid any power that could weaken them. In 1521 Suleiman took Belgrade, and by 1526 the Ottomans had conquered perhaps half of Hungary. The war continued for several years, and by 1529 Suleiman had advanced to Vienna, the most powerful European city in the area. Although unable to capture the city and ultimately forced to abandon the siege, Suleiman put the Europeans on the defensive and secured Hungary for more than 10 years.
At sea, Suleiman responded to European pressure by creating a powerful navy under the command of Barbarossa, an ex-pirate turned admiral of the Ottoman navy. Barbarossa captured Algiers in 1529, and Suleiman assigned the entire province to Barbarossa to support his fleet. In the 1530s Barbarossa fought several naval battles against a variety of European forces, emerging victorious from all of them.
Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire had expanded to about the limit possible given the weapons and supply systems of the day. Suleiman invaded Iran repeatedly, but ran out of supplies before he was able to bring the Iranian army to battle. Once he left, the Iranians simply moved back in and reconquered everything he had taken. In 1555 he agreed to permanent eastern borders, keeping Iraq and Eastern Anatolia but renouncing claims to Azerbaijan and the Caucasus.
At its peak during this period, the Ottoman Empire was both a military and an economic powerhouse. The Empire's treasury was filled by tributary payments from its possessions in Egypt, North Africa and Eastern Europe, and it sat athwart the trade routes between Europe and the Far East, giving it a slice of the profits from the growing spice trade. This is largely responsible for the European Age of Exploration, as they looked for ways to avoid Ottoman territory and trade directly with India, China, and other providers of spice.]=];
TITLE = [=[Ottoman]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Ottomans]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Blessings of God be upon you, oh Great Emperor Suleiman! Your power, wealth and generosity awe the world! Truly are you called "Magnificent!" Your empire began in Bithynia, a small country in eastern Anatolia in the 12th century. Taking advantage of the decline of the great Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, King Osman I of Bithynia expanded west into Anatolia. Over the next century your subjects brought down the empire of Byzantium, taking its holdings in Turkey and then the Balkans. In the mid-fifteenth century the Ottomans captured ancient Constantinople, gaining control of the strategic link between Europe and the Middle East. Your people's empire would continue to expand for centuries, at its height governing much of North Africa, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.
Mighty Suleiman, heed the call of your people! Bring your empire back to the height of its power and glory, and once again the world will look upon your greatness with awe and admiration. Will you accept the challenge, Great Emperor? Will you build an empire that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Persian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Persian Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Caspian horse, believed to be one of the oldest breeds of domesticated horses in the world, can be traced back to ancient Persia.
In Persian mythology the devil uses Persian food to corrupt the king of the land, "Zahak, The Dragon King".
Persian inventions or contributions:
The modern brick; some of the oldest bricks found to date are Persian, from ca. 6000 BC.
Invention of Wine.
Invention of Tar (lute), that led to the development of the guitar.
Zoroastrianism: where the first prophet of a monotheistic faith arose according to some scholars.
Under the rule of Cyrus II the Great, the Cyrus Cylinder was issued. This is considered to be the first universal declaration of human rights, predating the Magna Carta by one millennium.
The game Polo, in 521 BC.
The first taxation system (under the Achaemenid Empire).]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Before the Persians: the Medes]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Rise of Persia]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Persian Expansion]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Xerxes and the Greek Campaigns]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Persian Stagnation and Decline]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Philip and Alexander and the End of the Achaemenians]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Summary]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The term "Persia" derives from a region in southern Iran formerly known as "Persis;" it is commonly used to describe areas where the Persian language and customs predominated. There have been a series of "Persian Empires" throughout history; in this article we are specifically examining the Achaemenid dynasty, which  began in 559 BC and ended some two centuries later under the onslaught of the Greek military genius Alexander the Great.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The Iranian Peninsula, which formed the heart of the Persian Empire, is a high plateau surrounded on the east and west by mountains. To the south lie the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the north the Caspian Sea and more mountains. At its height the Persian Empire also encompassed Egypt, the Middle East  and much of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). It's useless to generalize about the terrain and weather of such a huge and varied region spanning two continents.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Before the Persians, the Medes were the ascendant power in the area. According to the ancient historian Herodotus, the first Median king was Deioces, who ruled from 728 to 675 BC. Deioces' son Phraortes subjugated the Persians; he later died in battle against the Assyrians. At some point in the sixth century the Medes came under Scythian domination, but they withdrew or were assimilated by the end of the sixth century, and the kingdom was once again under Median control.
By all accounts king Cyaxares (625 - 585 BC) was a brilliant ruler who reorganized the Median army and took it successfully into battle against the powerful Assyrians, capturing several important Assyrian cities. Cyaxares allied with the Babylonians, and the two powers destroyed Assyria. In the division of spoils Babylon received all of the Assyrian territory in the Fertile Crescent (the area between and adjacent to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers), while the Medes took possession of the Assyrian holdings in the highlands to the east and north of Babylon, including territory in Asia Minor.
Cyaxares' son, Astyages, was evidently not as politically or militarily astute as his father; he would be the last king of the Medes.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[According to legend, King Cyaxares gave Persia to his vassal Cambyses I.  Cambyses I passed the crown to his son, Cyrus II, who solidified his political position by marrying the Median King Astyages' daughter. Despite his royal connection Cyrus was not satisfied with his subordinate position, and after allying with nearby Babylon, he rebelled against the Medes. By 550 BC the Persians had emerged victorious and the Medes were no more.
Cyrus II was the first of the "Achaemenian" kings of Persia. After conquering Median territory, Cyrus expanded Persia into Asia Minor. First he diplomatically isolated and then conquered Lydia (whose king was the famously wealthy Croesus), and then he systematically besieged and took all of the Greek city-states on the west coast of Asia Minor. With his northern flank secured, Cyrus II then turned south against his previous ally Babylon.
While a great power, Babylon was internally divided, had an unpopular king, and by allowing Cyrus to destroy Lydia, was fresh out of potential allies. In the event, it fell almost without Persia striking a blow. In 539 Cyrus marched triumphantly into the city, now ruling an empire that stretched all the way to the borders of Egypt.
Cyrus did not get to enjoy his triumphs for very long. He died in battle in Central Asia in 529 BC.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Cyrus II was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II. After allegedly securing his thrown by murdering his brother Bardiya, in 525 BC Cambyses led a campaign against Egypt, which fell after battles at Pelusium and Memphis. Cambyses then attempted to further extend Persian power west, but attacks against Carthage, Nubia and Amon were all unsuccessful. In 522 Cambyses learned of a revolt in Iran led by an imposter claiming to be his brother, Bardiya. He died while hurrying home to regain control of the rebellious region. It was said that he committed suicide, but some historians believe that was just propaganda spread by his successor.
Upon Cambyses II's death, one of his generals, a man named "Darius," led his troops back to Iran to crush the rebellion, which was apparently well advanced by the time Darius arrived. A member of the Achaemenian house and a distant relative of Cambyses II, Darius had himself declared Cambyses's rightful heir. It took a year of hard fighting to break the back of the revolt and to secure his claim to the throne, but by 521 Darius I was in firm control of the Persian Empire.
Darius I was by all accounts a superlative leader. After squelching the rebellion through a combination of harsh punishment of rebel leaders combined with clemency of local populations, he then worked to reorganize the empire and to codify its laws. He further expanded Persian power into northern India and he established a bridgehead across the Hellespont, giving Persia a permanent toehold in Europe. He successfully suppressed a revolt of the Greek city-states, earning Greek citizens' goodwill by removing local tyrants and returning democracy to the people.
In 492 Darius's forces had retaken Thrace and Macedonia in the Balkans, setting the stage for an invasion of Greece. At first Darius underestimated the difficulties of a Greek campaign, and in 490 the allied Greeks beat him decisively at the Battle of Marathon. Darius was forced to retreat and regroup. He began preparing for another campaign, but on a far larger and more powerful scale.
Darius I died in 486 BC, and he was succeeded by his son, Xerxes I. Xerxes immediately had to deal with a serious revolt in Egypt, which he did in one quick campaign in 484. Unlike his predecessors, Xerxes dealt harshly with the rebellious province, removing the local leaders and imposing direct Persian control on the citizens. He did the same to the Babylonians when they revolted in 482 BC.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[In 480 Xerxes led a huge army into northern Greece, supported by a powerful Persian navy. Northern Greece fell to the invaders fairly easily, and despite the heroic stand of the Spartans and the Boeotians at Thermopylae, the Greeks were unable to stop Xerxes' army from marching to Athens and sacking the most powerful city-state in Greece. However, the Athenians had evacuated their city before the Persians arrived, and their navy very much remained a potent force.
At the battle of Salamis (480 BC) a Greek fleet of some 370 triremes soundly defeated 800 Persian galleys, destroying perhaps 300 Persian vessels at a cost of 40 Greek ships. This defeat delayed the planned Persian offensive further into Greece for a year, giving the Greeks time to strengthen their defenses against the invaders. Xerxes was forced to return to Persia, leaving his general Mardonius in command, and the Greeks promptly won several important naval and land battles against the new leader. With Mardonius's death in the battle of Plataea, the campaign was over and the surviving Persians withdrew from Greece in disorder.
Xerxes never mounted another invasion of Greece. In 465 BC he was assassinated.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Ruling from 465-404 BC, the three Persian kings who followed Xerxes I - Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II, and Darius II - were weak and uninspiring. At the end of the 4th century the Persians regained some power in the Aegean, successfully playing the Greeks against one-another during the long Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta; however in 405 BC Egypt revolted and Persia was unable to regain control of the wayward province for more than 50 years.
Darius II was succeeded by Artaxerxes II, who ruled for 45 years (404 - 359 BC). During his reign Artaxerxes II fought a war against Sparta, once again over the Greek colonies in Asia Minor. Persia allied with the Athenians (who were recovering from their disastrous defeat in the Peloponnesian War) and Sparta was forced to come to terms.
Despite these occasional successes, as the third century BC progressed Persian weakness and disorganization grew. In 373 BC a group of the Empire's satraps (provincial governors) revolted. They were put down, but other revolts followed, and with growing frequency. The position of king was increasingly unstable; Artaxerxes III came to the throne as a result of treachery in 359 BC; in an attempt to secure his position he promptly murdered as many of his relatives as he could find. In 338 Artaxerxes III was poisoned at the orders of the eunuch Bagoas, who placed Artaxerxes' youngest son Arses in power. Arses promptly tried to poison Bagoas, but his effort failed and he himself was killed. Bagoas then elevated Darius III to the throne. Darius III was a former satrap of Armenia; although he was but distantly related to the late king, pretty much everybody else with a better claim was already dead.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Darius III may or may not have been an especially effective leader, it is difficult to tell. When he assumed the throne the Persian Empire had been in decline for well over a century, its many component parts in near-constant revolt against the increasingly inept central government. Palace intrigue further crippled the monarchy, and leaders who wished to survive spent as much time watching their backs as they did looking out for the interests of the Empire. Any leader who took power under those circumstances would be in trouble. However bad things at home were, they paled into insignificance when compared with the troubles headed Darius III's way from across the Hellespont.
In 359 BC, King Philip ascended to the throne of Macedon, a country straddling the line between Greece and the Balkans. Within 20 short years Philip had conquered all of Greece and then began preparations to invade Persia. Following Philip's assassination in 336 BC a young man named Alexander took the Macedonian crown. After securing his throne and suppressing a Greek rebellion, Alexander resumed Philip's invasion into Persia.
Alexander was a military genius and a man of great courage and even greater ambition. At the head of a highly-disciplined Greek army equipped with superior weaponry and tactics, he drove through Persia like a hot knife through butter. Darius repeatedly met him in battle, often with far superior numbers, and Alexander simply destroyed his armies one after another. The Persian capital Persepolis fell to Alexander's armies in 330 BC, and Darius was murdered the same year. The last Achaemenian ruler had fallen to the invaders.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The Achaemenian Persian Empire survived and thrived in a dangerous neighborhood for some 200 years. At its height it dominated land from India to Egypt, from Iran to the Balkans. It was an awkward and ungainly empire, spanning three continents with citizens speaking dozens of different languages. At their best, the Achaemenian kings were lawgivers who treated their subject populations with clemency and fairness, interfering as little as possible with provincial internal policies as long as the subjects behaved themselves. At worst, the Achaemenian kings were incompetent bullying backstabbers.
Whatever else they were, the Achaemenian kings were survivors. Two hundred years is a long time for a single family to remain in power. If they hadn't lived next to Alexander and Philip they might have remained in power another 100 years. Alexander the Great himself was a brilliant leader and warlord, but his own empire barely survived his death by a year.]=];
TITLE = [=[Persia]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[The blessings of Heaven be upon you, beloved King Darius of Persia! You lead a strong and wise people. In the morning of the world, the great Persian leader Cyrus revolted against the mighty Median empire, and by 550 BC the Medes were no more. Through cunning diplomacy and military prowess Great Cyrus conquered wealthy Lydia and powerful Babylon, his son conquering proud Egypt some years later. Over time Persian might expanded into far-away Macedonia, on the very door of the upstart Greek city-states. Long would Persia prosper, until the upstart villain Alexander of Macedon destroyed the great empire in one shocking campaign.
Darius, your people look to you to once again bring back the days of power and glory for Persia! The empire of your ancestors must emerge again, to triumph over its foes and to bring peace and order to the world. Oh King, will you answer the call? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Roman Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Roman Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Asparagus was a highly prized delicacy in Ancient Rome and was kept frozen in the Alps for feasts and festivals.
According to Roman historian Suetonius, it was rumoured that one consul and coregent of Rome was a horse - Emperor Caligula's favourite, Incitatus.
The first volume of recipes was published in 62 A.D. by the Roman Apicius.
Rome is known as the "Eternal City" and also "Caput Mundi," coming from Latin and meaning capital of the world.
The ancient Romans had celebrity chefs, ate beefburgers, and took food home in doggy-bags.
The first welfare benefits system was an integral part of ancient Roman culture. In 58 B.C. the state introduced a law making available to Roman citizens a monthly quota of free grain, upon which the poorer classes became highly dependent.
The tradition of the groom carrying his bride over the home's threshold originated from ancient roman weddings.
Some Ancient Roman Inventions:
Bronze Valves and Water Pumps
Fast curing cement and reinforced concrete
Candle Wicks
Magnifying Glass, Scissors, different shoe shapes for left and right feet.
The modern 12-month calendar]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Birth of an Empire]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[The Rest is History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early Rome]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Republic]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Roman Expansion]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The First Punic War]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Second Punic War]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[The Third Punic War]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Social Unrest and the Fall of the Republic]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Roman Empire is the most remarkable and long-lived political entity in the history of Western Civilization. It was founded around the 8th century BC, and portions of it survived until the 14th century AD. The Romans were great innovators in some areas, and they were not shy about appropriating good ideas they found in other cultures. They greatly shaped Western culture, law, art, architecture, religion, language, and warfare.
This Civilopedia entry covers the rise of Rome, the Roman Republic, and the establishment of the Roman Empire under the great Emperor Augustus.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[The events surrounding Julius Caesar's last years are well known. While maintaining the façade that Rome was a republic, he became a de facto dictator. He gave himself the power to appoint all senators, and he altered the constitution so that the assemblies would vote only on candidates and bills he submitted. In 44 BC he was assassinated by members of the senate.
Following Caesar's death, his lieutenant Mark Antony allied with Marcus Lepidus and Caesar's adopted son Gaius Octavian to defeat Caesar's assassins. Shortly thereafter members of the "Second Triumvirate" quarreled, and Octavian - now known as "Augustus" - became undisputed Emperor of Rome. (For more on Augustus, see his Civilopedia entry.) While the Roman Republic was dead, the Roman Empire had just begun, and the world would tremble at its power and glory.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[The mighty Roman Empire is an endlessly fascinating and complex entity. Although long dead, the Empire's shadow still falls across the world, and events in Rome 2000 years ago still affect our daily lives. One wonders if the same will be said about any of today's civilizations.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The city of Rome stands near the Tiber River in central Italy. A series of hills and mountains run along the spine of boot-shaped Italy; the coastal regions are flatter and make better farmland. The central highlands can be cold and snowy in winter, while the coastal lowlands enjoy milder, stereotypical Mediterranean climate.
At its height the Empire controlled much of Western and Central Europe along with a great chunk of the Middle East and most of the northern coast of Africa, and naturally the Empire's terrain and climate varied greatly from province to province.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[According to legend, Rome was founded by twin brothers named "Romulus" and "Remus," the sons of the god Mars and a king's daughter. The children were abandoned at birth, but they were rescued by a she-wolf who suckled and raised them. Upon reaching maturity the boys founded a new city, then quarreled over who would rule. Romulus won: he killed his brother and became the first king of Rome.
Archaeologists date the first major settlement in the area from the eighth century BC (though there is some evidence suggesting that there were settlements in the area as far back as the 10th century BC). The city was founded by the Latin tribe atop the Palatine Hill, which overlooks a crossing of the Tiber River. The city's strategic location made it a natural trading post between the Etruscan civilization to the north and the Greek settlements to the south. Thus Rome benefitted from technological and cultural advances of both groups. Its location also made it greatly prized by its neighbors, and for two centuries the Latins fought off attacks by the Etruscans and the Sabines, another local tribe.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Roman tradition states that the last Roman king was a brutal tyrant. The villainous king, Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown after his son raped a virtuous noblewoman. Modern historians believe that the truth is far more prosaic. According to one current theory Rome was captured by the Etruscans, who ejected the Roman king, but external events forced them to vacate the city before they could install their own monarch. Finding that they preferred being kingless, the Romans did not recall Tarquinius to power but instead implemented a Republic loosely based upon the Greek model. It is believed that the last Roman king fell at the end of the fifth century BC.
The Roman political system evolved over time, but the early structure was something like this: Rome was ruled by two consuls. The consuls acted as the city's chief magistrates as well as the military commanders. The two consuls possessed equal power. The consuls were elected annually by the "centuriate assembly" - the Roman army. To ensure unity of command in times of great danger a "dictator" could be appointed. The dictator had supreme military command. However, the dictator's term lasted only for six months, at which time power reverted to the consuls and senate.
The second power bloc in Roman government was the Senate. The Senate was composed of approximately 300 men drawn from the leading Roman families. According to theory the Senate was strictly an advisory body, advising both the Consuls and the assemblies (see below), but in fact it held enormous political power, and its "advice" was almost always followed by the assemblies (see below).
Two assemblies met periodically in Rome, and they (theoretically) held all political power. The centuriate assembly met outside the city's borders in the Field of Mars. As stated before this assembly was composed of Roman soldiers; they elected consuls and magistrates and voted on peace and war. The "tribal" assembly met inside the city; it was comprised of all male Roman citizens. This assembly enacted laws and sat as a court for public offenses involving money.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[During much of its history, the Roman Republic was at war with one or more of its neighbors. It was constantly expanding its territory at the expense of other Italian tribes. It fought and conquered the nearby town of Fidenae in 426 BC after an eleven-year struggle, and this was followed soon thereafter by a painful ten-year fight to conquer the Etruscan city of Veii. Much of these gains were swept away in 390 BC, when a Gallic tribe defeated the Roman armies and sacked the city. It took almost half a century for Rome to recover from this devastating defeat.
By the middle of the third century, however, Rome was master of most of central Italy, with Latin colonies extending far to the north and south. Further, work was progressing on the incomparable Roman road network linking the growing empire, and Rome was in the process of constructing its first navy.
As Rome's power grew, it began to come into conflict with other regional powers. One such power was Carthage, a one-time Phoenician colony based on the North African coast in Tunisia. At the time Carthage had a mighty trading empire which covered most of North Africa west of Egypt, coastal Spain and France, and much of Sicily. Rome and Carthage fought three "Punic Wars" (264 - 146 BC) to decide who would control the Western Mediterranean. While Roman historians placed the blame for the wars on Carthage, modern historians believe that the Romans actually provoked the conflict by attempting to muscle in on Carthaginian territory in Sicily.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The First Punic War (264 - 241 BC) found the Carthaginian mercenary army no match for the Roman legions, who inflicted upon them a massive defeat at the Battle of Agrigentum in 261 BC. The elite Carthaginian navy had much better initial success against the untried Roman navy, but over time this advantage faded as the Romans constructed new vessels and gained combat experience. Eventually the Carthaginians admitted they were overmatched and ceded Sicily to Rome. Shortly thereafter the Romans took advantage of unrest in the Carthaginian army to take the Carthaginian islands of Corsica and Sardinia, as well.
With Rome restricting Carthaginian operations in the Central Mediterranean, Carthage sought to recoup its losses by expanding into Spain. Rome responded by allying with the Spanish city of Saguntum, making it clear that they were going to oppose Carthage's interests pretty much anywhere on the Mediterranean. In 219 BC the Carthaginian general Hannibal laid siege to Saguntum and Rome declared war once again. The Second Punic War (219 - 201 BC) had begun.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[A brilliant general, Hannibal realized that Carthage could not defeat Rome as long as Rome had unrestricted access to all of the resources of Italy. To win, he had to disrupt Roman cooperation with the other Italian cities. To do so, he had to get his army into Italy. As a Roman navy now commanded the seas, he had to take the long, arduous land route. This remarkable six-month journey included a perilous trip across the Italian alps. By 218 BC Hannibal arrived in Italy with 20,000 foot soldiers and some 5,000 cavalry.
In 217 BC Hannibal defeated and largely destroyed a Roman army of some 15,000 soldiers. He moved south, hoping to stir up unrest in the Italian subject cities, but few joined the Carthaginian cause. His forces roamed about the countryside to no great effect.
By 216 BC the Romans had regrouped and fielded another, even stronger army of some 50,000-80,000 soldiers against Hannibal. The two forces met at Cannae. Hannibal let his center fall back in the face of the Roman attack, but he then wheeled his cavalry in behind the Roman army, who had neglected to adequately protect their flank. The Roman force was hemmed in and attacked from all sides, and Hannibal had destroyed yet another Roman army, this one much bigger than the last. This triumph totally demoralized the Romans. More importantly, it at last convinced the southern Italian people that Hannibal could win, and a large number of them deserted Rome and rallied to Carthage's support.
While Hannibal's forces had greatly expanded, he now had numerous allied cities he had to protect. While Rome had lost a great army and much of its southern possessions it still had northern Italy, not to mention naval control of the Mediterranean. The war degenerated into stalemate.
In 207 BC Hasdrubal, Hannibal's brother, duplicated Hannibal's storied march and brought yet another army across the Alps and into northern Italy. He sought to move south upon the east coast of Italy (the side away from Rome), join up with his brother, and launch a final assault on Rome. Rome managed to scrape up yet one more army and the two forces met at the Metaurus River. Stealing a page from Hannibal's book, the Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero outflanked Hasdrubal, cutting off his army's retreat. Most of the Carthaginian army was destroyed, and Hasdrubal himself was killed. His head was cut off and thrown into Hannibal's camp. That broke the back of the invasion. Although Hannibal remained in the area for some years, he was unable to again challenge Rome in Italy.
In the meanwhile, the great Roman general Scipio had captured most of Spain from Carthage. Despite Hannibal's presence in southern Italy, he convinced the Roman senate to back an invasion of Africa itself. In 204 he sailed across the Mediterranean. He destroyed the opposing Carthaginian force and another in 203 BC. In 202 BC he faced Hannibal, who had been recalled from Italy in the face of the crisis. Although Hannibal fielded a slightly larger army, Scipio's troops were veterans and they had a superior cavalry wing. Hannibal's army was outflanked and largely destroyed. Prostrate and defenseless, Carthage sued for peace. Rome stripped them of all of their remaining Spanish and island possessions and hit them with a huge indemnity of 10,000 talents (a fantastically large amount of gold).]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[The Third Punic War (149 - 146 BC) occurred some fifty years after the Second. It is generally agreed that this war was little more than a Roman mugging of the nearly helpless Carthage. While Carthage no longer had any significant military power to threaten Rome, the Empire greatly envied the wealth of the African city and its growing commercial empire. The Romans imposed a series of intolerable demands on the city, including that the citizens abandon Carthage and move inland so that they could no longer engage in commerce by sea. The Carthaginians refused, and the Romans besieged the city, which put up a stubborn resistance. In 146 BC Carthage fell. The city was destroyed, its fields sown with salt (according to myth), and the few surviving citizens were sold into slavery. Rome was undisputed master of the Mediterranean.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Although Rome continued to expand, fighting wars across the Mediterranean, the first century BC saw tens of thousands of demobilized soldiers return from foreign lands. There was not enough work for the ex-soldiers, especially since Rome was being flooded with slaves from overseas possessions. These men were angry, and they had the vote. Several men attempted to enact land reforms, taking property away from the extremely wealthy and distributing it to the soldiers, but the senate (which was largely comprised of wealthy men) stymied these reforms. To be elected consul, Roman politicians had to appease the ex-soldiers, and Roman politics turned increasingly populist, and political infighting became increasingly bitter.
In 88 BC Sulla, an elected consul, marched his army into Rome to force the assembly to enact laws that would permanently weaken the opposing party. After his army left, the opposition retook the city and negated Sulla's laws. In 83 BC Sulla returned again with his army and slaughtered most of the members of the opposing party. He then passed a series of constitutional reforms and retired.
It was now clear that control of Rome would fall to whoever commanded the loyalty of the army. In 62 BC three men agreed to share power between them. This "First Triumvirate" consisted of the generals Gnaeus Pompey the Great and Marcus Lucinius Crassus, and a soldier and sharp politician from a very wealthy family named Julius Caesar.
These men had the same ability to cooperate and desire to share power as one might expect to find in your average killer shark, and following Crassus's death in battle, Caesar and Pompey were at each other's throats. Caesar was in the field at the time, and Pompey and the senate sought to remove him from his army. He refused the orders and advanced on Rome. The army defending Rome was untrained and Pompey did not believe it would stand against Caesar's highly-motivated veterans, so he and the senate fled the city, and in 49 BC Caesar marched into Rome unopposed.]=];
TITLE = [=[Rome]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[The blessings of the gods be upon you, Caesar Augustus, Emperor of Rome and all her holdings. Your empire was the greatest and longest-lived of all in Western Civilization, and your people single-handedly have shaped its culture, law, art, and warfare like none other, before or since. Through years of glorious conquest, Rome came to dominate all the lands of the Mediterranean, from Spain in the west to Syria in the east, and her dominion would eventually expand to cover much of England and Northern Germany. Roman art and architecture still awe and inspire the world, and she remains the envy of all of the lesser civilizations who have followed.
O mighty Emperor, your people turn to you to once more reclaim the glory of Rome. Will you see to it that your empire rises again, bringing peace and order to all?  Will you make Rome once again center of the world? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Russian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Russian Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Vodka was introduced in Russia in the period from 1448 to 1474. Less than 100 years later the first "czar tavern" was set up in Moscow.  Ten percent of the government's income comes from the sale of vodka.
During the reign of Peter the Great, any Russian nobleman who wore a beard had to pay a special beard tax.
It is a criminal offense to drive around in a dirty car in Russia.
The Russian tundra is melting for the first time since the Ice Age.
Moscow has the world's most used subway system, with the largest ridership of any metro system - about 3.2 billion passengers per year.
Microwave ovens were banned in Russia in 1976.
Moscow, the ancient capital of Russia, was 860 years old in 2008.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[Peter the Great]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Catherine the Great]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[Russia in the 19th Century]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[The Beginning of the End]=];
HEADING_14 = [=[World War I]=];
HEADING_15 = [=[Back in the USSR]=];
HEADING_16 = [=[Russia Today]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Russian Pre-History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Kievan]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Mongol Invasion]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Golden Horde]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Principality of Muscovy]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Ivan the Terrible]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Romanovs]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[As Winston Churchill once said, Russia is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. It is a part of Europe and a part of Asia, yet separate from both. It is rich with natural resources, yet its people have historically been grindingly poor. It has been invaded and overrun by Goths, Huns, Mongols, French and Germans, yet remained uniquely Russian. It has been a superpower and a nearly failed state, a monarchy, communist dictatorship and democracy - all within a span of 100 years. Indeed, Russia is one of the most fascinating civilizations in all of human history.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Peter (1672 - 1725) jointly ruled Russia with his half brother Ivan V for the period 1682 - 1696, and he ruled singly following Ivan's death from 1696 - 1725. During the early part of his reign Peter was all but exiled to the village of Preobrazhenskoye while his half-sister Sophia ruled as regent. He thus missed much of a young Tsar's standard education, concentrating instead on sports, mathematics, and military training.
While a growing land power, at the start of Peter's reign, Russia lacked direct access to the Black Sea, the Caspian, or to the Baltic Sea. Peter believed that Russia could never be a great state unless it possessed a navy. Much of his foreign policy was turned to that end. In 1695 Peter attacked southward, capturing Azov from the Crimean Tatars and moving that much closer to the Black Sea.
In 1697 Peter formed the "Grand Embassy," a group of some 250 people who were to travel across western Europe to gather information on European culture and economy. Peter traveled with the group incognito. For four months Peter worked as a ship's carpenter in the Dutch East India Company's shipyards, and this was followed by a similar period in the British Royal Navy's dockyard. As he progressed around Europe Peter hired hundreds of European workers to help improve the Russian cities, economy and infrastructure.
Peter was looking for allies to assist him in his campaign against the Ottomans, but was unsuccessful. Believing that Russia could not move alone on that front, the pragmatic Tsar signed a peace treaty with the Ottomans and turned his attention to the Baltic.
At the end of the 16th century the Swedes occupied the Baltic coast including Karelia, Ingria, Estonia and Livonia. Peter formed an alliance with Saxony and Denmark-Norway, and in 1700 the alliance attacked. The "Northern War" dragged on for some 21 years. Peter took an extremely active role in prosecuting the war, and he could often be found on the front lines, under enemy fire.
Meanwhile, in 1703 Peter began construction of the city of St. Petersburg in the far north of Russia, near the Gulf of Finland. By 1712 it was named the new capital of Russia. By 1721 Russia had driven Sweden from the eastern and southern Baltic. In 1724 Peter helped rescue some sailors whose ship was aground in the frigid waters of the Gulf of Finland. He caught a chill during the adventure and died shortly thereafter.
Peter died without declaring a successor, and the forty years following his death saw a series of more or less weak regencies and short-lived rulers, the best of whom was probably his daughter, Elizabeth, who ruled from 1741 to 1760. Under her reign the Moscow State University was founded in 1755 and Russia extended its control over western Ukraine.
Elizabeth was followed by her nephew, the hugely unpopular Peter III. Peter's reign lasted only two years - when he was overthrown and (eventually murdered) by his wife, the remarkable Catherine II.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[Catherine was the daughter of a German prince. She came to Russia at the age of 15 to marry Peter III, the heir to the Russian throne. She educated herself by reading European literature. Beautiful, intelligent, and witty, she captured the hearts of the Russian nobility, who greatly preferred her to her husband, who was said to be feebleminded. She received their enthusiastic support when she engineered a palace coup and assumed power at the age of 33.
Catherine reigned for thirty years. During that time she expanded the Russian Empire's borders, gaining important territory along the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, as well as expansion east, beyond the Ural mountains. Catherine also added large chunks of Poland to the Empire when that country was partitioned between Austria, Prussia and Russia in 1772, though these would in the long run be far more of a liability than a benefit.
During her reign Catherine also implemented many important reforms in Russia, attempting to improve the organization of and battle corruption in local governments. Despite her liberal reputation she was no especial friend to the Russian peasantry, however; in fact the odious practice of serfdom (slave labor) increased significantly during her reign, and the lot of the average peasant grew even harder.
Catherine died in 1796. See her Civilopedia entry for more details on this extraordinary leader.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[The first two decades of the 19th century saw the rise and fall of one of Europe's greatest military figures, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France. Following the French Revolution, Bonaparte took a divided and weakened France and turned it into the most powerful nation in Europe. Russia and its allies were defeated at Austerlitz in 1805; the Russians and French fought again in 1806 and 1807. There were five years of peace, followed by Napoleon's catastrophic invasion of Russia in 1812. Russian armies fought the French for two more years and were greatly responsible for Napoleon's final defeat and expulsion from Europe. Russia emerged from the wars as the preeminent military power on the continent.
Russian military prestige suffered a major blow mid-century, when it was unable to defeat a small, incompetently-led French-English force during the Crimean War (1853-1856).  This led the new Tsar, Alexander II, to attempt sweeping modernizations in the Empire, including the abolishment of serfdom in 1861. However the emancipation terms were highly onerous, requiring that the peasants pay annual "redemption payments" to buy their own freedom, and in many cases the newly-freed men were worse off than they had been as slaves. At this time Russia also instituted a series of legal reforms based upon European models, but although these were an improvement over the older system, the new laws still treated the peasantry as less than full citizens.
The 1870s saw an increase in revolutionary activity, especially among university students. In 1873 students attempted to rouse the peasantry to revolution, but the peasants were mostly unimpressed, and many students were imprisoned or sent off to Siberia. The surviving revolutionaries then turned to covert action, including assassination attempts against high officials. In 1881 a terrorist group successfully assassinated Alexander II. The main leaders of the group were captured and hanged.
Alexander III, the new Tsar, implemented a series of repressive laws that restricted education and further restricted the citizens' already-limited freedoms.
In 1894 Alexander III died and his ill-fated son, Nicholas II, took the throne.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[The Russo-Japanese War (1904 - 1905) saw a series of crushing Russian defeats at the hands of the Japanese. This significantly weakened the central government's prestige, and Russia underwent a series of damaging strikes and protests as various groups demanded a variety of reforms. In 1905 a group of St. Petersburg workers marched on the Winter Palace to give the Tsar a list of demands; they were met by troops who opened fire, killing 130. News of "Bloody Sunday" spread quickly throughout Russia, and riots broke out across the country. Later in the year the Tsar reluctantly agreed to implement an elected assembly. This did not satisfy the revolutionaries however, and unrest continued for two hard years.
The creation of a new assembly, the "Duma," did succeed in splitting the opposition, as some chose to attempt reform from within the assembly, while the more radicalized opposition remained outside the system, throwing bombs. The country limped along, bleeding, until the cataclysmic Great War brought the entire system to the ground.]=];
TEXT_14 = [=[World War I was an epic failure of diplomacy and rational thinking. In the pre-war years the nations of Europe had allied themselves to or against one-another in a series of defensive/offensive pacts that virtually guaranteed that any small conflict would drag the entire continent into a giant conflagration. In the event, in 1914 an Austro-Hungarian land-grab of Serbia brought Russia into the war on Serbia's side, Germany into the war on Austria's side, and France and Great Britain in on Russia's side, and so forth.
Tsar Nicholas II mobilized his forces as rapidly as possible, then marched them west to meet the German foe, who promptly encircled and captured most of the Russian armies. Then in 1915 a German/Austrian offensive marched virtually unopposed into Poland and from there into Russia's western provinces.  This, plus the entry of Russia's traditional enemy Turkey into the war on the side of Germany placed incredible strain on the tottering Russian government.
Tsar Nicholas II did not acquit himself well in the crisis. He moved his court to Belarussia, to be in "personal command of the army," which left day-to-day governing of the Empire to his wife and her hated advisor, Rasputin. In 1916 Rasputin was murdered by a conspiracy that included many of the Royal Family's most loyal allies.
In 1916 the military situation improved, but the situation at home grew even worse. Food was short everywhere, as more peasants were called into the army and imports were cut off by the enemy. That plus rampant inflation led to increasing worker unrest. In 1917 the March Revolution called for the abolishment of the aristocracy. The government summoned Cossacks to disburse the crowd, but the Cossacks mutinied and went over to the insurgents. Soon thereafter the Duma joined the insurgency and on March 15, the Tsar was forced to abdicate. Later he and his family were executed.
Imperial Russia was dead. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had arrived.]=];
TEXT_15 = [=[The USSR survived for fifty years. Its greatest triumph was its victory over Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War (World War II). It also served as a counterbalance to the United States, which in post WWII had nearly unlimited power. (Whether that was a good or a bad thing depends upon one's point of view.) Its greatest failure was its inability to improve its citizens' standard of living to match the other countries of Europe and the West. The Soviet Union ended in 1991, brought down to some extent by external pressure from the United States and its allies, but mainly by massive internal economic problems.
More could be said about the USSR - much more - but space and time limitations require us to leave it for another Civilopedia in another game.]=];
TEXT_16 = [=[The New Russian Federation is still a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. It has abandoned communism for what might be called oligarchic capitalism. It has created many multi-millionaires but many of its citizens are still poor. It has freed many of its client states - East Germany, the Ukraine, the Baltic States - but it still casts a heavy shadow on its neighbors (witness its recent invasion of ex-Soviet state Georgia). It's a democracy, but power seems more and more concentrated in one man. It's uncertain what will become of this long-lived country in the 21st century, but it surely will remain one of the most powerful and important nations on Earth.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Russia is a huge country. At 6,500,000 square miles in area, it's nearly twice the size of the United States of America, but with only half its population. It's a country of great mountains, enormous steppes, and raging rivers. On the east, Russia borders the Pacific Ocean, and on the west the Baltic Sea. The southernmost portions of Russia can be broiling hot in the summer and Russian winters are famously brutal - long, cold and dark.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Archaeological evidence states that portions of Russia have been occupied for some four thousand years, but not much is known about the earliest settlers in this vast land. Greeks and Persians settled in the Ukraine at some early date, and they seem to have hunted and harvested resources from the vast Russian forests to the north. Various nomadic tribes crossed the country between the fourth and 10th century AD before settling further west in Europe; these included the Huns, Goths, and Magyars. During the same period the East Slavs began migrating east into the area, followed by Germanic commercial explorers looking for trade goods as well as new routes to the east. They encountered Finnic tribes moving south.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The eighth century saw the first written record of "Kievan Rus." The Rus are believed to have been Scandinavian Vikings who migrated south from the Baltic coast (although this is disputed by some Russian scholars, who believe that the original founders of Kievan Rus were Slavs). By 860 the Rus were sending raiding parties as far south as Constantinople, and by 1000 AD Kievan Rus controlled a trade route from the Baltic to the Black Sea; this would form the economic backbone of the growing regional power.
By the 12th century, the Kiev Empire covered much of what would become eastern Russia, extending from Poland in the west to the Volga in the east, and from Finland in the north to the Ukraine in the south. It was a vast territory to manage from one centralized location, especially as component parts of the Empire began developing individual identities and national aspirations. Economically, the Empire also became divided, with northern provinces aligning themselves with the Baltic powers while the western areas were drawn to Poland and Hungary, and the southern regions to Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. By the closing of the 12th century Rus Kiev was dissolved in all but name, replaced by a number of smaller quasi-feudal states.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The first Mongol incursion into Kievan territory occurred in 1223, when a Mongol reconnaissance unit met the combined warriors of several Rus states under the command of the wonderfully-named "Mstislav the Bold" and "Mstislav Romanovich the Old" at the Battle of the Kalka River. The Rus forces enjoyed early success, but they became disorganized in the pursuit of the retreating foe. The Mongol horsemen rallied and defeated the pursuers in detail before they could reorganize. A large portion of the Rus forces surrendered to the Mongols on the condition that they would be spared; the Mongols accepted the conditions then slaughtered them anyway. The Mongols then left Rus for several years before returning in much greater force.
In 1237 a vast Mongol army of some 30,000 or more horse archers once again crossed the Volga River. In a few short years the Mongols captured, looted and destroyed dozens of Russian cities and towns, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Rostov, Kashin, Dmitrov, Kozelsk, Halych and Kiev. They soundly thrashed every force raised to oppose them. By 1240 most of Rus was a smoking ruin, firmly under the control of the Mongols, who then turned their sight further west, towards Hungary and Poland.
TEXT_6 = [=[The Western Mongol Empire, which included much of Russia, was called (though probably not by the Mongols themselves) the "Golden Horde." Its capital was at "Sari," a new city they constructed on the Volga River. Although the Mongols (also known as "Tatars") were ruthless invaders and conquerors, they were relatively benign rulers. Generally they had little direct dealings with the subject people, much preferring to keep the existing power structure intact, ruling through the current rulers. Originally Shamanists, the Mongols were late converts to Islam, and they were extremely tolerant towards other religions. Generally, as long as they got their tribute, they left the people alone.
The Golden Horde survived until the end of the 14th century, when it fell prey to attacks from Timur (Tamerlane) from the south. Seeking to capture their commercial trade, Timur overran and destroyed the Mongol cities of Sarai, Azov, and Kaffa, fatally weakening the Mongol rulers. Local Rus leaders, particularly those ruling the Principality of Muscovy, were quick to fill the growing power vacuum.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Under the rule of Ivan III (1462 - 1505), Muscovy began the process of "gathering of the Russian lands", in which Moscovy sought to annex all East Slavic lands, including the traditional Russian territories as well as the Belarussian and Ukrainian principalities, neither of which had any traditional link with Muscovy. In 1478 Novgorod was annexed, and in 1485 Tver was similarly absorbed. This work was nearly undone in 1497, however, by a deadly struggle among Ivan's relatives over the succession to the throne. Ivan had originally picked his grandson from his first marriage, but he was eventually forced to name as heir his second wife's son, Vasily.
Ivan's reign also saw Muscovy's first entry into the maelstrom of European diplomacy. Ivan sought to engage more closely with Byzantium in order to put pressure on the growing Polish-Lithuanian state to Muscovy's west (the powers were competing to gobble up the smaller principalities left after the collapse of the Golden Horde).
After Ivan's death his son, Vasily III, strengthened the monarchy and further expanded Muscovy's territory. However Vasily failed to produce an heir until late in his reign and he was forced to create a regency to rule after his death until his son Ivan was able to take the throne. As Ivan was three and sickly at the time of his father's death (1533), the regency was prolonged and subject to a great deal of political intrigue, and the kingdom suffered accordingly. Once Ivan achieved maturity, things went from bad to exceptionally bad - one might even say "terrible."]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[At the age of 16, Ivan the Terrible (1530 - 1584) was crowned "tsar" of Muscovy, the first to bear that title. (The word is related to the Roman title "Caesar.") Very little is actually known of Ivan the man, except that he was sickly and he married six times. Many believe that in his early reign he was a figurehead - a puppet ruler fronting for one of the factions striving for dominance in that unsettled land. During that period he enacted a series of reforms rebuilding the military and the legal system, and laws to severely limit the power of hereditary landowners (i.e., the nobility). These reforms appear designed to improve the Russian military in preparation for major campaigns to expand Russian territory. These adventures were less than totally successful.
In his mid-twenties, Ivan began a program to dramatically increase his power at the expense of virtually anybody else in the vicinity. The Imperial Court was swept of independent-minded nobility and stocked with sycophantic bullies. The upper echelons of the military were similarly purged. Ivan declared millions of acres of the best land to be "oprichnina" - or crowned land - subject to his direct control only.
Ivan was about as good a military leader as he was a humanitarian: he virtually destroyed the army and bankrupted the country in the disastrous Livonian War, which dragged on for some twenty-five years (1558 - 1583). He died in 1584, and not a moment too soon.
Things improved for a time after Ivan's death, when one of his cronies named Boris Godunov assumed the throne, but when Boris died in 1605, everything once again went straight to hell, so much so that this period (1606 - 1613) is known as the "Time of Troubles." Central authority was gone; foreign and domestic armies marched and fought their way across the countryside, as one pretender after another took the crown only to be overthrown by the next in line. Eventually the merchants of northern Russia financed an insurgent army (largely staffed with Swedish troops) who swept the foreigners out of Moscovy and brought the Cossacks back in line. In control of the government apparatus (what was left of it), the insurgents called for the election of another tsar.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Michael Fyodorovich was just 16 when he was elected Tsar. He faced innumerable problems. Decades of insurrection and neglect had left much of the country in ruins, its citizens fled and its croplands fallow. Portions of the country were occupied by foreign troops, and those that weren't often had their own local military forces which were not answerable to any central authority. It took the first Romanov Tsar nearly twenty years to regain control of the country.
The Tsars following Michael continued the expansion of Russia, fighting or allying variously with Sweden, Poland, and/or the Ottoman Empire, depending upon where the territory they were trying at that moment to nab lay. Territory under contention included the eastern Ukraine, the Baltic territories, and Belarus.]=];
TITLE = [=[Russia]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Greetings upon thee, Your Imperial Majesty Catherine, wondrous Empress of all the Russias.  At your command lies the largest country in the world. Mighty Russia stretches from the Pacific Ocean in the east to the Baltic Sea in the west. Despite wars, droughts, and every manner of disaster the heroic Russian people survive and prosper, their artists and scientists among the best in the world. The Empire today remains one of the strongest ever seen in human history - a true superpower, with the greatest destructive force ever devised at her command.
Catherine, your people look to you to bring forth glorious days for Russia and her people, to revitalize the land and recapture the wonder of the Enlightenment. Will you lead your people once more into greatness? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Siamese Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Siamese Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[It is often nicknamed as the "Land Of Smiles," because of the perceived gentleness of its people.
Pornthip "Bui" Nakhirunkanok became the second Thai to win the Miss Universe title after Apasra Hongsakula in 1965. The year was 1988.
The King of Thailand is regarded with great reverence and even a passing joke can result in a term in prison.
The Lang Rongrien rock shelter in the southwest of Thailand was inhabited around forty thousand years ago.
The Siamese cat was brought to Britain from Thailand in 1884 by the British Consul General of Bangkok.
Most young Thai men are Buddhist monks for a short time and shaven-headed monks go out and ask for alms each morning.
Tea grows wild in Siam but is not used in a beverage. Traditionally, it is pickled, rolled into balls called "mieng", and chewed.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[Postwar Thailand - "You Say You Want a Revolution?"]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Thailand Tomorrow]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Siamese Pre-History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Sukhothai and Ramkhamhaeng]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Ayutthaya]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Thon Buri]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Siam Resurgent]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Siam and the West]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Twentieth Century]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Located in Southeast Asia between Burma (a.k.a. Myanmar), Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia, Siam - now Thailand - has a long and storied history. A beautiful and mysterious land of dark forests and ancient mountains, Siam has seen occupation and revolution, flood and famine, and the rise and fall of empires.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Thailand got off relatively lightly following World War II. It had to return the territories it had snarfed up from the French, but generally it suffered no other penalties. It did suffer from a great deal of internal strife, however. In 1946 the king was found dead of a gunshot wound. The current leader of the government was blamed for the king's death and forced into exile, the proto-fascist Dictator Phibun Songkhram returning to power.
In the Cold War years the United States funneled huge sums of money into Thailand, most of which was taken by the military and the dictatorship. A majority of the country's industry was owned by the dictator and his cronies, and in 1957 the military staged another coup, placing yet another field marshal, Sarit Thanarat, in charge.
Thanarat ruled for five years. While maintaining total control over the government and military, he implemented economic reforms that spread the wealth among the growing Thai middle class, earning a good deal of popular support for doing so. The US gave him even more money, which he used to support the military, but also to improve the Thai infrastructure. Thanarat also gave support to the monarchy, which by then had no political power, but which once again became a powerful symbol of Thai nationalism. A popular leader during his life, after his death Thanarat's popularity waned a good deal when it was discovered how much of Thailand's money he had stolen and hidden away.
Thanarat's successors continued to receive huge amounts of American money, and in return they supported the American adventure in Vietnam. By the end of the 1960s more than 10,000 Thai troops were serving in Vietnam, and thousands of American soldiers were stationed in Thailand, which provided an important base for the US Air Force. Popular discontent for the war and the government grew, and in 1973 a student-led revolt drove the current leaders into exile.
Thailand enjoyed a brief period of parliamentary democracy, but in 1976 the military staged yet another coup, this time with the support of the monarchy. This in turn drove many disaffected Thais into the jungles, swelling the ranks of the insurgent Communist Party of Thailand. In 1980 the military ousted the right-wing government they had just installed and replaced it with a dictator with more democratic leanings. For the next eight years the military shared power with parliament, mediated by the king, and in 1988 an elected Prime Minister was put in power…for three years, when he was toppled by the military.
In 1992 the military "junta" held elections, which one of its own members won, much to nobody's surprise. The public were dissatisfied with this outcome, staging massive protests, which were put down with bloody force. Eventually the king intervened, the current dictator resigned and a more democratic government was put into place. This lasted for eight glorious years, until in 2006, increasing public dissatisfaction and government excesses led to… another military coup.
With the elderly king's backing, another caretaker government was formed with a retired general put in charge. Another new constitution was drafted and ratified by popular vote in August of 2007. In September 2008 another prime minister was found guilty of a conflict of interest by the Constitutional Court. In October his replacement was unable to enter his office, which was occupied by protestors, so he was forced out of office. The latest prime minister (as of this writing) took office in December of 2008.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[Who can tell? Thailand is a great country with a great history, beset by a seemingly never-ending series of political troubles. Things are especially uncertain because the current King, Bhumibol Adulyadej, arguably the only man capable of holding the country together, is over 80 years old. It is greatly to be hoped that the country can survive his passing without further chaos. Given the battered country's recent history, the odds do not seem to be in its favor.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Siam is a semi-tropical country located in a monsoon zone. From May to October warm northwestern winds bring huge amounts of rainfall to the country, the west coast receiving an astonishing 160 inches of rain annually (the hilly north much less so). The wind reverses course from November to February, bringing cooler, drier weather to the country. The countryside is covered with forests, swamps and wetlands. The Siamese people have traditionally used water buffalo, horses, and even elephants as draft animals (though the late 20th century has seen the introduction of farm machinery across much of the country).]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The earliest known settlers of Siam spoke Mon-Khmer languages. There were several different groups on the southeast Asia peninsula. One, the Mon, were known to have accepted Buddhism as far back as the sixth century AD. Another group, the Khmer, were primarily located in Cambodia, their capital at Angkor (home of Angkor Wat); in the 12th century they possessed an empire stretching over half of modern Thailand. The Khmer tended to follow Hinduism rather than Buddhism.
Around 1,000 AD the area saw an influx of Tai-speaking people called the "Tai." Modern historians generally believe that the Tai originated in northern Vietnam. In a few centuries the Tai had spread across much of Southeast Asia, as far west as northeastern India and as far south as the Malay Peninsula. By the 13th century the Tai were numerous enough to threaten the Mon and Khmer primacy in Siam.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[In the mid-thirteenth century a Tai ruler successfully revolted against the Khmer Empire, founding the Sukhothai kingdom. It remained a small, unimportant power until the ascension of its third ruler, Ramkhamhaeng, in 1279. In twenty short years this extraordinary leader would transform the small kingdom of Sukhothai into a major regional power.
During his reign Ramkhamhaeng expanded his kingdom's dominance west into Burma, east into Laos, and south down the Malay Peninsula. The king was a shrewd diplomat as well as a warlord; many territories joined his confederation voluntarily. Towards the end of his rule Ramkhamhaeng had a stone inscribed detailing his triumphs. It portrays a wealthy, contented kingdom ruled by a loving and benevolent monarch. Ramkhamhaeng died in 1298. For more on Ramkhamhaeng, see his Civilopedia entry.
Sukhothai would last a century past its greatest leader's death before being consumed by Ayutthaya, a new Tai power rising in the south.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The kingdom of Ayutthaya was founded by Ramathibodi I in 1351 on the Chao Phraya River Basin, a fertile plain just north of modern Bangkok. The kingdom was formed on the remains of an earlier kingdom, Lavo. In 1352 King Ramathibodi attacked the Khmer, driving them east out of Siam. By 1387 Ayutthaya was strong enough to attack north, conquering Sukhothai. And in 1431 the kingdom attacked the Khmer once more, this time capturing and sacking the capital city of Angkor after a seven-month siege.
By all accounts the city of Ayutthaya was beautiful and wealthy. It was traversed by a series of north-south canals which brought water to all sections of the city. The remains of magnificent palaces and temples can be seen in the city today. The Tai of Ayutthaya were the first people in the area to be called "Siamese," and this of course eventually became the name of the entire country.
From the Khmer, the Ayutthayans adopted the belief in the divinity of the king. The king was above all people. None could gaze upon his face, except for members of the royal family. In addition to the king's increased religious/ceremonial power, King Trailok (1448-1488) reorganized the state to concentrate political power in the hands of the monarchy as well.
Socially, the Ayutthayans lived under a rigid caste system that assigned a numerical value to each person according to his or her rank. A slave was worth five units (called "sakdi na"), a freeman 25 or so, and the heir to the throne perhaps 100,000 units. (The king himself was probably worth a gazillion - or even more!) Both Buddhism and Hinduism were followed in the country.
Having dealt with Sukhothai to the north and Khmer to the southeast, the greatest threat to Ayutthaya lay in Burma, to the west. In 1569 Ayutthaya was overrun and conquered by Burma. It regained its independence at the end of the 16th century. Burmese troops once again sacked the city in 1767. This time they deported the royal family, burned the city to the ground, and destroyed all of the Ayutthayan works of art and historical records. The Kingdom never recovered from this attack. However a new Siamese kingdom would rapidly rise to power in Ayutthaya's ashes.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[In 1767 (the same year that saw the final destruction of Ayutthaya), a Tai leader named "Taksin" founded a new capital city at Thon Buri, some forty miles downstream from Ayutthaya (near present-day Bangkok). Built on the eastern side of the Chao Phraya River, the city was easier to defend from Burmese forces; located closer to the open sea, the city was ideally suited to accommodate international trade as well. In fact Taksin encouraged Chinese merchants to establish businesses in Thon Buri, and tax revenue from this trade was used to rebuild the Siamese economy, devastated from the recent Burmese attack.
Taking advantage of his country's wealth, Taksin constructed a powerful army and began expanding its territory. After retaking the territory that had belonged to Sukhothai and Ayutthaya, Taksin's troops conquered additional territory in Laos, and pushed the Burmese forces out of traditional Tai lands to the north. In 1782 Taksin began showing signs of serious mental illness and was overthrown and killed. He was succeeded by a general named "Chao Phraya Chakri" (he later changed his name to Rama I). The Chakri dynasty has remained in power in Thailand until today.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Shortly after assuming the throne, the new king moved his capital to Bangkok, a small village across the Chao Phraya River. Bangkok quickly grew into a bustling trading city, largely due to the many Chinese who immigrated to the metropolis.
King Rama I and his successors continued to expand Siamese power into Laos and south down the Malay Peninsula. They also continued to clash with Burma, who remained a perennial menace until that country in turn was menaced by Great Britain (approaching from India).
King Rama I was also a great patron of Siamese culture, religion and the law. He rebuilt Siamese temples and palaces, and he greatly updated the Siamese legal system. His successor, Rama III (ruled 1809-24) was a patron of the arts, and no mean poet himself.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Perhaps the greatest triumph of Siamese diplomacy was that it avoided occupation by Western powers, unlike every other country in Southeast Asia. In 1826 Siam signed a treaty with Great Britain, and in 1855 this was expanded to allow the British unrestricted - and untaxed! - trade in Siamese ports. The British also secured the right to set up separate law courts to try cases involving British subjects. This was a humiliating loss of sovereignty and income for Siam, but it kept Britain from invading and occupying the country, and Siam soon signed similar treaties with other European powers and the United States.
King Rama IV (ruled 1851 - 1868) was a keen student of the West. He appointed to his court several Western advisors. He also hired the Englishwoman Anna Harriette Leonowens to tutor his children. Mrs. Leonowens later wrote a book about her adventures, and that book became the basis for the musical "The King and I." Both the book and the musical are highly entertaining and (according to historians) highly inaccurate.
In some ways King Rama IV was rather enlightened for that place and time. A former Buddhist monk before assuming the throne, he sought to reform Buddhism in the country, which he believed had become corrupt and filled with superstition. He also began to remake the Siamese monarchy, removing from it the more onerous trappings of godhood. Although he remained largely an absolute ruler, at least his subjects were allowed to look directly at him.
King Rama IV's son, Rama V, reigned from 1868 to 1910. He continued his father's practice of granting concessions to the West to maintain Siam's independence, losing large chunks of Laotian and Cambodian territory to the French and various bits of Malaysia to the British. He further reformed the monarchy and the government in general, including abolishing slavery, introducing a modern school system, constructing railways and telegraph systems, and establishing a new law court and judiciary.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[King Rama V's two successors, the aptly-named Rama VI (ruled 1910-1925) and Rama VII (ruled 1925-1935), continued the modernization of Siam. In 1917 Rama VI opened the first university in Thailand. In that year he also entered World War I on the side of the Allies. He was able after the war to convince the victors to give up their special concessions in Siam, regaining for the first time in seventy-five years full independence for his country. However, Rama VI's reforms and wars were extremely expensive and necessitated reductions in government spending which caused deep resentment from the people. The discontent continued into his successor's reign, and it was exacerbated by the Great Depression.
In 1932 a group of students under a lawyer named "Pridi Phanomyong" and supported by the Siamese military staged a bloodless coup, compelling the king to agree to rule under a constitution and to accept the formation of a National Assembly. In 1933 members of the royal family attempted unsuccessfully to stage a counter-coup, and King Rama VII was forced to leave the country, abdicating in 1935. A regency council was appointed to act until the very young Prince Ananda Mahidol came of age.
In truth, however, the military was now running the country. In 1938 a field marshal (and one of the co-conspirators of the '32 coup that toppled Rama VII) became military dictator. Dictator Phibun Songkhram changed the name of the country to Thailand, encouraged Thai nationalism as well as anti-Chinese and pro-Japanese sentiment. In 1940, following the conquest of France by Germany, he invaded and captured French territory in Laos and Cambodia.
Late in 1941, following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese troops marched into Thailand and requested right of passage through the country to facilitate their attack on Singapore, which was held by Great Britain. The Thai forces put up minimal symbolic resistance and then were ordered to lay down their arms. In 1942 Thailand signed an Alliance with Japan and declared war on Britain and the US. Resistance groups formed in the country and overseas, attacking the Japanese and the collaborating Thai government. In July 1944 Phibun was forced to resign, and the dictatorship collapsed following Japan's surrender in 1945.]=];
TITLE = [=[Siam]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Greetings to you, great King Ramkhamhaeng, leader of the glorious Siamese people! O mighty King, your people bow down before you in awe and fear! You are the ruler of Siam, an ancient country in the heart of Southeast Asia. Siam is a beautiful and mysterious land. Surrounded by foes, beset by bloody war and grinding poverty, the clever and loyal Siamese people have endured and triumphed. King Ramkhamhaeng, your empire was once part of the Khmer Empire, until the 13th century AD, when your ancestors revolted, forming the small Sukhothai kingdom. Through successful battle and cunning diplomacy the tiny kingdom grew into a mighty empire, an empire which would dominate Southeast Asia for more than a century!
Oh wise and puissant King Ramkhamhaeng, your people need you to once again lead them to greatness! Can you use your wits and strength of arms to protect your people and defeat your foes? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Songhai Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Songhai Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[According to legend the people of Songhai worshipped a monstrous fish and were subject to its stringent laws, until a stranger who came from the Yemen killed it. He became King of the Songhai and was the founder of the earliest-known dynasty, the Dya.
In response to the threat of encroachment by desert sands, Timbuktu was inscribed on the World Heritage in Danger List in 1990 and UNESCO established a conservation program to safeguard the city. 
The Songhai are well known for their woven blankets and mats. The elaborate cotton blankets (terabeba) woven by men in the town of Tera are highly prized.
The strongest taboo in Songhai society is lying. It is only the worst kind of person who will tell a lie.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Before the Songhai: The Mali]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Rise of Songhai]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Sunni Ali Ber]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Muhammad I Askia]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Decline and Fall of Songhai]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Lessons Learned]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Songhai Empire was a civilization that flourished in West Africa during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Songhai first appeared near the city of Gao, which was a vassal of the Malinese Empire. In the early 14th century the Songhai gained independence from the Mali, and over the next two centuries it expanded, eventually becoming the largest empire in African history.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The terrain of western Africa that was occupied by the Songhai is largely flat and arid, dominated by two major river systems, the Niger and Senegal, which provide cheap and rapid east-west transport as well as rich farmland along their banks. The climate is hot and tropical with two main seasons, dry and wet. From March until June a hot, dry wind blows out of the Sahara, and daytime temperatures are often above 100 degrees Fahrenheit.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Before the rise of the Songhai, much of central Western Africa was controlled by the Mali Empire. This empire is believed to have been founded sometime before 1,000 AD. It was largely a trading empire and literally the crossroads of Africa, controlling the important north-south Saharan commercial routes as well as the east-west river routes. Under the great leader Mansa Musa (1307 - 1331?), the Malinese Empire conquered the wealthy cities of Timbuktu and Gao and gained control of the valuable salt deposits to the north.
Mali was a Muslim empire, and under Musa the city of Timbuktu became an important center of learning in the Muslim world. However, by the turn of the 14th century the empire had grown too large for sustainable centralized rule, and major territories began to assert their independence and calve off. This included Gao, the home of the Songhai.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The Songhai are believed to have first appeared in Gao around 800 AD. Little is known about their early history, but it is known that in the 11th century, King Kossoi converted to Islam, and he also made Gao the capital of the growing Songhai kingdom. Under Songhai rule Gao grew wealthy and prosperous, and in the early 13th century the Mali conquered the Songhai, making the kingdom a vassal state. Songhai remained under Mali control for perhaps fifty years, before regaining its independence under King Sulaiman-Mar.
Songhai maintained a precarious freedom for the next century, until a great new leader, Sunni Ali Ber, propelled it into greatness.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Sunni Ali Ber ruled the Songhai for thirty years (1464-1493). He was a brilliant military leader and strategist. Taking advantage of Mali's growing feebleness, Sunni led Songhai armies to conquer the wealthy city of Timbuktu, driving out the marauding Taureg people who had taken over the city as Malinese power declined. He expanded his empire further west, gobbling up all Malinese land north of Jenne (a.k.a., Djenne). He was not unopposed in his expansion. Over the course of his reign he repelled assaults from the Mossi, Dogon, and Fulani.
In 1473 Ali Ber sought the greatest prize, the wealthy trading city of Jenne. Jenne was still a part of the Malinese Empire, and its people put up a stout defense. Unable to take the city by storm Ali Ber laid siege to it. The city held out stubbornly for seven years before capitulating.
The records of the day generally regard Ali Ber as an unstable tyrant, who was by turns generous and brutal, who ruled with an iron fist and who slaughtered and oppressed those he captured. There may be some exaggeration, as the Muslim scholars who recorded the histories disliked Ali Ber for the unorthodox form of Islam he practiced, apparently a kind of fusion between Islam and traditional Songhai religious observances.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Muhammad I Askia ruled Songhai from 1493 until 1528. The word "Askia" means "usurper," which is how he came to power, overthrowing Ali Ber's son and heir less than a year after Ber's death. That he chose "usurper" for his title and dynastic name suggests that this extraordinary man had an extraordinary sense of humor.
Although he fought a war to gain the crown of Songhai, Askia was more than a warlord. He fought several battles during his reign, with mixed success, but he is primarily known as a reformer, organizer, and man of God. During his reign he created a bureaucracy to help rule the empire and to bring coherency to its tax, military, and agricultural policies. He opened many religious schools across Songhai, and in 1495 he made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca.
Askia ruled until 1528, when he was deposed by his son. For more information about this extraordinary ruler, see his Civilopedia entry.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[In the years following Askia's removal, no other leader was able to take and hold power for any significant length of time. Askia's son, Musa reigned for three years; he was followed by Muhammad II, who lasted for six years; and the next two leaders lasted for two and ten years respectively. In 1549 Askia Dawud came to power; he ruled for some thirty-three years, until 1582. This relative stability was shattered when the Sultan of Morocco raided the Songhai's valuable salt deposits at Taghaza.
The end came in 1591. Seeing that the Songhai were weak and divided, and, most of all, lacked modern weaponry, a Moroccan army armed with muskets launched a major attack. The Songhai warriors were completely routed, the leaders driven into the hills and the Moroccans captured the major cities of Timbuktu and Gao. In one shocking campaign, an entire empire was virtually wiped from the planet.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[The fall of Songhai was brutal and rapid. In many ways it resembled the conquest of the Aztec Empire some seventy years earlier in 1521. In their day both of these empires were mighty, rich and powerful and thought themselves invulnerable. Both were brought down by a small force armed with markedly superior technology. It reminds us of the famous rule, "Never bring a knife to a gunfight. Bring a gun. Preferably, bring at least two guns." This is as true in empires as it is in gunfights.]=];
TITLE = [=[Songhai]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[May the blessings of God, who is greatest of all, be upon you Askia, leader of the Songhai people!  For many years your kingdom was a vassal state of the mighty West African state of Mali, until the middle of the 14th century, when king Sunni Ali Ber wrested independence from the Mali, conquering much territory and fighting off numerous foes who sought to destroy him. Ultimately, his conquest of the wealthy cities of Timbuktu and Jenne gave the growing Songhai empire the economic power to survive for some 100 years, until the empire was destroyed by foes with advanced technology - muskets against spearmen.
King Askia, your people look to you to lead them to glory. To make them powerful and wealthy, to keep them supplied with the weapons they need to defeat any foe. Can you save them from destruction, oh King? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[City State]=];
ShortDescription=[=[City State]=];
Adjective=[=[City State]=];
Description=[=[Barbarian State]=];
Description=[=[Mongolian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Mongolian Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Mongolian Empire's mail system formed the basis for the famed Pony Express.
Europe's knowledge of the known world was largely due to the trade routes maintained by the Mongolian Empire.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Present and Future]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Enter Temujin]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Life in the Mongolian Empire]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[A World Superpower]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Civil War and the End of an Era]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Under China]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[A New Mongolia]=];
KESHIK_HEADING = [=[Mongolian Keshik]=];
KESHIK_HELP = [=[This Mongolian Unique Unit replaces the standard Knight.  It possesses a strong ranged attack, increased movement rate, and earns promotions 50% faster.  Unit battles also contribute double the amount of points towards earning a Great General.]=];
KESHIK_INFO = [=[The Keshik is a Mongolian Unique Unit, available in the Medieval Era.  This replacement for the standard Knight moves at an increased rate, earns promotions at a double rate, and contributes twice the amount of points towards earning Great Generals.  The Keshik can also attack its enemies from afar, using its powerful ranged attack.]=];
KESHIK_STRATEGY = [=[The Keshik is a unique replacement for the Knight, available to the Mongols starting in the Medieval Era.  Keshiks possess a strong ranged attack and an increased movement rate (5 points total), allowing it to perform hit and run attacks remarkably effectively.  If this wasn't enough, the Keshik also acquires promotions at double the rate of other units, and contributes twice the amount of points towards earning Great Generals.  These mounted warriors singlehandedly afford Genghis control of the open plains.]=];
KESHIK_TEXT = [=[In the 12th century the Mongols came boiling out of Central Asia, conquering most of Asia, Eastern Europe and a large portion of the Middle East within a century. The Mongols' primary weapon was their incomparable horse archers, the Keshiks. The Mongols were nomadic tribesmen, and their children were almost literally "raised in the saddle." Riding on their small but hearty steppe ponies, the lightly-armed and armored Mongols could cover an astonishing amount of territory in a day, far outpacing any infantry or even the heavier European cavalry.
In battle the Mongol Keshiks would shoot from horseback with deadly accuracy, disrupting and demoralizing the enemy formations. Once the enemy was suitably weakened, the Mongol heavy cavalry units would charge into the wavering foe to deliver the coup de grace. When facing armored European knights the Mongols would simply shoot their horses, then ignore or destroy the unhorsed men as they wished.]=];
KHAN_HEADING = [=[Mongolian Khan]=];
KHAN_HELP = [=[This Mongolian Unique Great Person replaces the Great General. While providing the same combat bonuses as a normal Great General, the Khan moves at an increased rate and can heal adjacent units.]=];
KHAN_INFO = [=[The Khan is a Unique Great Person available to the Mongols, providing increased healing power to nearby units.  To best keep up with the Mongol mounted units, Khans also possess an increased movement rate.]=];
KHAN_STRATEGY = [=[The Khan is a Mongolian Unique Great Person, replacing the standard Great General.  The same combat bonuses apply, but the Khan moves at the same rate as the Keshik (5 points per turn) and can heal adjacent units for an additional 15 HP per turn. This beefed up General ensures that his cavalry units will always be in a battle ready state.]=];
KHAN_TEXT = [=[Originally the Khans were tribal chieftains of the Mongol people, ruling anywhere from one tribe to a loose confederation of many smaller ones.  At the time of Genghis' rise to power, the title was generally reserved for military leaders, but was later used to denote the civil leaders of the Mongolian Empire as well.  The Khans were the elected rulers of the empire provinces, holding their titles based on merit and loyalty rather than blood ties.  These leaders often served as generals as well, leading the large Mongolian armies in their successful raids and conquests. Later, an extension of the word was created, "Khagan", to denote the grand ruler, the Khan of Khans so to speak, but this wasn't used until after Genghis Khan's death in 1227 AD.]=];
        Leader: GENGHIS
        Unique Unit: Mongolian Keshik
        Unique Unit: Mongolian Khan
TEXT_1 = [=[The Mongolian Empire formed the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world, stretching from the Danube to the Sea of Japan and from Siberia to Cambodia - roughly 22% of the Earth's land area.  From humble beginnings as a mish-mash of unaligned nomadic tribes, the Mongols changed the face of the ancient world and became one of the most feared and effective military forces ever to walk the land.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[In 1992, influenced by Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika campaign in the USSR, Mongolia saw a peaceful democratic revolution, introducing a multi-party system and capitalistic economy in the process.  A new constitution was approved and the country was renamed to "Mongolia".  The first few years were rocky, but the country has since become an important industrial economy, thanks to its rich mining resources.  While still young, Mongolia has formed many positive alliances with world leaders, including Japan, the United States, and China, and is working towards a brighter and more affluent way of life for its people.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Spreading across eastern Asia, Mongolia's geography is rugged and varied, with steep mountain ranges in the north and west, verdant steppes throughout the central part of the country, and the Gobi Desert bordering on the south.  While the steppes could serve as bountiful pasture land, Mongolia's harsh climate dictates otherwise.  Summers are short and hot, while the long, frigid winters cover the country in devastating blizzards (known as zud), making grazing all but impossible for large parts of the year.  Temperatures as low as -22F during the winter are not uncommon.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[From at least Paleolithic times, nomadic tribes have dominated the Mongolian landscape.  These tribes were adept farmers as well as huntsmen, only staying on the move to keep ahead of the harsh winters and dry summers. They were skilled horsemen and archers, particularly accomplished in mounted combat.  Occasionally, some individual tribes formed confederations, such as the Xiongnu alliance in 209 BC.  While threatening enough en masse to force the Qin Dynasty to construct the Great Wall of China, these loose bandings of tribes did not have any lasting power.  For the next several centuries many tribes would attempt to join together, but these short-lived alliances would usually fall apart through internal strife and bickering over yurts, horses, women, and grazing rights.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[During one particularly chaotic episode, the young son of a Mongol chieftain by the name of Temujin defeated a particularly nasty tribe of Merkits.  Impressed with the victory and his control over the army (he forbade looting and raping, pretty much unheard of at the time), a gathering of chieftains gave him the title "Khan" and the control of the tribe.
His uncles and cousins however weren't exactly pleased with the throne passing to the young man, and attempted to wrest control of the tribe from him by force.  However, in a brilliant military campaign lasting from 1203 - 1205 AD, Temujin not only destroyed his family rivals but also brought all the remaining tribes under his sway.  Never before had one man managed to gain allegiance from all the tribes of Mongols.  In 1206, he assumed the title "Genghis Khan", the Universal Ruler.  With this monumental event, the Mongolian Empire was officially born.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Genghis is primarily well-known for his military prowess and conquests, but he only maintained hold of his empire through strict civil discipline and order.  He created a code of laws called the Yassa, which governed everyone in the Empire, nobleman and commoner alike.  The Yassa imposed harsh penalties on anyone caught not obeying the law (usually death), religious freedom was guaranteed to any and all, all forms of vandalizing was forbidden, and government officials were selected based on merit - not blood.  Despite its huge size and disparate groupings of people, the Mongolian Empire was incredibly well-run and one of the safest places on earth, if you followed the rules.  Cities caught not following the Khan's decrees were systematically and completely destroyed. 
Extensive trade routes were set up stretching the length of the empire, allowing safe passage from Europe to China. An efficient mail system called the Yam was also instituted - its structure would later be copied by the US's Pony Express.  Roads were built, fair taxes levied, and written language was taught to the Empire's citizens. Life was surprisingly good, provided you obeyed the Khanate.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[With such an efficient system of government in place, combined with the powerful Mongolian horse archers, country after country fell under the Mongol banner.  At the time of Genghis' death in 1227, the Mongolian Empire already stretched from the Pacific to the Caspian Sea - twice the size of even the Roman Empire at its height.  His successors continued to subjugate neighboring nations for the next four decades.
By 1258 the Mongolian armies had captured Baghdad, killing the caliph after refusal to submit peacefully, thereby opening the door to Syria and the rest of Europe. Some small expeditions were sent as far west as Ukraine and Poland, but the bulk of the army did not pass through Syria.  Treaties and letters were sent to the Khan by many of the European nations, hoping for peaceful alliances rather than subjugation.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The Mongol's unstoppable expansions may have continued all the way to the Atlantic, but a death in the reigning Khan's family forced the western general and Kublai Khan's son, Hulegu, to withdraw back to Iran.  Syria and the new western territories were quickly lost.
Hulegu and his cousin Berke (an eastern general) then began fighting in earnest over suspicious deaths in each other's retainers, dividing the internal armies and territories over the dispute.  Kublai quickly quashed the internal uprisings and sent the armies back to outward expansion and conquest.  However, the solidarity of the Mongolian army and government was weakened, and the foundation for the fall of the Empire was laid.
Many internal struggles and squabbles between the Khan's family and its generals ensued for the next hundred years, weakening the empire even further.  With the death of the current Khan in 1335, Persia quickly fell to anarchy.  The onset of the Black Death at this time also killed most of the government officials, cut off commercial ties with the empire's allies, and killed millions of the populace.  Needless to say, chaos erupted.
Quickly, the western provinces fell, followed by the loss of China in 1368. The remaining Mongols quickly fled back to their original homeland of Mongolia, breaking into smaller tribes and hordes once again.  In thirty short years, the empire that once ruled the world was reduced to rubble.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[For the next three centuries the Mongols slowly dwindled in power and mostly returned to their tribal ways, with the last Khan dying in 1634. In 1691 the area which encompasses Mongolia today was brought under Chinese rule, where it remained until 1911.  Over this time, the nobility's irresponsibility towards their subjects combined with China's unscrupulous taxation practices resulted in rampant poverty throughout the region.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[With the fall of the Chinese Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared its independence, but to little lasting avail.  In 1919 it was recaptured by Xu Shuzheng.  However, the Russians came to Mongolia's aid and defeated the occupying Chinese three years later.  In 1924 and guided by the USSR, the Mongolian People's Republic was born.
Life under communist rule was rough.  All livestock became owned by the government, Buddhist monasteries were destroyed and their monks slaughtered. Constant wars fought along and inside the country's borders led to much strife for the populace. Poverty became an even worse problem.]=];
TITLE = [=[Mongolia]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Greetings, oh Great Temujin, immortal Emperor of the mighty Mongol Empire! Your fists shatter the walls of cities, and your voice brings despair to your enemies. Oh Khan, you united the warring tribes of northern Asia into mighty people, creating the greatest cavalry force the world has ever witnessed! Your people's cunning diplomacy divided their enemies, making them weak and helpless before Mongolia's conquering armies. In a few short years your people's soldiers conquered most of China and Eastern Asia. And the empire continued to grow, until it reached west into Europe and south to Korea. Indeed, it was the greatest empire ever seen, dwarfing those pathetic conquests of the Romans or the Greeks.
Temujin, your people call upon you once more to lead them to battle and conquest! Will the world once again tremble at the thunderous sound of your cavalry sweeping down from the steppes? Will you build an empire that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Incan Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Incan Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Inca used a system of knotted and dyed strings to store accounting information.
The Incas believed the coca plant was both sacred and magical, and its leaves were used in numerous religious rituals.
The highest permanent Incan settlement found so far is located at roughly 17,400 ft above sea level.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History: The Kingdom of Cusco]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Continued Expansion]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The White Man Cometh]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The End of an Empire]=];
SLINGER_HEADING = [=[Slinger]=];
SLINGER_HELP = [=[One of the first available ranged Units, this Incan Unique Unit replaces the Archer. The Slinger is no more powerful than the Archer, and is even more fragile if subjected to a melee attack. However it possesses a promotion that gives it a good chance to withdraw to the rear before an enemy melee attack can occur.]=];
SLINGER_STRATEGY = [=[The Slinger is an Ancient Era ranged infantry Unit that can strike foes from afar. This Incan Unique Unit can withdraw before most melee attacks: use it to harass your foes. However the Slinger can be easily defeated if the enemy pins it against obstructions or chases it with fast units.]=];
SLINGER_TEXT = [=[The Inca warriors were renowned slingers. Their projectile of choice was a rounded stone. While a sling does not have the range or stopping power of a bow and arrow, slings are remarkably small and light weapons, and infantry warriors could easily carry them without becoming encumbered. And as is written in the Old Testament, a trained slinger can kill even the largest opponent with but a single stone...]=];
        Leader: Pachacuti
        Unique Unit: Slinger
        Unique Improvement: Terrace Farm
TEXT_1 = [=[The largest Pre-Columbian empire in the Americas, the Incan Empire stretched from Peru to Chile along the Andes Mountains.  This grand empire had humble beginnings in one small kingdom, but grew to dominate the whole of "civilized" South America.  While the empire only lasted for one brief century, it did much to unify the people and culture of the different tribes living on the mountain tops.  Despite the Inca's near and complete annihilation, many artifacts and physical structures still stand, such as the famed Machu Picchu, a testament of the power once wielded by the Incan kings.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The empire was centered along the Andean mountain ranges, and encompassed areas which include parts of present-day Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Colombia.  The climate and geography were mountainous, but early on the Incas perfected the art of terrace farming and easily lived among the ridges.  Fertile valleys nestled between the mountain peaks gave the Incas plenty of spaces to live and grow.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Before it was a mighty empire, the Incas hailed from the small Kingdom of Cusco, situated in western Peru.  Under the leadership of Pachacuti, the ninth Sapa Inca, Cusco embarked upon a campaign to subjugate the surrounding tribes under one banner. Using both military conquests and peaceful assimilations, Pachacuti and his son Tupac laid the foundation for the Tahuantinsuyu Empire.  The appellation was a literal naming of the empire, signifying its creation from four separate provinces - Chinchasuyu in the northwest, Antisuyu in the northeast, Contisuyu to the southwest, and Collasuyu to the southeast.
Pachacuti set up a new system of government in order to keep his acquisitions in order. Children of the ruling families were made to relocate to Cusco (the capital) and learn from the Incas directly, becoming indoctrinated into their culture and way of life.  Once they were older, the children were returned to their original provinces in the empire, helping to spread the Incan culture.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[After Pachacuti's death in 1471, his son Tupac Inca Yupanqui began new conquests in the north. At this point in time, the Incas only had one main rival left along the western shores, the Chimor tribe.  Tupac quickly dispatched them and added their holdings to the growing empire.
Tupac's son Huayna Capac later added a few additional pieces of present-day Ecuador to the empire, but his southern expansion was halted at the Battle of the Maule.  There the Mapuche tribes stopped the Incas in their tracks. This wasn't a complete loss for the Incas since most of the land in this area of the empire was predominately desert wasteland, and the majority of the population remained in the Andes.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In 1526, the Inca's domination of the land began its downward spiral.  Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro reached the Incan territory as he explored south from Panama, and immediately petitioned the crown for permission to invade - he believed fervently that the land was ripe with treasure.
He returned with a small force in 1532 to find the empire ready for the taking.  Huayna's two sons, Huascar and Atahualpa, were engaged in a civil war over control of the territories, and the introduction of smallpox had wreaked considerable havoc among its populace.  Pizarro's force (168 men, 1 cannon, and 27 horses) were no match for the Inca in numbers, but their superior technology and military tactics saw them through in the end.
Pizarro's first battle, the Battle of Puná, occurred later that year near present-day Guayaquil, Ecuador, which he handily won.  One of his men, Hernando de Soto, was sent further inland to explore as Pizarro founded a new city in the area, Piura. De Soto encountered the triumphant Atahualpa and returned to Pizarro with an invitation to meet. The Spaniards demanded that the Incas accept Charles I of Spain as their emperor and convert immediately to Christianity.  Perhaps due to a language barrier or poor communication skills in general, Atahualpa didn't fully grasp the exact message of the meeting and sent further communications demanding more explanation.  Frustrated and annoyed, instead of finding a better translator the Spanish attacked Atahualpa's camp and took the leader as hostage.
The Incan King offered Pizarro a massive amount of gold and silver for his release, which he promptly accepted. Pizarro however didn't keep his end of the bargain and refused to release Atahualpa to the Incas.  During this time, Huascar was assassinated and Pizarro used this to his advantage - claiming that Atahualpa was behind the dirty deed.  At a shady trial run by the Spanish, Atahualpa was sentenced to death in August 1533.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[With both Atahualpa and Huascar out of the picture, the Spanish placed their younger brother Manco in charge, who dutifully cooperated with them for the time being. Manco, once secure in his own power base, attempted to take back his empire with the capture of Cusco in 1536, but he was no match for the Spanish invaders. He and his court fled to the mountains of Peru, where they continued to rule for the next 36 years.  However, in 1572 the last Incan stronghold fell, and Manco's son and current king, Tupac Amaru was executed.
All the Incan royalty dead, the new Spanish rulers brutally oppressed the native people and attempted to strip them of their culture, religion, and traditions. Each Incan family was required to send a family member to work in the Spanish gold and silver mines, and replace them immediately upon the worker's death, which happened roughly every one to two years due to poor working conditions. Smallpox continued to spread rapidly through the remains of the empire, claiming somewhere between 60% and 90% of the population.  Typhus, influenza, diphtheria, and measles did the rest - by 1618 almost all traces of the Incan culture were lost. All that is left now of their once glorious civilization is a smattering of scattered tribes and stone outcroppings, relics of a distant past.]=];
TITLE = [=[Inca]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Inca]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Oh ye who remakes the world, your loyal subjects greet you - King Pachacuti! You rule the Inca people. From their beginnings in the small state of Cusco the Incans displayed their potential for greatness, marching to war against their many enemies, crushing their armies into dust and carving for themselves a mighty empire stretching from Ecuador to Chile. Indeed they built the greatest empire ever seen in pre-Columbian America. More than mere soldiers your people were great builders and artists as well, and the remnants of their works still awe and inspire the world today.
Oh King Pachacuti, truly are you called "Earth Shaker!" Will you once again call upon the ground itself to fight at your side?  Your armies await your signal. Will you restore the glory of your empire? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Spanish Empire]=];
CONQUISTADOR_HEADING = [=[Conquistador]=];
CONQUISTADOR_HELP = [=[Medieval Era unit that specializes in scouting and colonizing overseas. Only Spain may build it. Replaces the Knight.]=];
CONQUISTADOR_STRATEGY = [=[The Conquistador is a multi-purpose unit that is strong both on land and at sea. Replacing the Knight, it is an exceptional scout on land with extra visibility. It also has the ability to found new cities, but only on a foreign continent that does not contain the Spanish capital. In the water, the Conquistador has the defensive embarkation promotion that allows it to defend itself against naval units. It also suffers no penalty when attacking cities, unlike the Knight.]=];
CONQUISTADOR_TEXT = [=[The Conquistadors were the Spanish soldiers and explorers who conquered so much of the New World in the 16th and 17th centuries. Having recently driven the Moors from Spain, the Conquistadors were seasoned veteran light cavalrymen. Their ability to traverse difficult terrain on horseback made them especially effective against the natives of the New World, who lacked horses altogether and were unable to outrun their terrifying opponents.]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Spanish Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[One of Imperial Spain's most recognizable legacies is its language - nearly 500 million people today speak Spanish, the second most popular language in the world.
Spain is the leading nation in solar power production, having overtaking the United States in 2010 with the completion of La Florida, a huge solar plant. Also, more than 50% of the energy generated in the country is provided by windmills, much to Don Quixote's displeasure.
In theory, if not in practice, nudism is legal everywhere throughout Spain.
The beret was invented in Spain by the Basque in the northeast Pyrenees.
Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra wrote Don Quixote, which is credited as the first modern novel.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History: From Cro-Magnons to Celts]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Enter the Romans]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Arrival of the Moors]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Reconquista, Unification, and Inquistition, Oh My]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Imperial Spain, Rulers of the New World]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Troubles and Warfare, or, Spain can't get a break]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Present and the Future]=];
        Leader: Isabella
        Unique Unit: Tercio
        Unique Unit: Conquistador
TERCIO_HEADING = [=[Tercio]=];
TERCIO_HELP = [=[Dominant military Unit of the Renaissance Era. Only Spain may build it. This Unit has a higher {{strength5}} Combat Strength than the Musketman which it replaces, as well as the Bonus vs Mounted (50) promotion. However it is also more expensive to build.]=];
TERCIO_STRATEGY = [=[The Tercio is one of two Spanish Unique Units, replacing the Musketman. This Unit is stronger in combat than the Musketman and fights at double-strength against mounted units. The Tercio is more expensive to build however.]=];
TERCIO_TEXT = [=[The Tercio is a brilliant military innovation consisting of a mixed formation of pikemen and arquebusiers (soldiers armed with extremely primitive firearms), created in the early 16th century by the Spanish general Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba. The tercio (also known as the "Spanish square") was deployed in a checkerboard formation, with pikemen and arquebusiers set in alternating supporting blocks. The advantages of this arrangement are obvious: the arquebusiers can attack the enemy at distance, and the pikemen can take over in close combat. This formation would come to dominate Renaissance warfare for more than a century.]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Spain's location on the Iberian Peninsula between North Africa and Europe has made it an important territory from prehistoric times to the present.  At one time the first world Imperial power, Spain later had to survive devastating wars and centuries of political unrest. From its discovery and colonization of the New World to its involvement in countless wars of independence, Spain is one of the few countries which can claim such a lasting and encompassing global influence.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The Kingdom of Spain is the 51st largest country in the world, only some 31,000 square miles bigger than the state of California.  The majority of the country is dominated by high plateaus and mountain ranges, including the Sierra Nevada in the south and the Pyrenees to the west.  Spain's highest peak is located on one of its island holdings, the volcano Teide on Tenerife, a member of the Canary Islands.
Spain's climate is incredibly diverse, even if only considering the mainland and none of the colonies.  The southern areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea enjoy a mild Mediterranean and semi-arid climate, the central plain is Continental in nature, and the northern areas vary between Oceanic and Mountainous temperatures.  Also, contrary to popular belief, the rain in Spain does not fall mainly in the plain - it's usually found in the mountains.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Archeological evidence suggests that humans first arrived on the Iberian Peninsula about 32,000 years ago, the Altamira cave paintings providing a famous artifact of their travels. The peninsula was settled between two main groups, the Iberians and the Celts, the former populating the southern and eastern areas with the latter inhabiting the northern and western stretches.  The peninsula placed the Celts and Iberians in a prime position for commerce, and many Phoenician and Greek merchants set up a thriving gold and silver trade, predominately within the city of Tartessos, located at present-day Seville.  A few Phoenician, Greek, and Carthaginian trading colonies were founded along the Mediterranean coast of the peninsula, though the local populace retained control over most of their area, despite this influx of foreign gold and power.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[This continued until roughly 210 BC, when the Romans captured the Carthaginian colonies during the Second Punic War.  At this point, the Romans launched a campaign into the heart of the Iberian Peninsula, where they conquered nearly all of the landmass. Over the course of the next 500 years, the Celts and Iberians were steadily "Romanized" - local aristocratic families were inducted into the Roman nobility, Roman roads and trading posts dotted the land, and new systems of irrigation techniques were established, including the famous aqueducts.   Christianity was also introduced during this time and was quickly adopted by the local people.
Rome, however, began to lose hold of the peninsula (now being referred to as "Hispania" or "Iberia") when a Germanic invasion of Gaul pushed Suevi and Vandal peoples into Iberia in 409 AD. The displaced tribes set up a new kingdom in modern day Galicia and Portugal, and Rome lacked the resources to stop them.  The Vandals quickly spread across Iberia, leaving the Romans with a small southern holding along the coast, Spania.  The Byzantine Romans hoped to retake Iberia from this vantage point, but soon the entire peninsula fell under Visigothic rule.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The Visigoths continued their control of Iberia for the next three centuries, until a sudden invasion by the Umayyad Islamic Empire swept across the peninsula.  The large, Moorish armies crossed from North Africa into Gibraltar and conquered nearly the whole of Iberia in seven short years, from 711-718 AD.   The new Islamic powers allowed the Christians and the Jews to continue their religious practices, but did require them to pay special taxes and submit to a few discriminatory practices. Despite these minor (for the given time) prejudices, many of the locals began to convert to Islam.
The invaders themselves were hardly unified despite their shared religion and purpose, and soon groups of Moors were splitting off and forming settlements of their own, primarily in the Valencia and Granada regions.  In the 11th century the Muslim territories fractured again, allowing some of the remaining Christian kingdoms to expand their boundaries.  Christians and Muslims continued to wrest for control of Iberia for centuries, resulting in the creation of the Reconquista.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Officially starting with the Battle of Covadonga in 722 (but not gaining momentum until much later), the Reconquista was the name given to the Christians' attempt to reclaim Iberia from Muslim rule.  Many important Christian kingdoms were founded by the Reconquista, such as Asturias and Aragon, but most of the Muslim kingdoms stubbornly held onto their land.  For the next 700 years, a battle for the Iberian Peninsula raged between the Christians and the Muslims: strongholds were built and fell, power bases and balances shifted, and borders were redrawn on nearly a yearly basis.  Despite the slow encroachment of the Christian-led kingdoms across Iberia, no clear victor presented itself.
However, this all changed with the fateful union of the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, joined by the marriage of Isabella I and Ferdinand II in 1469.  The two monarchs led a pointed attack against the Islamic stronghold of Granada, and in 1492 they finally ended the 781-year rule of the Muslims in Iberia.
1492 was an important year for the monarchs; Christopher Columbus, with the patronage of Isabella, arrived in America (leading to the colonization of the New World), and the Iberian Jews were ordered to convert to Christianity or face expulsion or even death under the Inquisition.
The new, unified kingdom of Isabella and Ferdinand became known as España (or Spain) and with her wealthy colonies in the New World became the first "world power" of the time.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[At its height, the Spanish Empire counted holdings across the entirety of the world - from large chunks of North and South America and small pieces of Europe, to various cities in North Africa and the entirety of the East Indies. The Spanish led the world in this age of discovery, accumulating vast amounts of wealth and trade from their numerous colonies and principalities.  It was said, and rightfully so, that the sun always shone somewhere in the Spanish Empire.
Spain's new trade routes with the New World not only provided new knowledge and culture, but also new resources in the form of precious metals ( i.e., gold), spices, and plants. Spain's Golden Age also saw the creation of intellectual and spiritual reforms as well, starting with the escalation of humanism, beginnings of the Protestant Reformation, and the founding of the School of Salamanca.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[With great power comes great responsibility, at least if you don't want Barbary pirates to conduct slave raids along your empire's coastal holdings. Besides the growing pirate and Ottoman threat, Spain found itself routinely at war with France.  Religious unrest and wars shook the Catholic empire, as the Protestant Reformation dragged the empire into ever-increasing military engagements across Europe.  What unrest and religion didn't touch, plague did, and in the 1650's, the empire was rocked by the Great Plague of Seville.
From this point forward, Spain's power and influence went into a gradual, and then not-so-gradual decline. She began to lose her European holdings, primarily from the separation of Portugal and the Netherlands, and then suffered military setbacks from the highly destructive Thirty Years War.
Wars and more wars threatened and decimated the once proud empire for the next two centuries.  In the 18th century, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the country by trickery, claiming he was on his way to Portugal.  Then in the early 19th century, a nationalist revolt to overthrow their French- occupationalist government led to the Spanish War of Independence, or the Peninsular War.  Despite their eventual victory over the French (mostly due to Napoleon's disastrous Russian campaign) the country was thrown into political turmoil.
Spain soon saw itself in turn facing multiple wars of independence from its own foreign colonies, cumulating in the Spanish-American War. The 20th century didn't bring much change for the fallen empire - The Spanish Civil War of the 1930s brought Fascism and an authoritarian government to the country, claiming over half a million lives in the process.  This war is also commonly credited as the first battle of World War II.
It wasn't until the death of General Francisco Franco, in 1975, that the monarchy was restored and things began to look up for Spain for the first time in the past 300 years.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[In 1978, Democracy was introduced to Spain with the approval of the Spanish Constitution; King Juan Carlos finally put a stop to rebel and radical Nationalist movements that had been rampaging across the country side, primarily led by a group of Basque terrorists.  In 1982, Spain became a member of NATO, and then in 1986, a member of the European Community, which later became the European Union.
From its glorious days as an Imperial power to its centuries of internal and international strife, Spain has rebuilt itself and re-emerged as a new world player, boasting the ninth largest economy and tenth highest quality of life in the world.  A huge percentage of the world can trace back some part of its national identity or culture to Spain, from the architectural iron workings in New Orleans to the Catholic faith of the Philippines. Few current nations can claim to have such a far-reaching and lasting influence as Imperial Spain, both at the height of her power and today.]=];
TITLE = [=[Spain]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Blessed Isabella, Servant of God, Holy Queen of Castile and Le�n, your people greet and welcome you! You are the ruler of Spain, a beautiful and ancient country at the crossroads of the world between Europe and Africa, one shore on the Mediterranean and the other on the mighty Atlantic Ocean. The Spanish are a multicultural people, with roots in the Muslim and Christian world. A seafaring race, Spanish explorers found and conquered much of the New World, and for many centuries its gold and silver brought Spain unrivaled wealth and power, making the Spanish court the envy of the world.
O fair and virtuous Isabella, will you rebuild the Spanish Empire and show the world again the greatness of your people?  Will you take up the mantle of the holy monarchy and vanquish your foes under Heaven's watchful eyes?  Your adoring subjects await your command. Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Polynesian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Polynesian Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The word "tattoo" originated in Tahiti and was derived from the local god Tohu, master of painting all the oceans' fish in bright colors and patterns.
Author Robert Louis Stevenson fell in love with the island of Samoa and settled there during his later years.
The Hawaiian archipelago is the largest island chain in the world, measuring at some 1,500 miles from end to end.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History: First Settlers]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Navigating the Waters]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Link to the Americas]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Arrival of the Europeans]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Present and Future]=];
MAORI_HEADING = [=[Maori Warrior]=];
SCENARIO_MAORI_HELP = [=[Strongest combat unit in Polynesia (prior to the arrival of Gunpowder).]=];
SCENARIO_MAORI_STRATEGY = [=[Maori Warriors are the big kahunas of the Polynesian battlefield.  These strong melee warriors strike fear into nearby enemies with their Haka War Dance, a promotion that drops the {{strength5}} Combat Strength of nearby enemies.  They should be able to defeat Warriors and Spearmen with ease.]=];
        Leader: Kamehameha
        Unique Unit: Maori Warrior
        Unique Unit: Moai
TEXT_1 = [=[More of a loose collection of islands rather than a unified civilization, Polynesia boasts a rich culture and fascinating history.  When most Europeans were mired in the Dark Ages, the Polynesians were perfecting the art of travelling across the mighty Pacific in small wooden canoes, navigating by the stars, weather, and wildlife.  Eventually most of the islands were colonized by European powers, but much of the native culture and languages are still fiercely preserved for future generations.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Polynesia is the general name given to the grouping of islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean, also known as the Polynesian Triangle.  Bordered by New Zealand to the west, Hawai'i to the north and Easter Island to the east, the region includes over 1,000 inhabited islands.  The name was originally introduced by French writer Charles de Brosses in 1756 to describe all the Pacific islands, but it was later limited to its current definition.
The islands as a whole are volcanic in nature, many with idyllic white beaches, palm trees, and clear lagoons - quintessential island paradises.  Polynesia's climate is tropical and warm, but strong trade winds tend to keep many of the islands from reaching scorching temperatures.  The islands are sometimes plagued by typhoons, which are active in the region from January to March.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The ancient history of the Polynesian peoples is still shrouded in mystery, but archeologists and anthropologists currently agree that one of three theories explains how the islands were originally settled.
The first theory, the Express Train model, suggests that some 3,000 years ago settlers expanded westward out of Taiwan over the course of roughly 1,000 years.  They mixed little with any other natives they encountered, explaining current Polynesian's genetic and linguistic characteristics.  The other two theories, the Entangled Bank and Slow Boat models, describe a longer migration pattern, one which includes mixing and interactions with all the native populaces, specifically the Melanesians.
Regardless of how long it took the first settlers to reach western Polynesia, the path they took has been charted with a fair degree of confidence.  The northernmost point, Hawai'i, was settled around 500 AD, followed by New Zealand in 1000 AD.  The exact date for when the Polynesians discovered Easter Island is still debated.  Some archaeological evidence suggests that the island was first inhabited between 300 and 500 AD, but more recently the date 800 has come into favor.  Other scientists believe that the island wasn't inhabited until as late as 1200.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The Polynesian triangle is a vast one, with each side measuring roughly 4,000 miles.  To cover this amount of distance over the open ocean required an astonishing degree of naval technology, navigational aptitude, and bravery.  Using the technique of wayfinding, navigators memorized the motion of specific stars, weather, local wildlife patterns, and the direction of waves on the ocean.  They passed this information down orally to new generations of navigators, the secrets closely guarded by these elite families.  To aid in the dangerous crossings, they also developed outrigger supports for their canoes, allowing them to safely cross the vast ocean.  Many of these techniques and navigational aids are still passed down and used by modern Polynesian sailors.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Polynesian settlers arrived on the banks of present day Hawai'i sometime around 500 AD, although some evidence does suggest it may have been as early as 300 AD.  These early inhabitants were probably from the Marquesas Islands, over 4,000 miles south of Hawai'i.  A second wave of immigrants may have arrived from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century, or even from Tahiti.  Some archaeologists favor the Tahitian theory, as an ancient Hawaiian folktale speaks of a man called Pa'ao, conclusively of Tahitian descent. These historians believe that the wave of Tahitian settlers brought with them the line of high chiefs, the Kapu system of laws, and the religious practice of human sacrifice.
Evidence also exists that the Polynesians sailed back across the Pacific once encountering these new lands, spreading American fauna and flora throughout the islands.  For example, the sweet potato - a Native American plant - was found widespread through the Polynesian islands when European travelers first encountered the Polynesian settlements.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The Polynesians lived in relative seclusion until the arrival of European powers, searching for new lands and trade routes.  Many of the islands began to establish contact with the Europeans in the mid 1500s - some came as explorers and others as religious missionaries.  However, in the 1800s many colonial powers, such as France, Britain, and the United States, began to forcefully colonize the inhabited islands, declaring them protectorates and territories of their respective empires.  Only a few islands, such as Hawai'i, remained independent during this time.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Despite the vast ocean separating the different islands, the native Polynesians still share many similar cultural traits, religious beliefs, and common languages.  Sadly, many of the original indigenous people, such as the Maori, are now minorities on the islands, with peoples of European descent composing the main populace.  However, most of the native populations on the islands strive to keep their culture and languages alive, and an active and effective process of revitalization and immersion is being pursued in most major areas.]=];
TITLE = [=[Polynesia]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Greetings and blessings be upon you, Kamehameha the Great, chosen by the heavens to unite your scattered peoples.  Oh mighty King, you were the first to bring the Big Island of Hawai'i under one solitary rule in 1791 AD. This was followed with the merging of all the remaining islands under your standard in 1810. As the first King of Hawai'i, you standardized the legal and taxation systems and instituted the Mamalahoe Kanawai, an edict protecting civilians in times of war. You ensured the continued unification and sovereignty of the islands by your strong laws and deeds, even after your death in 1819.
Oh wise and exalted King, your people wish for a kingdom of their own once more and require a leader of unparalleled greatness! Will you answer their call and don the mantle of the Lion of the Pacific? Will you build a kingdom that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Danish Empire]=];
BERSERKER_HEADING = [=[Berserker]=];
BERSERKER_HELP = [=[Strong, front-line land Unit of the Medieval Era that specializes in attacks from the sea. Only Denmark may build it. Replaces the Longswordsman, but is available earlier.]=];
BERSERKER_STRATEGY = [=[The Berserker is one of two Danish Unique Units, replacing the Longswordsman. This Unit is +1 Movement {{moves5}} compared to the Longswordsman and possesses the Amphibious promotion, allowing it to attack onto land from a Coast tile with no penalty. Available after researching Metal Casting instead of Steel.]=];
BERSERKER_TEXT = [=[As a member of the Great Heathen Army, the berserker was one of the most feared units of the late 9th century.  This large Viking army of berserkers, warriors, and mariners was formed over a series of attacks on Paris and Rouen from 845- 850 AD, where they bolstered their numbers and refined their tactics.  In 865, the army landed on the eastern shores of the British Isles, with the aspiration to conquer the entire island for settlement.  Only one year later, it conquered the Kingdom of Northumbria, with the Kingdom of East Anglia falling in 870.  Mercia followed in 874.  The settlers who traveled with the great army founded the Kingdom of York from the rubble. The army was eventually defeated in 878, but its remaining members took up permanent residence in East Anglia, Essex, and Mercia.]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Dannish Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=["Something is rotten in the state of Denmark," the oft quoted phrase from Shakespeare's play "Hamlet," was a reference to the mismanagement of Denmark's political structure by the fictional King Claudius, murderer of his own brother (Hamlet's father).
The "Danish," a popular pastry served throughout the world, is originally attributed to Austrian bakers who worked in Denmark during a strike amongst bakery workers in 1850. In Denmark, this confection is known as "Wienerbrod," or "Bread of Vienna."
The term "Danegeld," literally meaning "Dane's Gold," was originally used to describe a tax raised by French and English kings to pay off the Viking raiders rather than attempt to fight them.  In modern times, Danegeld is used to reference any form of coercive payment to another.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History and Origins]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Age of Vikings]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Formation of the Kingdom]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Later History]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[World War II]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Modern Denmark]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Cultural Figures]=];
SKI_INFANTRY_HEADING = [=[Norwegian Ski Infantry]=];
SKI_INFANTRY_HELP = [=[Strong, front-line land Unit of the mid-game that specializes in operating in Snow, Tundra and Hills. Only Denmark may build it. Replaces the Rifleman.]=];
SKI_INFANTRY_STRATEGY = [=[The Norwegian Ski Infantry is one of two Danish Unique Units, replacing the Rifleman. This Unit moves through Snow, Tundra, or Hill at double speed. It also has a +25% combat bonus in Snow, Tundra or Hill terrain if neither Forest nor Jungle is present.]=];
SKI_INFANTRY_TEXT = [=[These intrepid infantrymen were employed heavily by Denmark against Sweden during the Napoleonic Wars of 1807- 1814.  Comparable in speed to light cavalry, these soldiers were capable of traversing the mountainsides and snow- covered fields much faster than anyone else on foot or horseback. Besides being able to cross forested and rocky terrain efficiently, the ski infantry were also used to pull wagons of supplies or even other squads of soldiers, as the lack of roads and deep snow made traditional horse travel difficult.   Their first recorded usage dates back to roughly the 13th century.
Today, the ski infantry are still used by the Danish Navy to patrol large stretches of northern and eastern Greenland, areas of which are too rugged for most other forms of transportation.  In Norway, every soldier in the army is still trained in the art of ski combat, and the Biathlon sporting event was inspired and developed from their military training and patrol routes.]=];
        Leader: Bluetooth
        Unique Unit: Berserker
        Unique Unit: Norwegian Ski Infantry
TEXT_1 = [=[Nestled among the Nordic countries of Northern Europe, the Kingdom of Denmark encompasses the country of Denmark proper, as well as Greenland and the Faroe Islands. One of the oldest kingdoms in the world, early records of Denmark's history can be traced back to the 6th and 7th centuries AD, when the Danes were still a tribal people scattered across the region. Eventually united under the rule of King Harald Bluetooth, many Danes would also settle in England and Ireland during the invasions of the Viking Age. From these early tales of Viking exploration and conquest, to the modern nation of Denmark we know today, the Danish people have been at the forefront of global events for centuries.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Denmark is a relatively small nation (roughly half the size of the U.S. state of Maine) located in Northern Europe.  Along with the neighboring countries of Norway and Sweden, Denmark is part of the region known as Scandinavia.  Although consisting primarily of several hundred small islands, the peninsula of Jutland, Denmark's mainland body, shares its southern border with Germany, making it the only Scandinavian country with a direct connection to the European mainland.
Denmark is a notably flat country, its highest elevation being only 560 feet (171m) above sea level.  As part of the temperate zone, both the summer and winter months are relatively moderate with little in the way of extreme temperatures or precipitation.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[During the last Ice Age, the area that today constitutes Denmark was almost entirely covered by glacial formations. When the ice finally started to recede sometime around 12,000-14,000 BC, small groups of hunter-gatherers began to inhabit the area, surviving primarily by hunting reindeer. These hunters lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving with the seasons and following the migratory patterns of the animals they relied on for survival.
Over time, the population of the small island region would continue to grow as immigrants moved north, bringing with them an increased knowledge of agriculture.  As early as 3,000 BC, farmers began to clear portions of the large deciduous forests found throughout Denmark, as evidenced by the many flint-stone axes unearthed in modern times throughout the country.
The custom of building "Dolmens," a form of tomb, and eventually "Passage Graves," also became prevalent around this time. The dolmen was a burial tomb consisting of several upright stones covered across the top with another large stone. These early burial tombs evolved into the Passage Grave, a megalithic structure consisting of a narrow entry lined with large stones, leading to a burial chamber covered in earth or additional stones. It's speculated that these megalithic tombs took entire communities years to construct, but having discovered examples that contained no human remains, archaeologists are still unsure of their true purpose.
During the Nordic Bronze Age, these tombs further evolved into the "Tumulus," or burial mounds, commonly associated with the Vikings today. It was also during this period that the battle axe, legendary weapon of the Vikings, progressed from its Stone Age roots into early bronze renditions. Although Denmark had little in the way of copper resources to allow the creation of bronze, large quantities still made their way north via trade and conquest, allowing the Danes to master the art of metalsmithing. By the 8th century AD, iron was readily available, and the Vikings were well-equipped with their historic weapon of choice.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Beginning in the late 8th century, each spring the Vikings of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden would conduct raids across the North Sea into England, eventually striking into France, Spain, and points east. In 793, the infamous Viking raid on Lindisfarne, a Christian monastery just off the English coast, would serve as an eye-opener to Western Europe and historically marks the unofficial dawn of the Viking Age.
The legendary Viking Ragnar Lodbrok, who sailed the river Seine in 845 and threatened the destruction of Paris, only to be paid a ransom of 7,000 lbs of silver instead, would solidify the Vikings place in history as the unrelenting scourge of Europe through the 11th century. Ragnar's alleged propensity for sacrificing captured prisoners to the Norse gods would terrify the Christian sensibilities of the European royalty, leading to increasingly larger payouts (known as "Danegeld") to appease the Vikings.
The key to the Vikings success during their infamous raids was the Scandinavians' prowess in ship building. Already known for their fearless mastery of the seas, the construction of the "Langskip," or Viking Longship, gave the Vikings a previously unheard of advantage during this period. While relying on conventional sails when moving on the open seas, the Vikings could quickly revert to using oars for added maneuverability when moving near the coastline or on rivers. This versatility would prove to be the undoing of many European coastal settlements.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[King Gorm the Old would lay the groundwork for the Kingdom of Denmark beginning in c. 936 AD, ruling until his death in 958. However, it was his son, Harald Bluetooth, who would be the first to unite all of Denmark under one rule, expanding the kingdom's grasp into parts of Norway and Sweden. Bluetooth would become a strong proponent for the conversion of the Danish people to Christianity, a process that would continue under future kings, particularly Canute the Great and Sweyn II.
Canute (also known as Cnut), ruled from 1016 until his death in 1035, and at one point would serve as King of England, Denmark, Norway and even parts of Sweden. His reign over England would prove to be pivotal, during which time monks from England were sent to Denmark to help further establish Christianity. As reparations to the Church, Canute ordered all of the English churches and monasteries destroyed or damaged by the Vikings in the past be repaired, going so far as to repay the wealth plundered from them.
Following the death of Canute, Magnus I would briefly rule both Norway and Denmark. However, it was the leadership of his successor, Sweyn II, that would make a more lasting impact on the kingdom. During Sweyn's reign, churches were constructed throughout Denmark, and he strove to unite his people with Christians throughout Europe by advancing the Danish people's knowledge of Latin.  Sweyn was not without controversy however, and his relationship with the Church was often strained. During his lifetime, he fathered over 20 children, 19 of whom have been confirmed to be illegitimate (born out of wedlock). Of those 19, five (Harald III, Canute IV, Olaf I, Eric I, and Niels) would peacefully succeed one another as future kings of Denmark over the 60 years following Sweyn's death in 1074.
Starting in 1397 and lasting up until 1523, Denmark was part of what came to be known as the Kalmar Union, through which the Kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden were united under a single leader. It was during this union that Denmark's first female monarch, Queen Margaret I, would serve until 1412. The current Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, is the only other female ruler since.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Throughout the 16-18th centuries, Denmark was a prosperous nation, benefiting from increased trade with Europe during this period.  Christian IV, Denmark's longest serving monarch, having ruled from 1588 until 1648, instituted a number of policies that would both expand Denmark's national defenses as well as bolster its economic and cultural foundations. During his reign, Christian more than doubled the size of the Danish navy, while also commissioning the construction of numerous fortresses. In 1616, the founding of the Danish East India Company would lead to a brief windfall for the nation, thanks to a trade monopoly awarded by Christian and various tea smuggling operations into England. Although he remains a popular historical leader in Denmark, his involvement in multiple wars, particularly the Thirty Years' War, would actually lead to a decline in Danish power throughout the Baltic region.
During the Napoleonic Wars, Britain's displeasure with continued Danish trade with the French would lead to increasingly aggressive skirmishes at sea. In 1801, much of the Danish navy was destroyed by a British fleet outside of Copenhagen. Britain would grow increasingly concerned that Denmark's fall to the French was inevitable, leaving Britain with restricted access to the Baltic Sea, an unthinkable loss to the British military command.
In 1807, the Bombardment of Copenhagen (The Second Battle of Copenhagen) began when a massive British fleet, accompanied by ground forces encircling the city, attacked a greatly outnumbered Danish force that refused to surrender. Copenhagen was badly damaged, and over 5,000 civilians and soldiers were killed in the ensuing attack. The British confiscated any remaining ships of the Danish fleet, and drew Denmark into the war on the side of the French.  Denmark would fight until 1813, when the war effort plunged the nation into bankruptcy, forcing the signing of the Treaty of Kiel between Great Britain, Sweden, and the allied Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Although neutral in World War I, Denmark would become unavoidably engrossed in World War II. In April of 1940, Germany invaded Denmark, meeting little resistance. Denmark was allowed to maintain the majority of its own independent government functions and continued to cooperate with Germany economically during the occupation, until 1943. In August of that year, Denmark's leadership finally refused any further participation, and ordered the majority of its fleet be scuttled. Throughout the occupation, the Danish government and the resistance movement successfully assisted the majority of Danish Jews in escaping to Sweden.
After its liberation in 1945, Denmark quickly joined the Allied forces and became one of the founding members of the United Nations. Denmark was also active in the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a military alliance formed in early 1949.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Today, Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Margrethe II serving as its head of state over a parliamentary system of government. Denmark joined the European Economic Community (predecessor to the European Union) after a public referendum voted in favor of membership in 1972. However, unlike many member nations, Denmark has rejected changing its currency to the Euro. Modern Denmark has a robust economy that thrives despite the nation's small size, with Denmark currently ranking 16th in the world for GDP. The primary exports in Denmark are food and livestock, as well as machinery and industrial supplies. Despite considerable oil resources, Denmark has proven to be a world-leader in the adoption wind power. Currently wind energy accounts for over 15% of Denmark's total power generation, giving it the highest percentage of overall wind power utilization in the world. From the humble beginnings of the Danes of the Stone Age, Denmark has risen to become one of the world's most progressive nations.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Denmark has produced a number of important cultural and scientific figures throughout its history. The Danish author and poet Hans Christian Andersen was renowned for his children's stories, which are still inspiring new renditions today. Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist who won the Nobel Prize in 1922, was instrumental in the development of the first atomic bomb.  In the mid 20th century, the "Father of Danish Design," Arne Jacobsen, would inspire designers and architects throughout the world with his modern, functional style, reflected in everything from furniture to lighting fixtures.]=];
TITLE = [=[Denmark]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Honor and glory be yours, Harald Bluetooth Gormsson, mighty heir of King Gorm the Old and Thyra Dannebod. Not only were you victorious on the battlefield against the armies of Norway, you also completed massive construction projects across the land - numerous Ring Fortresses to protect the populace from invasion and internal strife. You successfully drove off waves of German settlers in 983 AD and sheltered your kingdom from unwanted foreign influence.
Stalwart Viking, the time for greatness is upon you once more. You are called to rise up and lead your people to renewed power and triumph! Will you make the world shudder once more at the very thought of your great armies of Northsmen? Will you let the Viking battle cry ring out across the crashing waves? Will you build a civilization to stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Korean Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Korea Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[South Korea is famous for its gaming culture, particularly a love affair with the classic Blizzard title "Starcraft". Professional matches and tournaments receive widespread media attention throughout the country, including broadcasts on several television networks.
The Chinese characters for Choson were often translated into English as "Morning Calm," which later evolved into the nickname "The Land of the Morning Calm," referring to all of Korea.
Kimchi, the widely recognized dish native to Korea, generally accompanies every meal in Korean cuisine. Typically made from fermented cabbage, radish, scallions, or cucumbers, there are literally hundreds of unique recipes and varieties of Kimchi available today.
The national sport of South Korea, Tae Kwon Do, is attributed to the original nine "Kwans," or schools of Tae Kwon Do, that developed after the end of the Japanese occupation of Korea. The sport itself is believed to have originated with the traditional Korean martial art known as "Taekkyeon."]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[Division of Korea]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Modern Korea]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pre-History and the Old Kingdom]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Rise of the Three]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Transforming Kingdoms]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Choson Dynasty]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Korean Empire]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Japanese Occupation]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Korean War]=];
HWACHA_HEADING = [=[Hwach'a]=];
HWACHA_HELP = [=[Anti-personnel rocket unit of the Medieval Era. Strong against land units, but weak against cities. Only Korea may build it. Replaces the Trebuchet.]=];
HWACHA_STRATEGY = [=[The Hwach'a is extremely effective against enemy land units. It is slow and vulnerable to enemy melee attack; it always should be supported by other units when it's in the field. The Hwach'a must "set up" (1 Movement Point) before attacking.]=];
HWACHA_TEXT = [=[The Hwach'a, legendary Korean anti-infantry weapon, was a unique innovation in the development of early gunpowder-based weaponry. Created during the 15th century under the supervision of King Sejong the Great, the Hwach'a consisted of a large two-wheeled cart carrying a type of "honeycomb" housing, not unlike a modern missile battery, capable of storing hundreds of gunpowder-propelled arrows. The light-weight of these early rockets, known as "Singijeon," provided the Hwach'a with a notable advantage, allowing excellent maneuverability compared to a traditional cannon. The Hwach'a would prove to be a formidable weapon for the defense of the Korean Peninsula during the Japanese invasions of the 16th century.]=];
        Leader: SEJONG
        Unique Unit: Tercio
        Unique Unit: Conquistador
TEXT_1 = [=[The Korean peninsula, known today for its divided republics of North and South Korea, has been home to numerous kingdoms over the ages, some virtuous, some steeped in infamy. At times rivaling its powerful neighboring states of China and Japan, Korea was united under the rule of the Choson Dynasty for over 500 years. The turmoil of the Japanese occupation in the early 20th century, followed by the Korean War in 1950, would shatter this once sacred unity. From this strife, South Korea has emerged as a nation of increasing economic and cultural significance on a global scale. In contrast, the oppressive regime controlling the reclusive North Korean state is frequently the subject of international condemnation for its handling of human rights and diplomatic relations.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Officially, the armistice agreement signed by the Korean republics only stipulated an end to the fighting, meaning the two are theoretically still at war. Today, the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) dividing them is the most heavily fortified border on earth, with both sides vigilantly observing the other. Over the years, a number of incidental incursions and other violations of the armistice have occurred, primarily antagonistic actions by the North Korean regime. Despite these incidents, the delicate cease fire has remained in effect for over 50 years.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[Today, South Korea has become a world leader in science and technological development, and is recognized as one of the "Four Asian Tigers," a group of four highly developed industrialized economies in Asia (the other three being Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan). Home to a well-educated and highly-skilled work force, South Korea has a strong culture of technological adoption, boasting some of the fastest residential internet connections available, and is home to industry leaders Samsung and LG, two of the largest mobile phone manufacturers in the world.
Conversely, the secretive government of North Korea has struggled to provide the necessities of daily life to its people, who are known to suffer through famine and poverty under the Communist regime. Isolated from public scrutiny, what little we know of North Korea comes from defectors who have managed to escape or from the rarely allowed visit by foreign journalists. Frequently sanctioned for developing weapons programs deemed dangerous by the international community, North Korea has a limited economy and is supported by constant aid from the People's Republic of China and humanitarian efforts initiated by the United Nations member states.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Situated between the East Sea and the Yellow Sea, the Korean Peninsula shares its northern border with China, and to a lesser extent Russia, separated respectively by the Amnok and Tumen rivers.  Although Korea features a diverse geography, the country is primarily mountainous, the highest peak being Baekdu Mountain at 9,003 ft (2,744m). Like its neighbors, Korea is affected by the East Asian Monsoon each summer, bringing the possibility of intense rainfall and oppressive humidity to much of the region. The winter months can also be quite harsh, with subzero temperatures not uncommon, particularly in the north.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[From at least the Middle Paleolithic era, Korea was inhabited by humans living in caves or under rock outcroppings near the sea. Over the course of several thousand years, primitive communities would form, primarily as these gatherers became more adept at hunting. Of the numerous early communities found throughout the peninsula, one in particular would rise to prominence and become the foundation for all of the Korean kingdoms to come - "Ko Choson," also known as "Old Choson."
Old Choson was founded in approximately 2000 BC by the legendary figure Tan'gun Wanggom, whose father is said to have descended from the heavens.  Some modern historians believe the name "Tan'gun Wanggom" may have actually been a title given to early authority figures, representing both a political and religious figure within the community.  Whether guided by the hand of a single leader, or a number of early rulers, Old Choson would become the most advanced of the early Korean tribal kingdoms throughout the advent of the Iron Age in the 4th century BC.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[For most of the 1st millennium AD, Korea was divided by the rule of three distinct monarchies. The "Three Kingdoms of Korea" -- Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla -- each controlled a segment of the peninsula, with Koguryo being the largest and, for a time, the most powerful. However, diplomatic relations would prove to be the undoing of the Koguryo, as its southernmost rival, Silla, negotiated an alliance with the Tang Dynasty of China. This alliance would bring great strength to Silla, allowing them to conquer both the Paekche and the Koguryo by 668, leaving the Silla with uncontested control of most of the Korean Peninsula.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Having conquered the kingdoms of Koguryo and Paekche, the new "Unified Silla," often referred to as the "Later Silla," would continue to control the peninsula for several hundred years. As is often the case after such a long period of uninterrupted dominion, the authority of the king began to come into question around the 9th century AD. The "bone-rank system," a sort of hereditary segregation based on a person's blood ties to the king, had maintained the balance of power between the king and the aristocratic nobility for some time. However, this system would ultimately contribute to the downfall of the Silla, as the nobility they desperately relied on for taxation and management grew tired of the caste system that limited their role in governance.
In the end, continuous internal strife would lead to the kingdom's submission to the emerging Koryo Dynasty by 935. The Koryo would maintain a sovereign kingdom within Korea, despite pressure from the Mongol Yuan Dynasty of China, until 1392.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The Choson Dynasty, widely regarded as the most notable kingdom in Korea's history, was founded by the rebellious Koryo Commander Yi Song-gye in 1392. Ordered to invade the neighboring Chinese province of Liaotung (a pre-emptive strike against the Chinese Ming Dynasty), Yi instead seized the opportunity to control Korea himself, leading his army into the Koryo capital and dethroning the king in a military coup. Forming his own dynasty and renaming himself King Taejo of Choson, named for the ancient Choson kingdom, Taejo would create the first unified Korean dynasty in the country's history.
The most revered of the Choson leaders, King Sejong the Great, ruled from 1418 until his death in 1450. Sejong's policies paved the way for vast strides in the arts and sciences during his reign, including the publication of the Korean written language, "Hangul." It was also during this period that Korean Confucianism, its roots established during the preceding Koryo dynasty, would take hold over Korea. Neo-Confucianism, known as "Seongnihak," would become the primary school of thought for scholars across the peninsula. These Confucian values, emphasizing morality and self-improvement, became the basis for many of the values held sacred by Korean society today.
The Choson Dynasty would be ruled by 27 distinct monarchs during its 500-year rule, ending in 1897. During the waning years of the dynasty, Korea underwent a period of isolationism, limiting contact with the surrounding nations in an effort to blunt outside influence. Having long been the subject of Chinese and Japanese influence, many historians believe that it was during this period, when Korea became known as the "Hermit Kingdom," that the first hints of a modern Korean national identity began to take shape.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The First Sino-Japanese war, fought between China and Japan across large swaths of the Korean peninsula beginning in 1894, would provide the first glimpse of Japan's emerging strength in East Asia. Having long been the subject of Chinese influence and fearful of the emerging power demonstrated by Japan, the Choson leadership saw fit to declare the creation of the Korean Empire in 1897. Hoping to assert Korea's independence from both China and Japan, these aspirations would be short lived. Japan quickly moved to assert control over Korea after defeating much of the Chinese Qing Dynasty's forces.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[The Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910 (which Korean historians to this day claim was only signed under extreme duress) would effectively annex the whole of Korea to Japan. Despite an active resistance movement among the Korean people from the early stages of the occupation, Japan maintained control over the nation for nearly 35 years. The "Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea," based in Shanghai, China, would serve as the Korean government- in-exile throughout the occupation.  Japan's hold over Korea finally came to an end on September 2, 1945 following Japan's defeat in World War II. Today, many Koreans still harbor a strong resentment towards Japan for this dark period in their history.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The Korean War, the great conflict that divided the Korean Peninsula as it stands today, arose from the vacuum of power following Japan's defeat in World War II. The 38th Parallel, a dividing line agreed upon by the United States and the Soviet Union, was expected to mark a temporary administrative split between the countries. In 1948, North Korea would form a communist government led by Kim II-Sung, while South Korea elected its first president, Syngman Rhee, via national elections. Both leaders insisted the Korean people should be united under one rule, but each expected the unification to occur under their own political system.
In June of 1950, North Korea invaded the South, aided by Soviet military equipment from World War II. Shortly thereafter, the United Nations issued a resolution condemning the invasion and recommending military intervention by its member states. At the time, the United States considered the spread of Communism to be a direct result of Soviet influence, and responded as the primary military force aiding South Korea.
Although North Korea captured much of the southern territory early in the war, the arrival of American forces under the leadership of General MacArthur soon countered those gains. Eventually regaining South Korea's territory up to the 38th Parallel, the American and South Korean forces would fight the North to an eventual stalemate.  Negotiations for an armistice, which would serve to end the fighting - but not officially end the war - began in 1951 and would continue for several years. The armistice agreement was finally signed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North) and the Republic of Korea (South) under the guidance of the United Nations in 1953.]=];
TITLE = [=[Korea]=];
TURTLESHIP_HEADING = [=[Turtle Ship]=];
TURTLESHIP_HELP = [=[Heavily-armored naval unit of the Renaissance Era that is extremely difficult to kill. However Turtle Ships cannot enter deep ocean hexes outside of the city borders. Only Korea may build it. Replaces the Caravel.]=];
TURTLESHIP_STRATEGY = [=[The Turtle Ship is a Korean unique unit. This unit replaces the Caravel. The Turtle Ship has a more powerful attack than the Caravel, and is extremely difficult to destroy.  However it may not enter deep ocean hexes outside of the city borders.]=];
TURTLESHIP_TEXT = [=[These large, armored warships of the Choson dynasty played a crucial role in the defense of Korea during the Japanese invasions of the 16th century. Typically crewed by an equal compliment of soldiers and oarsmen, the Turtle Ship provided an aggressive close-assault ship for the Korean navy. Designed to strike fear in the enemy, each Turtle Ship featured a carved dragon figurehead on its bow, said to have emitted a cloud of sulfurous fumes to disguise the vessel's approach.  Unlike the familiar designs used by sailing ships of the period, the Turtle Ship had no upper deck. The top level of the ship was covered in iron spikes to prevent boarding, with the oarsmen and soldiers segregated onto separate decks below. Armed with up to two dozen cannons and other small projectile weapons, the Turtle Ship was a dangerous foe for the unprepared navies of Korea's enemies.]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Greetings to you, exalted King Sejong the Great, servant to the people and protector of the Choson Dynasty. Your glorious vision of prosperity and overwhelming benevolence towards the common man made you the most beloved of all Korean kings. From the earliest days of your reign, the efforts you took to provide a fair and just society for all were surpassed only by the technological advancements spurred onwards by your unquenched thirst for knowledge. Guided by your wisdom, the scholars of the Jade Hall developed Korea's first written language, Hangul, bringing the light of literature and science to the masses after centuries of literary darkness.
Honorable Sejong, once more the people look to you for guidance! Will you rise to the occasion, bringing harmony and understanding to the people? Can you once again advance your kingdom's standing to such wondrous heights? Can you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Babylonian Empire]=];
BOWMAN_HEADING = [=[Babylonian Bowman]=];
BOWMAN_HELP = [=[One of the first available ranged Units, this Babylonian Unique Unit replaces the Archer. The Bowman can better withstand melee attacks than the standard Archer available to other civs.]=];
BOWMAN_INFO = [=[The Bowman is an Ancient Era ranged infantry Unit that can strike foes from afar. This Babylonian Unique Unit can better withstand melee attacks than the standard Archer Unit it replaces.]=];
BOWMAN_STRATEGY = [=[The Bowman is the Babylonian Unique Unit, replacing the Archer. This Unit is stronger in combat than the Archer, both offensively and defensively, allowing placement in the front line. The Bowman's improved combat prowess helps ameliorate any concern that it may be quickly overrun.]=];
BOWMAN_TEXT = [=[We have a fairly accurate picture of the extraordinary Babylonian archery units, thanks to a beautiful Assyrian mosaic showing them marching off to battle. The Babylon archers are dressed in colorful padded robes and carry four-foot long bows, as well as a quiver of arrows slung on their backs. The archers also carry spears or daggers, doubtless for personal defense if enemy units get close enough for hand-to-hand combat. 
Separate units carrying large, man-height shields would accompany the bowman, providing in effect, a movable fortress.  The Bowmen were an integral part of the Babylonian infantry, as their numbers were easier to train and replace than the more expensive cavalry.  Bowmen also helped man the famed Walls of Babylon, taking up positions in the many turrets dotting its line.]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Babylonian Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Prior to the construction of the Colossus of Rhodes, the Babylonian Ishtar Gate was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The 8th gate to the inner city of Babylon, the Ishtar Gate was designed as both an entry and a shrine to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar, who represented sexuality, fertility, and love.
The famed walls of Babylon were at one time also considered amongst the Seven Wonders of the World. The Ancient Greek historian Herodotus recorded that these walls surrounding the city were over 300 feet high, 80 feet thick, and 56 miles long, although his account is dubious in the eyes of modern archaeologists.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[The Old Babylonian Empire]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Record-Keeping and Mathematics]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Intermittent Chaos, with Chance of Massacre]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Neo-Babylonian Empire]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Nebuchadnezzar II]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[The Fall of Babylon]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Conclusion]=];
        Leader: Nebuchadnezzar II
        Unique Unit: Babylonian Bowman
        Unique Building: Walls of Babylon
TEXT_1 = [=[The Babylonian Empire was, rather than a new idea, a reinvigoration of the old Sumerian Empire of the city of Ur, which had also occupied the Fertile Crescent in what is today Southern Iraq. Babylonia was formed from a collection of roughly a dozen city-states and was named for its capital city of Babylon. (Pre-empire, the city of Babylon itself was in existence since at least the 24th century BC.)]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Babylon was located in the Fertile Crescent, the incredibly fecund region around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, extending west to the Mediterranean and down through modern Israel. The Fertile Crescent not only benefits from the rich soil and irrigation provided by the two ancient rivers, but it also lies at the crossroads of three major landmasses: Africa, Asia, and Europe, meaning it has insects, plants and animals from all three sources. This gives the region a biodiversity unmatched anywhere in the world. This also means that its human inhabitants had a huge variety of plants and animals to experiment with when learning how to farm and herd animals, thus explaining why humans advanced so rapidly in this area.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Originally a disorganized region, Babylon and Babylonia began to grow as a center for culture, trade, and religion under the rule of Hammurabi in 1728 BC. Hammurabi was the first known ruler of united Babylonia as well as its greatest lawgiver. Hammurabi's Code of Laws specifically listed the acts that were criminal as well as the punishment for each act. Citizens were no longer at the mercy of capricious judges or nobility who could on a whim decide what was and wasn't illegal. So comprehensive was the Babylonian Code that little about its laws or governmental system changed in the entirety of the empire's 1,200 years of existence.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Much like the Sumerian Empire from which they were descended, Babylonia was a nation of fanatical record-keepers. Starting with Hammurabi and continuing down until the empire's dissolution at the hands of Cyrus and the great Persian emperors, every financial transaction, every court verdict, every contract, and just about anything that could be written down, was - on clay tablets. With laws pertaining to almost every aspect of daily living, a significant amount of data was recorded, and much of this has been uncovered and excavated during the modern era. Researchers have even found several optical devices, similar to magnifying glasses, which were used to allow record keepers to write in smaller cuneiform, in order to fit more information on each clay tablet.
Despite numerous regime changes, education reached exceptional heights among the Babylonians. Technical achievements such as the creation of a base 60, "sexigesimal," system of mathematics, are still used to this day. Sixty seconds per minute, sixty minutes per hour: modern time, is in fact, Babylonian time.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[After the death of Hammurabi (1750 BC), the empire slowly declined in power and influence. Following a Hittite raid which weakened the city, in approximately 1600 BC it was conquered by the Kassites who had emerged from what are now the mountains of Iran. The Kassites controlled Babylonia for 500 years, renaming the city Karanduniash.
In 1234 the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I temporarily conquered the city but the Kassites eventually reasserted independence, just in time for the Elamites to sack the city in 1158. Then the Babylonians regained control of their city (possibly because the Elamites had stolen everything that any invader might want). By 1124 the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar I sacked the Elamite city of Susa in revenge for their earlier attack on Babylon. But by 1000 BC, Babylon was once again under pressure from a resurgent Assyria. Babylon remained more or less under Assyrian domination until 627 BC.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[In 627 BC, Babylonia successfully revolted once again from Assyrian control. The revolt was led by a new leader, Nabopolassar, who would reign for some twenty years before passing the thrown to his more famous son.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Nabopolassar's son, Nebuchadnezzar II, ruled Babylonia from 605 to 561 BC. He established himself early as a military leader, leading an army under his father in Assyria, and then later an independent command against Egypt, destroying the Egyptian army at Carchemish and gaining Babylonian control of all of Syria.
Nebuchadnezzar was deeply invested in the city of Babylon. During his reign it enjoyed something of a renaissance. Nebuchadnezzar engaged in a variety of city revitalization projects, rebuilding ancient temples and buildings, constructing extensive fortifications, and so forth. He also created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. He employed foreign workers for much of the hard labor, which as an additional benefit dramatically increased the city's population. Nebuchadnezzar died in 561 BC. For more on Nebuchadnezzar II, see his Civilopedia entry.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[The leaders following Nebuchadnezzar were lesser men, and within thirty years Babylonian power and prestige were greatly weakened. It is said that when Cyrus II of Persia attacked in 539 BC, the city fell almost without resistance. It remained under Persian control until 331 BC, when it was captured by Alexander the Great, and then to the Seleucid dynasty after Alexander's death. In the period since, Babylon has all but vanished, reduced to mysterious mounds and piles of rubble, waiting for archaeologists to uncover their secrets. Much has been damaged or destroyed following the United States attack and occupation of Iraq in 2003 to the present.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Babylonia played an important role in the development of law throughout the world. The creation of Hammurabi's Code of Laws, and the zeal with which his successors, both blood-related and not, upheld those laws, demonstrated for all of history how successful and wealthy a nation could become by following an organized system of government. The rest of Babylon's history reminds us that nothing lasts forever, and that even the greatest of empires will someday be nothing more than dust beneath the next empire's chariot wheels. Or tank treads.]=];
TITLE = [=[Babylon]=];
WALLS_HEADING = [=[Walls of Babylon]=];
WALLS_INFO = [=[The Walls of Babylon increase the damage output of all the city's ranged attacks and increase the city's defense.]=];
WALLS_STRATEGY = [=[The Walls of Babylon are a Babylonian Unique Building, replacing the standard city Walls. The Walls of Babylon increases a city's Defense Strength by 6 and Hit Points by 100 (both significantly more than standard Walls).]=];
WALLS_TEXT = [=[Originally included on Antipater's list of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World, the Walls of Babylon encapsulated the city and protected it from harm, circling the city on all sides and even spanning the Euphrates River (which ran through the center of the city).  The outer walls ran 10 miles in length, measured 25 ft thick, and were said to tower 320 ft over the city. Smaller walls ringed the city behind this primary one, assuring an extra line of defense if the first ever fell.  Some 250 towers dotted the length of the walls, providing excellent look-out points and combat stations for the skilled Babylonian archers.  The walls were impenetrable by any technology available to sieges at the time, large metal gates were installed at the river's ends, (preventing any underwater intruders), and eight massive gates were constructed to contain any foot traffic (the most famous being the Ishtar Gate).  These walls effectively protected the city for almost one hundred years.
It wasn't until 539 BC that a way around the wall's defenses was devised; Cyrus the Great unleashed a plan which diverted the Euphrates further upstream, lowering the water level so that anyone could walk through it.  His army snuck under the river's metal gates under the cover of darkness and took the city from within. While capable of stopping any direct means of assault, the walls couldn't stop one man's determined ingenuity.
Much of the ancient walls still stand, a testament to their strength.  In 1983, Saddam Hussein began a reconstruction project at the site of the ancient city, including restoration of the walls and a recreation of the Ishtar Gate.  The project has since been put on hold, but Iraq hopes to continue further restoration of the walls and once again make Babylon a place of wonder.]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[May the blessings of Heaven be upon you, Oh Great Nebuchadnezzar, father of mighty and ancient Babylon! Young was the world when Sargon built Babylon some five thousand years ago. Long did it grow and prosper, gaining its first empire in the 18th century BC, under Godlike Hammurabi, the Giver of Law. Although conquered by the Kassites and then by the Assyrians, Babylon endured, emerging phoenix-like from the ashes of destruction and regaining its independence despite its many enemies. Truly was Babylon the center of arts and learning in the ancient world!
Oh Nebuchadnezzar, your empire endured but a short time after your death, falling to the mighty Persians and then to the Greeks, until the great city was destroyed by 141 BC. But is Babylon indeed gone forever, Great Nebuchadnezzar? Your people look to you to bring the empire back to life once more! Will you accept the challenge? Will you build a civilization to stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Austrian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The grand Schonbrunn Palace in Vienna, once home to the rulers of the Habsburg Dynasty, features over 1,400 rooms and is a major tourist attraction.
The popular candy known as PEZ was first created in Austria in 1927 by Eduard Haas III. The name PEZ comes from the first, middle, and last letters of the German word for peppermint, "Pfefferminz."
Many of the world's greatest classical composers were Austrian, including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, and Franz Liszt.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[First Republic of Austria]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Nazi Annexation]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[The New Republic]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[Modern Austria]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Origins]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Initial Boundaries]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Counts of Babenberg]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Rule of the House Habsburg]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Austrian Empire]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Austro-Hungarian Empire]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[World War I]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Deriving its name from the Old High German term "Ostarrichi" first recorded in 996 by Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, the small, landlocked nation of Austria has long been an influential player in the political and military sagas of Europe. Beginning in the 13th century with the nearly 650 year rule of the powerful Habsburg Monarchy, Austria emerged as one of the premier nations of Europe, establishing strong alliances and far-reaching trade agreements across the continent. The later union of Austria and Hungary as a singular empire brought stability to both nations, only to be broken by the turmoil of World War I, and eventually, the German occupation of World War II. In the aftermath of these great conflicts, the borders of Austria were recreated, and the independent Republic of Austria stands today as a democratic nation that prides itself on maintaining neutrality and stability.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Austria-Hungary as a unified body was dissolved by the victorious Allied force in 1919, and Austria itself was reformed along its previous borders as the republic known as German Austria. As stipulated by the Treaty of Saint-Germain, signed at the end of World War I to deal specifically with Austria, any future unification of Austria and Germany was strictly prohibited. However, the rise of Nazi Germany under the leadership of Austrian-born Adolph Hitler paid little mind to the regulations of the former treaty.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[In 1938, troops from Germany entered Austria with the intention of unifying Austria and Germany. Despite resistance from the Austrian leadership, the Germans successfully installed a puppet regime and annexed Austria with support from a large portion of the populace. Known as the "Anschluss," the union of Germany and Austria led to the immediate dissolution of the Austrian republic, and came to be known once again as the Ostmark, or Eastern March, until the end of the war in 1945.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[Following Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, Austria was occupied by the Allies for nearly a decade until the Declaration of Neutrality and the Austrian State Treaty were signed in 1955. The Austrian State Treaty returned Austria's status as an independent republic, while the Declaration of Neutrality maintained that for the remainder of its existence, Austria would always remain militarily neutral.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[Since the formation of the second republic, Austria has maintained its neutrality and prospered as a democratic nation. After regaining independence following World War II, Austria joined the United Nations in 1955 as its 70th member state. Austria's capital, Vienna, is home to one of the central offices of the UN, and, as determined by the United Nations Human Development Index, Austria has one of the highest standards of living in the world. In 1995, Austria voted via referendum to join the European Union, and accepted the Euro as its currency in 1999. Austria strives to work closely with the UN and bases much of its foreign policy on conflict resolution and peaceful relations throughout the world today.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[With a skyline dominated by the looming presence of the Alps, much of Austria is mountainous with a cool, moderate climate.  Although the nation's borders have shifted repeatedly throughout history, Austria has always been surrounded by several imposing neighbors, primarily Germany, Italy, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. Landlocked among rivals and allies, Austria and its people bear a long history of adapting to the ever-changing situations surrounding them. In the modern day, Austrians enjoy taking advantage of the prevalent alpine terrain, as Austrian athletes are known for their competitiveness in winter sports, particularly downhill skiing, ski jumping, and snowboarding.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Austria's earliest history centers on the nomadic Celts and their conflicts with the expansionist Roman Empire. In the waning stages of the 1st millennium BC, the area that today constitutes Austria was inhabited by Celtic tribes north of the Danube River. These early Celts originated from the Hallstatt Culture, so named for the Austrian village of Hallstatt where the majority of their artifacts have been discovered. The arrival of the Romans around 200 BC marked the end of the Celtic dominance in the area, as the Romans quickly subdued the local populace and seized control of the region. It was during this period that the ancient Celtic settlement of Vindobona was captured and converted into a Roman military outpost. Initially an encampment for Roman troops, Vindobona grew to become an important center of trade along the Danube, eventually becoming the site of Austria's future capital, Vienna.
Although the Romans held dominion over southern Austria for several hundred years, by the 3rd century AD, increasingly powerful Germanic tribes from the north were making headway into Roman-controlled territory. By the 5th century, this loss of territory was but one of many problems facing Rome, as the decline of the empire spiraled out of control, allowing settlers from Bavaria and the surrounding area to move about uncontested. The city of Vindobona was captured by the nomadic Avars in 630 AD, who were then conquered themselves by Charlemagne in the late 8th century.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[In 976, the March of Austria, known in German as the Ostmark or "Eastern March," was formed, outlining much of the territory that would make up the future empire of Austria. A March, or border territory, was used to designate frontier regions in medieval Europe. The March of Austria was outlined by Holy Roman Emperor Otto II and superseded all previous designations of the area, including the Avar March laid out by Charlemagne in the 8th century encompassing the same region. The region would later be referenced as the Ostarrichi by Otto's son, Otto III.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The House of Babenberg, the first ruling dynasty of the March of Austria, was a family of nobles whose ascension to power came at the behest of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II. Leopold I was named Margrave of Austria in 976 as a reward for his loyalty to Otto during an uprising in Bavaria in the prior years. The title "Margrave" was bestowed upon counts who ruled over the medieval marches, primarily in a military role as these frontier territories were used to buffer the heart of the empire. The Babenberg counts ruled Austria for nearly 300 years before the rise of Austria's most influential dynasty, the aristocratic House of Habsburg.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The Habsburg Dynasty, first established by German King Rudolph I of Habsburg in the 13th Century, grew to become one of the most powerful ruling houses in all of Europe. The last of the Babenbergs, Duke Frederick II, died in 1246, providing the Habsburgs with an opportunity to seize control of the region. Following his selection as Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph claimed the provinces of Austria and faced a struggle for succession with the Bohemian prince Ottokar II. The successful outcome for Rudolph allowed him to install his two sons, Rudolph II and Albert I, as joint rulers, the first of the Habsburg line in Austria.
Over the next 600 years, the Habsburgs would enjoy increasing influence and authority in Europe, notably gaining the crown of the Holy Roman Emperor in 1452 with the selection of Frederick III by Pope Nicholas V. Frederick's breakthrough in gaining the position of Holy Roman Emperor ushered in an even greater expansion of Habsburg rule, who controlled Austria and the Holy Roman Empire up to the early 19th Century.
During their long reign, the Habsburgs were successful in claiming a number of territories surrounding their seat of power in Austria, most importantly Hungary. Frequently the focus of conflict between the Habsburg Empire and the Ottoman Turks occupying large swaths of the nation, Hungary eventually fell under complete control of Austria following the Ottomans decisive loss at the Battle of Vienna and the eventual settlement of the Great Turkish War in 1699.
The last of the Austrian Habsburg monarchs, Maria Theresa, ruled in the 18th century and was faced with a war over her right to succession soon after her father's death. As the first female to ever lead the Habsburg Monarchy, Maria was met with contempt by the European powers of France and rival Prussia, who disputed her claim to the throne and incited the War of Austrian Succession. After nine years of conflict the war was settled in 1748, with Maria Theresa affirmed as ruler of Austria, but at the cost of ceding the valuable province of Silesia to Prussia.
Maria Theresa's reign was marked with a steady increase in the stability of her nation, due in part to her careful consideration of the economic and social policies she instituted. Balancing Austria's budget through increased taxation and regulated expenditures allowed her to strengthen Austria's depleted military, while improvements in education and medicine bolstered the well-being of her people.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, beginning in the late 18th century, led to the creation of several coalitions opposed to Napoleon's French Empire. Austria joined the First Coalition against Napoleon in 1793, and despite a multi-pronged invasion of France joined by a number of European powers, the French were successful in repelling the invaders. Despite the setback, Austria continued to oppose the French and joined the majority of the seven coalitions that rose to confront Napoleon. Unfortunately Austria's early efforts led only to defeat, and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II formed the Austrian Empire in 1804 in an attempt to consolidate his land holdings in the region, naming himself Emperor of Austria. Abdicating the throne of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis signed the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805, dissolving the Holy Roman Empire itself in order to delegitimize claims made by Napoleon to German lands through his formation of the Confederation of the Rhine. Following Napoleon's defeat in 1813, the forces allied against France dissolved his confederation, which was then recreated as the German Confederation shortly thereafter.
As a union of European states bound by the German language, the German Confederation was formed with Austria and Prussia joining as its most powerful members. However, cooperation between the two historical rivals was short-lived. Prussia and its closest ally, Italy, invaded the disputed state of Holstein, provoking Austria into war in 1866. Austria, joined by the majority of the confederation members, faced off against the superior Prussian military. After a brief conflict, Prussia won a decisive victory over the Austrian alliance and dissolved the German Confederation.
In 1848, revolution swept across Europe, during a time known as the "Spring of Nations," when working-class citizens throughout Europe rose up against the longstanding monarchs ruling over them. Austria was not immune to these revolutionary ideals, as word spread from France of the uprisings, the subjects of the Austrian Empire joined in the opposition. Although the revolution in Austria was ultimately unsuccessful, it contributed directly to the future formation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as nationalism in Hungary grew increasingly potent and dissatisfaction with Austrian rule peaked. In an agreement that came to be known as the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph negotiated the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, maintaining the rule of the Austrian Emperor but providing Hungary with an independent parliament and government structure.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[The union of Austria-Hungary allowed the Hungarians to gain greater independence from the rule of the Austrians, while at the same time increasing Austria's stability by regaining the popular support of the Hungarian People. Having bore the burden of the war with Napoleon in the prior century, Austria's economic and military infrastructure was greatly weakened by the immense conflict, and this union strengthened Austria.
The events leading up to World War I, tracing its roots to the First and Second Balkan Wars, stemmed from Austria-Hungary's continual power struggle with Russia and Serbia over control of the Balkan region. The eventual occupation of Bosnia by Austria-Hungary in an attempt to curb Russian expansion in the region would incite nationalist opposition throughout the Balkans, putting Europe on a path towards a war unlike any before it.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The outbreak of World War I in 1914 was incited by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the would-be heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip was responsible for the assassination, and despite attempts at a diplomatic resolution, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia in 1914. At the onset of war, a tangled web of alliances and treaty-bound nations sprang into action. Austria-Hungary was joined by her closest ally, Germany, against a united force led by Russia, who came to the defense of Serbia. France joined the conflict as a past ally to Russia, while Great Britain joined after Germany's invasion of Belgium. Although the conflict began as a dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, the closely tied system of military alliances brought all of the world's major powers into the fight. After years of disastrous losses, Austria-Hungary was left in disarray, and the Treaty of Versailles brought an end to World War I in 1919.]=];
TITLE = [=[Austria]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Noble and virtuous Queen Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress and sovereign of Austria, the people bow to your gracious will. Following the death of your father King Charles VI, you ascended to the throne of Austria during a time of great instability, but the empty coffers and diminished military did little to dissuade your ambitions. Faced with war almost immediately upon your succession to the throne, you managed to fend off your foes, and in naming your husband Francis Stephen co-ruler, assured your place as Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. During your reign, you guided Austria on a new path of reform - strengthening the military, replenishing the treasury, and improving the educational system of the kingdom.
Oh great queen, bold and dignified, the time has come for you to rise and guide the kingdom once again. Can you return your people to the height of prosperity and splendor? Will you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Byzantine Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The term "Byzantine" is used in language to refer to an overly complex concept that goes beyond reasonable expectations of understanding, inferring that it may not be worth attempting to understand. This definition arose from the increasing complexity of the Romans' bureaucratic management schemes during the later stages of the empire.
Although commonly known as "Greek Fire," the infamous incendiary weapon was actually used most effectively by the Byzantine Empire, particularly by the Byzantine navy against the Arab fleets during the Byzantine-Arab Wars.
It was written by the historian Procopius that Emperor Justinian arranged to have silkworm eggs smuggled from China via monks using hollowed-out walking sticks, introducing silk production to the Roman Empire for the first time.
The song "Istanbul (Not Constantinople)," originally performed by The Four Lads in 1953, is set to the tune of "Puttin' on the Ritz" and opines about the reasons the Turks changed the city's name after conquering it.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[Exile and Recovery]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Decline of the Empire]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Crisis of the Roman Empire]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[From Four, Two]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Rule of the Justinians]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Byzantine Culture]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Dynasties of the Later Millennium]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[The Macedonians]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[The Fourth Crusade]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Existing for more than 1,000 years, the Byzantine Empire, centered in the legendary city of Constantinople, was initially formed as the eastern seat of power for the mighty Roman Empire. Located along the trade routes connecting Europe to Asia, Constantinople grew to become the primary trade hub in the region, flourishing despite the conflicts that led to the decline of Rome in the west. Inspired by a number of memorable rulers, the Byzantine Empire was also a source of great cultural growth along the eastern Mediterranean, its affluence allowing for grand displays of art, architecture, science, and music.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Following the sacking of Constantinople, most of the Byzantine territory was divided by the Franks and Venetians into a new domain, the "Latin Empire." However, Byzantine opposition still existed in the southern regions, and two Byzantine successor states were formed, the Empire of Nicea and the Despotate of Epirus. It would be the former, the Empire of Nicea, allied with the Bulgarians, which would eventually retake Constantinople from the Latins in 1261, leading to a short resurgence in Byzantine power.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[The decline of the Byzantine Empire, much like its counterpart in the Western Roman Empire, took place over the course of several centuries. Historians have long debated the roots of the Byzantines' fall from grace, crediting everything from the early Arab conquests and the Byzantine-Arab Wars, to the loss of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade as the pivotal event in the downfall of the empire. In any case, brief periods of resurgence were, seemingly without fail, always followed by newfound opposition and conflict.
While the Byzantines struggled with civil war during the 14th century, the Ottoman Turks embarked on a number of successful military campaigns against the Venetians and Serbians, leading to an eventual showdown with the severely weakened Byzantine Empire. It is said that the last of the Byzantine emperors, Constantine XI Palaiologos, died in combat while defending the city walls during the Ottoman siege. The Ottoman Turks led by Mehmed II successfully conquered Constantinople in 1453 AD, marking the end of both the Byzantine Empire, and the final end to any remnants of the once great Roman Empire.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Before the arrival of Constantine in 330 AD, the city of Constantinople was known as Byzantium, a small Greek colony founded in the 7th century BC. Strategically placed along the Bosphorus, the only waterway connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean (via the Marmara and Aegean Seas), this site would prove to be the ideal location for a larger settlement. Protected by water on three sides, Constantinople solidified a nearly impenetrable system of defense with the construction of its legendary walls. Despite the ebb and flow of territories controlled by the empire, the prosperity of the Byzantines could always be attributed to the wisely selected location of Constantinople. Today, the city is known as Istanbul, a megacity located in Turkey with a population of over 13 million people.
Outside of their renowned capital, the vast expanses of territory controlled by the Byzantines featured a diverse geography. At its peak, the empire primarily held regions surrounding the Mediterranean, featuring a subtropical climate with warm, humid summers followed by moderate winters.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Throughout the early centuries of the new millennium, the Roman Empire continued its conquest of Europe and the Mediterranean unabated, consuming new territories faster than the Romans could properly administer them. Particularly on the eastern front, the Roman Emperor Diocletian saw the need for administrative reforms, seeking to improve both the economic stability as well as the defensive capabilities of these frontier territories. In roughly 285 AD, the system Diocletian devised, Tetrarchy, divided leadership of the Roman Empire among four rulers, with four frontier capitals. Nicodemia, the eastern Roman capital (today known as the city of Izmit, Turkey) would later be moved to Constantinople after Constantine I became emperor in 306.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The early development of a distinct Byzantine Empire can be attributed directly to the efforts of the Roman Emperor Constantine I, who, in 330 AD chose the city of Byzantium as the settlement which would become the "Second Rome"- Constantinople. Intended to serve as the capital city of the Eastern Roman Empire (the "Byzantine Empire" being a name conceived of by modern historians), following the dissolution of Diocletian's tetrarchy, Constantinople's separation from Rome would prove to be more pivotal than expected.
With wealth came stability, and the Byzantine Empire, benefitting from its dominance of crucial trade routes, managed to avoid many of the conflicts that Rome itself could not. Relatively young as a city and geographically distant, Constantinople was far less of a prize to the raiders battering Rome during this period. However, the Byzantines were unable to escape the keen eye of history's greatest barbarian - Attila the Hun. These ongoing conflicts with the Huns proved to be troublesome for the Byzantines. Had Attila not died in 453, things might have turned out differently for the empire, as it is said that Attila was planning to return and conquer the kingdom once and for all, following his campaign in Italy.
During this period, the Western Roman Empire (Rome proper) had endured continual economic and military strife, and following the eventual fall of Rome itself to the increasingly powerful Germanic tribes, the Byzantine Empire would rise to succeed Rome, becoming one of the most influential kingdoms on the world's stage.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The Justinian Dynasty, founded by Emperor Justin I in 518 and led shortly after in 527 by Justinian I, would see a period of reclamation for the Byzantine Empire, during which time many of the provinces lost by Rome during its decline were regained by Justinian. The Byzantine general Belisarius, who would also serve Justinian in crushing the infamous Nika revolt, led a number of successful campaigns against the Vandals and Ostrogoths during this period of reclamation.
It was during the Justinian Dynasty that Empress Theodora came to play an influential role in the empire. Wife and co-ruler to Justinian I, Theodora made her mark on history as a highly intelligent, trusted advisor to Justinian and an early advocate for the rights of women within the empire. It was Theodora's emphatic speech that guided Justinian through the Nika revolt, an uprising of rival political factions attempting to usurp Justinian's throne in 532.  It is said that while Justinian considered fleeing the city, Theodora implored him to remain, allegedly quoting an ancient saying "Royalty is a fine burial shroud." Justinian heeded Theodora's advice, ordering his general Belisarius to suppress the rebellion, leading to an eventual massacre at the Hippodrome that would secure Justinian's throne.
It was also during the Nika revolts that the predecessor of the Hagia Sophia, a Christian church dating to the early times of Constantinople, was destroyed. The grand monument as it is today was constructed shortly after Justinian and Theodora quashed the revolt. Said to have been rebuilt using components gathered from across the empire, the Hagia Sophia features a number of innovative architectural elements and is considered a masterpiece of Byzantine architecture for its lavish decoration and grand scale.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Throughout its history, and in particular during the rule of Justinian, culture within Constantinople flourished. Artisans and craftsmen labored to produce grand works of art throughout the city, displaying the influences of their Greek and Roman heritage, as well as the overwhelming authority of the Christian doctrines within the city. Christian art and icons would be revered within the empire for centuries, until the rise of iconoclasm, a backlash against the adulation of religious icons, in the 8th century AD. Although the spark that ignited such fierce iconoclasm within the empire is still debated today, it can be said with certainty that this response led to the destruction of many great works of religious art within Constantinople.
Byzantine architecture is another widely recognized aspect of the empire's storied history. As with Byzantine art, architecture within the empire was heavily influenced by religious motifs.  The Byzantines' study of mathematics, which influenced both their aesthetic design as well as their engineering capabilities, allowed for the construction of elaborate basilicas throughout Constantinople.  Most notably, the Hagia Sophia and the massive underground water storage chamber known as the Basilica Cistern were completed during the reign of Justinian I.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[During the 7-9th centuries AD, the Byzantine Empire was ruled by a number of short-lived dynasties. In the 7th century, Constantinople fell under the rule of the Heraclians, who struggled continuously with conflicts against the Arab Umayyad forces. The Arabs went so far as to lay siege to the city itself in 674, and although the defenses of Constantinople held, the city entered a period of decline with sharp reductions in its population. This would mark the beginning of the Arab-Byzantine Wars, during which time the Christian Byzantine Empire would be entangled in near constant war with the Islamic Caliphs controlling portions of Iraq, Syria and southern Italy. This conflict would continue sporadically for the next 400 some years, and the empire would suffer through some of its lowest points, before the resurrection of Byzantine power by the Macedonians in 867.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[During the reign of the Macedonian Dynasty (867-1057), the Byzantine Empire grew to perhaps its greatest heights, recovering from centuries of decline and once again entering a period of affluence and cultural expansion.  Beginning with the reign of Basil I, a growth in both economic prosperity and military power bolstered the empire, and the Byzantines managed a number of key victories over the Arabs and the Bulgarians, regaining lost territory in parts of Syria and the Balkans.
It would be these clashes with the Bulgarians in particular that would have the greatest effect on the future Byzantine Empire. As a result of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, by 1018, the Byzantines had conquered Bulgaria and subjugated the Bulgars. The Bulgars would eventually become unlikely bedfellows to the Byzantines following the siege of the Fourth Crusade.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Although the crusades are often seen as a direct response to the increasing power of the Islamic Arab states and the need to assist the Byzantines in thwarting them (as the primary Christian stronghold in the east), the crusaders didn't always target Constantinople's enemies. The Fourth Crusade was said to have been focused on taking control of Muslim-held Jerusalem, but instead the attackers moved to Constantinople, apparently still clinging to the events of the Great Schism of 1054, which isolated the Eastern Orthodox Church (Byzantines) from the Roman Catholic Church. In 1204, Constantinople was conquered by the crusaders, led by the Franks and the Venetians, and the city was relentlessly pillaged. The crusaders destroyed many of the Orthodox Churches and their relics, defiling them in ways said to have disturbed even the Pope, who had initiated the crusade in the first place. The events of the Fourth Crusade, creating both physical and political havoc within the Byzantine Empire, are said to have directly contributed to its downfall at the hands of the Ottoman Turks less than three centuries later.]=];
TITLE = [=[Byzantium]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[All hail the most magnificent and magnanimous Empress Theodora, beloved of Byzantium and of Rome! From the lowly ranks of actress and courtesan you became the most powerful woman in the Roman Empire, consort to Justinian I. Starting in the late 520's AD, you joined your husband in a series of important spiritual and legal reforms, creating many laws which elevated the status of and promoted equal treatment of women in the empire. You also aided in the restoration and construction of many aqueducts, bridges, and churches across Constantinople, culminating in the creation of the Hagia Sophia, one of the most splendid architectural wonders of the world.
Beautiful Empress, Byzantium is in need of your wisdom and strength - her people are lost without your light to lead them. The Byzantine Empire may have fallen once, but its spirit is still intact waiting to be reborn anew. Can you return Byzantium to the heights of glory it once enjoyed? Can you create a civilization to stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Carthaginian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The name "Punic" derived from the latin name given to the Carthaginians by the Romans, "Punici," which itself came from "Poenici" designating the Phoenicians.
The people of Carthage worshipped the god Ba'al Hammon above all others, and he was represented by the ram. Ba'al Hammon was the god of fertility and the sky.
During his march to Italy, Hannibal is said to have lost vision in one of his eyes after it became infected while trudging through a marsh, but it apparently did little to slow his ambition.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[Decline and Destruction]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Legacy]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Foundation]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Expansion of Power]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Wars with Greece]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Rome: Ally to Adversary]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Advent of the Punic Wars]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Mercenary Uprising]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Punic Wars Renewed]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The ancient kingdom of Carthage, founded by fabled queen Dido, grew from a small settlement of exiles to a powerful civilization that rivaled the great and formidable Roman Empire. Ideally situated along the northern coast of Africa, Carthage became an increasingly crucial center of trade along the Mediterranean throughout the 1st millennium BC. However, this success was not without consequences, as Carthage eventually drew the ire of both Greece and Rome, and the ensuing conflicts with these intimidating rivals became the stuff of legend.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Rome agreed to a peaceful settlement of the conflict with Carthage, in exchange for monumental reparations and continuing tribute from their bested rival.  Carthage had lost control of Iberia, and its standing on the world stage was greatly reduced. However, this was not the end of the longstanding rivalry, as the Third Punic War rose some 50 years later to settle the matter conclusively.
Rome resumed the conflict in 149 BC, using petty regional frays as the justification for the final conquest of Carthage and its people. After making a number of unreasonable demands, perhaps knowing that Carthage would refuse, the Romans besieged the city for three years. Enduring until 146 BC, the beleaguered people of Carthage were eventually forced to surrender, Carthage itself was burned to the ground and much of the remaining population was slaughtered, the survivors sold into slavery. This marked the end of once great and powerful Carthage, one of the most formidable kingdoms of the ancient world, and perhaps the greatest rival the Romans ever faced.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[From humble beginnings as a settlement of exiles and wanderers, Carthage rose to become a center of trade and the greatest naval power of the ancient world. Ancient Carthage and its people are best remembered today for their legacy as the empire that challenged the unquestioned might of Rome.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Founded on the Gulf of Tunis in North Africa, Carthage was ideally positioned to take advantage of the existing trade routes established throughout the Mediterranean. The city of Carthage itself was one of the largest of the era, with massive walls and multiple harbors to facilitate shipping and receiving. Located in a region of diverse geography and climate, Carthage most likely experienced much of the same weather found in the area today - that is hot, dry summer seasons followed by mild winters.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The first settlers of Carthage came from the Kingdom of Tyre, part of the ancient Phoenician civilization. Retold over the centuries in both historical record and folklore, the story of Carthage's founding is intertwined with the legend of Dido, first queen of Carthage. Dido's cunning escape from Tyre and eventual settlement in North Africa serves as the liveliest account of the city's creation, although traditional historians accredit Phoenician colonists with the task.  There is little debate, however, that the city was first settled sometime around 814 BC, taking its name from the Phoenician "Qart-hadast," meaning "The New Town." In Dido's tale, she is said to have acquired the land from a local king, after he agreed to sell her as much land as she could cover with an ox hide. Dido quickly cut the ox hide into strips, which she then laid out to encircle a large hill and the surrounding area - the birthplace of Carthage.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Founded among the prospering trade routes of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, it wasn't long before Carthage established itself as a formidable new empire in the region. As their forbearers in Phoenicia were conquered and dispersed during the 4th and 5th centuries BC, Carthage stood as the strongest of the remaining colonies, and soon held sway over all those once loyal to Tyre. Carthage's attempts to establish control over the surviving Phoenician colonies quickly brought them into conflict with Greece and Rome, who sought to claim the resource-rich lands of Sicily and southern Italy as their own.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The increasing tension with Greece over control of Sicily led to a series of conflicts that came to be known as the Sicilian Wars. During the 7th century BC, Greece continued to expand its colonies in southern Italy and to the west in Sicily, as trade prospered, despite the growing rivalry with Carthage. Eventually, Carthage was forced to deal with the Greeks' continued encroachment into the territory that was once firmly Phoenician, not only to ensure a steady flow of income, but also to forcefully assert that Carthage would protect the remaining Phoenician colonies.
Although records of their skirmishes are limited, the Carthaginians primarily fought the Greeks on the island of Sicily itself. Initially Carthage simply aided the colonies in their individual efforts to resist Greek incursions, until open warfare erupted in 480 BC, when the Battle of Himera was fought on Sicily between the forces of Carthage under Hamilcar Mago and the armies of Greece led by Gelo, ruler of Syracuse. Although the details are unclear, Carthage was unceremoniously crushed by the Greek forces, allegedly suffering casualties in the hundreds of thousands. Hamilcar himself was killed, and, after just one great battle, Carthage was forced to withdraw, paying reparations to the Greeks in order to maintain control of their colonies in Sicily.
In 410 BC, Carthage once again set out to defeat Greece and wrestle control of Sicily, this time under the leadership of Hannibal Mago, grandson of the previously defeated Hamilcar Mago. Hannibal Mago met with greater success than his grandfather, conquering several Greek controlled cities before eventually returning to Carthage. In 405 BC, Mago finally attempted to sweep across all of Sicily, but he and his army were sickened by the plague, and Mago himself died shortly thereafter.
 War with Greece continued throughout the 4th century BC, eventually culminating with the complete control of Sicily by Carthage. However, Greece and Carthage remained in conflict over the territory, a dispute that would eventually carryover into the Pyrrhic War.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[During the ongoing conflicts between the Greeks and Carthaginians, Rome moved to assert its dominance over the whole of Italy. By the 3rd century BC, Rome became embroiled in a conflict with the Greek state of Epirus, who came to the defense of Tarentum, an Italian colony involved in an increasingly tense diplomatic dispute with Rome.  After several Roman ships were sunk in the harbor of Tarentum, Rome declared war on the colony, which drew Epirus into the fight. The Greek ruler, Pyrrhus of Epirus, won several early battles against the Romans, including the Battle of Heraclea in 280 BC. Rome sought reinforcements from Carthage, who agreed to create an alliance against the Greeks. Later at the Battle of Asculum in 279 BC, Pyrrhus was again successful in defeating the Roman army, but at a steep cost. Losing several thousand men in the conflict, this battle is the origin of the phrase a "Pyrrhic Victory," which came to mean a victory that comes at too great of an expense. Within five years time, Pyrrhus was forced to fully withdraw, and Rome's control of Italy was unquestioned. Carthage now stood alone as the biggest threat to Roman dominance of the Mediterranean.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Not long after the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War, the continued expansion of Rome drew the ire of Carthage, as the two competitors fought not only for control of territory and trade, but also the prestige of being the dominant power of the region. A series of escalating clashes that came to be known as the Punic Wars erupted in 264 BC, when both powers became entangled in a local squabble over control of the Sicilian city of Messina. While the Romans excelled in land-based warfare, Carthage controlled the most intimidating navy of the time, and the Romans were forced to adapt to succeed against the Carthaginian fleet. By utilizing boarding platforms mounted on their ships, the Romans found a way to reassert their infantry skills while at sea. The First Punic War was concluded by 241 BC, with Carthage having suffered a number of serious defeats, allowing Rome's authority to climb unabated. Carthage was forced to pay Rome a hefty price for peace, leaving the country on unstable footing both economically and militarily.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[During the period following the First Punic War, the Carthaginians were this time faced with a conflict of their own making. Throughout their history, Carthage relied on mercenaries for its infantry needs, as the nation focused on maintaining its naval superiority. In 240 BC, the unpaid mercenaries of Carthage who fought in the First Punic War took to arms and incited an uprising that quickly spread throughout the Carthaginian territories. During the ensuing conflict, Hamilcar Barca, father of legendary general Hannibal, valiantly led a limited Carthaginian force to victory over the rebels thanks in no small part to Barca's tactical genius. His success in quashing the rebellion bolstered his family name, and contributed directly to his son's future legacy as the greatest general of Carthage.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The Second Punic War began in 218 BC, again over a regional dispute, this time in the Greek city of Saguntum on the Iberian Peninsula (Spain). By this time, legendary general Hannibal had risen to the position of Commander of the Carthaginian military. After continuing quarrels over control of the city, Hannibal led his army to Iberia and besieged Saguntum. Hannibal succeeded in capturing Saguntum and established a base of operations there, which immediately led to a declaration of war by Rome.  In a surprising tactical maneuver, Hannibal made the decision to lead his army on an overland march to Italy, a monumental undertaking that stands as the hallmark of his campaign against Rome. In leading his army through the treacherous route, Hannibal hoped to invade Italy and catch the unsuspecting Romans off guard. As his force of more than 100,000 infantry and cavalry endured the grueling trek through the Pyrenees and then the Alps, many men were lost, and a number of prized war elephants fell to the bitter cold of the mountains.
The forces of Rome and Carthage eventually met at the Battle of the Trebia in northern Italy late in 218 BC. Despite the loss of troops during his march to Italy, Hannibal successfully bolstered his force by recruiting tribes from Gaul, who were keen to fight their Roman antagonists. Although accounts differ as to the details of the battle, it can be said with certainty that Rome was thoroughly defeated, losing thousands of men despite having fielded a greater army than Carthage.
As the war raged on, Hannibal was met with continued success, winning a number of early skirmishes before the Battle of Cannae, perhaps his greatest victory of the war. Fought near the village of Cannae on the southeastern coast of Italy, the battle was one of the largest of the war, as Rome attempted to counter Hannibal's push by fielding a massive number of legions. Unfortunately for Rome, throwing men into battle without proper direction provided no advantage, and Hannibal's tactics quickly overwhelmed the Romans. In a decisive blow, the Carthaginians ravaged the Roman columns, leading to casualties in the tens of thousands.
Following their demoralizing defeat at Cannae, the Romans began a campaign of attrition against Hannibal's forces, creating an eventual stalemate in Italy with neither side gaining additional ground. Although Hannibal was successful in capturing a number of colonies throughout Italy, the Romans had also made inroads in Iberia, conquering several crucial Carthaginian settlements there. The Romans' victories in Iberia revived their war effort, and under the leadership of Scipio Africanus, plans were laid for an invasion of Africa.
Hannibal returned to Carthage in 203 BC to face the impending threat from Scipio. Meeting at the Battle of Zama, Hannibal's depleted forces were outmatched by the freshly reinforced Roman army. Although Hannibal managed to escape from the battlefield with his life, much of his army was destroyed, and this defeat so close to home brought a quick end to the Second Punic War after more than a decade of near-constant strife.]=];
TITLE = [=[Carthage]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Blessings and salutations to you, revered Queen Dido, founder of the legendary kingdom of Carthage. Chronicled by the words of the great poet Virgil, your husband Acerbas was murdered at the hands of your own brother, King Pygmalion of Tyre, who subsequently claimed the treasures of Acerbas that were now rightfully yours. Fearing the lengths from which your brother would pursue this vast wealth, you and your compatriots sailed for new lands. Arriving on the shores of North Africa, you tricked the local king with the simple manipulation of an ox hide, laying out a vast expanse of territory for your new home, the future kingdom of Carthage.
Clever and inquisitive Dido, the world longs for a leader who can provide a shelter from the coming storm, guided by brilliant intuition and cunning. Can you lead the people in the creation of a new kingdom to rival that of once mighty Carthage? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Celtic Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The "Celtic Knot," a widely recognized artistic motif attributed to the Celts, was also found in both Roman and later Christian works. Consisting of interweaved and often endless knot patterns, the style is still widely recognized today as a hallmark of Celtic culture.
Although known today as the "Celts," it is unlikely this term was the one used by the ancient Celtic people to describe themselves.  Historical references to the Greek "Keltoi," and the Latin "Celtae," are the probable origins of the modern name.
Chainmail, the predecessor to many European forms of armor that developed throughout the Dark and Middle Ages, is an invention credited to the Celts of the 3rd Century BC.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Celtic Language]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Modern Ancestry]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Terrain and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Celtic Origins]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Celts of Britain]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Celtiberians]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Gauls]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Roman Conquest]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Influence of Celtic Culture]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Celtic Religion]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Celtic tribes of Europe, celebrated today as the ancestors to millions throughout the world, were one of history's greatest ancient societies. Said to have developed from the early Iron-Age cultures of Central Europe, the Celts grew to become a diverse, yet formidable, society made up of hundreds of individual tribes spread across the continent.  Thriving throughout the better part of the 1st millennium BC, the Celts eventually became embroiled in a number of fearsome conflicts with the unrelenting Roman Empire, who would come to suppress, but in many cases adopt, aspects of the Celtic culture during their conquest of Europe.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[The Indo-European languages, a family of several hundred dialects from which the Celtic languages evolved, have been spoken throughout Europe and parts of Asia since the Stone Age. Although the Celtic languages are mainly found today in Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and France, at one point they were widely used and actually served to unite the diverse Celtic tribes scattered across continental Europe.
Today, there are six "living" Celtic languages that remain in use (the majority having died off with the passage of time). Welsh, spoken primarily in Wales and England, is the most widely used of the remaining dialects, said to have over 600,000 speakers. Irish, Breton, Scottish Gaelic, Cornish, and Manx make up the remaining Celtic languages still found today, although combined these dialects probably constitute less than 2 million remaining speakers, and far fewer wholly native speakers.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[In the present day, "The Celtic League," a non-governmental organization that promotes Celtic heritage and culture, identifies the current "Celtic Nations" as Brittany, Cornwall, Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland and Wales. Although these areas serve as the primary bastions of Celtic language and heritage, throughout the world it is estimated that people of Celtic ancestry number in the millions. The six surviving Celtic languages still in use today are attributed to these six corresponding regions.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The area inhabited by the earliest known Celtic people is found in parts of modern-day Germany and Austria, although the Celts would eventually migrate across much of Europe, including France (Gaul), the British Isles and Spain (Iberia). This vast range of climates and geography makes it difficult to narrow down the specific characteristics of their territory, although it does speak to the hardy nature of the Celtic people that they were capable of adapting to such variations.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Although the roots of Celtic ancestry are still debated by historians today, the Celts are thought to have developed out of the Urnfield, Hallstatt, and La Tene cultures of Europe that succeeded one another during the late Bronze and early Iron Ages. These early Celtic people migrated over vast expanses, mixing their languages and religion with those of the existing inhabitants they encountered. In roughly 1300 BC, the first of these proto-Celtic groups, the Urnfield culture, was found primarily in the southernmost regions of present-day Germany. Living during the later stages of the Bronze Age, the people of the Urnfield culture expanded under the rule of primitive chiefdoms, eventually reaching as far as France. As the Urnfield population flourished and their territory expanded, the loosely affiliated tribes often struggled with one another, and it was not uncommon for the tribes to overrun their own outlying clansmen in a continuing cycle of expansion and integration.
The later development of the Hallstatt culture, so named for archaeological finds near the village of Hallstatt, Austria, continued the diffusion of proto-Celtic peoples throughout Europe. These early Celts continued to migrate across central Europe during the 1st millennium BC, further advancing into what came to be known as the La Tene culture, encompassing much of Europe during the late Iron Age. From the La Tene, the first distinctly Celtic societies emerged in several nations throughout the continent.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The "Insular Celts," being those primarily inhabiting the British Isles, are today perhaps the greatest remnants of the once widespread Celtic population of Europe. United by their common languages and religion, the Celts of the Iron Age settled extensively throughout Britain, Scotland and Ireland during the 7th-3rd centuries BC. Thought to have integrated with the indigenous peoples of the region, the Celtic migrants continued to spread, eventually becoming a fixture of the region.
The Celts would solidify their legacy as fearsome warriors in the 1st century AD, after uniting under the banner of Queen Boudicca of the Iceni. Having suffered unwarranted brutality at the hands of the Romans, Boudicca led a united force of tribes from the British Isles against the legions of Rome, the greatest fighting force of the age. Not since the sacking of Rome by the Celtic chieftain Brennus in 387 BC had the Romans seen such assemblage of Celtic forces, with Boudicca's army numbering in the hundreds of thousands. Although the Romans were eventually successful in quashing the rebellion (with combined losses from both sides estimated at over 100,000), as history had shown prior, the Romans continually underestimated the might of the Celts and it cost them dearly.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The Celts of the Iberian Peninsula (modern-day Spain, Portugal and Andorra) were migrants from Gaul. Having left their homes in the early 5th and 6th centuries BC, they quickly integrated with the existing Iberian culture of the region. The Celtiberians, as they came to be known, were allied with Carthage against Rome during the First Punic War, a decision that would contribute to their eventual subjugation by the Romans, following the defeat of noted Carthaginian general Hannibal.
The Celtiberians were known for building the "Castro," a type of stone hill fort constructed throughout the Iberian Peninsula. Although various types of hill forts were found in the Celtic inhabited regions of Britain and Central Europe, the examples found today in Spain are particularly well preserved. Numantia, a Castro built by the Celtiberians in the 2nd century BC, is a national monument in modern Spain.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Although the Gauls' history before the Roman conquest is limited by a lack of accurate records, the Gauls are still perhaps the most familiar of the Celts. Living primarily in the region that today constitutes France, the Gauls were described extensively by Julius Caesar in his historical account of the Gallic Wars, the "Commentarii de Bello Gallico."  Made up of dozens of individual tribes, the Gauls developed extensive trade routes between their small towns, establishing a culture that would flourish independently for centuries. Their rich culture would be nigh obliterated, though, by the eventual conquest of the Romans.
Although found throughout Celtic societies in Europe, the Druids were a particularly renowned presence among the Gauls.  A class of priests held in high esteem among the Celts, the Druids served a number of important roles in Celtic society, acting as both judges and scholars, in addition to their traditionally recognized position as religious figures. Unfortunately, the wisdom of the druids was passed on through an oral tradition, leaving behind a mysterious legacy of rites and rituals, many of which are still unexplained today.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[In 390 BC, the Gallic chieftain Brennus attacked the Roman ally Etruria and eventually made his way to Rome, sacking the city and leaving it devastated. Paid a handsome sum to abandon his conquest, Brennus and the Celts would find a momentary windfall in their victory, but this would only serve as the beginning of a longstanding conflict between the Romans and the Celts.
This bitter rivalry could be seen in the alliance between the Iberian Celts and Carthage against Rome in the Second Punic War. The Iberian Celts managed to resist Roman conquest well into the 1st century BC, when they were finally subjugated and absorbed into the Empire, subsequently destroying many of the remnants of Celtic influence in Spain.
Nearly a century later and half a continent to the north, legendary general Julius Caesar would march his legions in the wilds of Gaul, initiating the Gallic Wars in 58 BC.  Springing from both the expanding territorial aspirations of the Gauls and the Roman propensity for plundering territories to pay their debts (veteran legions didn't come cheap), the Gallic Wars would be the end of independent Gaul, after which time it would become heavily "Romanized." These conquests would serve as a precursor to Rome's eventual dominion over large parts of Central Europe.
The Romans led by Caesar would make initial excursions into Britain, said to have been in reprisal for the Britons having aided the Gauls. Despite violent resistance, the Romans would continue to make inroads into Britain for more than a century to come, under the leadership of Emperors Claudius, and later, Hadrian.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[With the widespread migration of the Celts and their eventual absorption into Roman society, many uniquely Celtic elements can be found in the artifacts of Rome. At their height, the Celts are thought to have adopted aspects of Roman, Greek and German artistic elements into their work. Following their subjugation by the Romans, many of these elements adapted by the Celts were reconstituted by the Romans. Often featuring highly stylized renditions of animals, deities, and nature, Celtic art was frequently found emblazoned on Roman pottery and carvings. The Celts were also responsible for innovations in the art of warfare, developing unique sword and armor designs which are said to have influenced the development of the Roman Gladius and Spatha swords.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Although we have little in the way of historical records about the ancient religion of the Celts, the priests of the era, known as Druids, have long been the subject of debate and interest among historians and the general public alike. Described by both the Greeks and Romans in the waning years of the 1st century BC, Druidism is thought to have been suppressed and eventually forgotten after the Roman conquest of Europe. Despite their own history of brutal conquests and the ease with which the Romans would take a life for entertainment purposes, they ironically considered the Celtic religion barbaric for the human sacrifices purportedly committed by the Druids. Whether or not the Druids actually used human sacrifice as extensively as the Roman accounts implied is still the subject of debate today.]=];
TITLE = [=[The Celts]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Celts]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Eternal glory and praise for you, fierce and vengeful Warrior Queen! In a time dominated by men, you not only secured your throne and sovereign rule, but also successfully defied the power of the Roman Empire.  After suffering terrible punishment and humiliation at the hand of the Roman invaders, you rallied your people in a bloody and terrifying revolt. Legions fell under your chariot wheels and the city of London burned. While in the end the Romans retained ownership of the isles, you alone made Nero consider withdrawing all troops and leaving Briton forever.
Oh sleeping lioness, your people desire that you rise and lead them again in the calling that is your namesake.  Will you meet their challenge on the open field and lead the Celts to everlasting victory? Will you restore your lands and build an empire to stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Ethiopian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The calendar used in Ethiopia, known as the Ge'ez, is based on the Coptic Calendar developed in ancient Egypt. Thanks to the Ge'ez, Ethiopia is the only nation in the world with a 13th month.
Legend has it that the stimulating effects of coffee were first discovered in Ethiopia, when a goatherd named Kaldi observed his goats bucking wildly after eating the berries of a coffee plant.
Ethiopia's capital city of Addis Ababa is one of the highest capitals in the world, sitting at an elevation nearly 8000 ft (2400m) above sea level.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[Italian Occupation]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[The Derg]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[Present-day Ethiopia]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Origins of Human Development]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Pre-History]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Early Kingdoms]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Return of the Solomonic Dynasty]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Islamic Invasion]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Age of Princes]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Haile Selassie]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Home to ancient empires dating back to the waning centuries of the first millennium BC, Ethiopia has a storied history driven by the rule of great kings and emperors. As one of the few African nations to avoid the colonial ambitions of Europe, Ethiopia maintained its sovereignty well into the 20th century, remaining independent until the invasion of Italian forces led by Mussolini in 1935. It was during this period that noted Emperor Haile Selassie brought Ethiopia to the forefront of global affairs, as his nation endured the conflicts of World War II, and he strove to set Ethiopia on a path of modernization and progressive reform.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[In 1935, the Fascist Italian regime led by Benito Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in an attempt to claim the territory as a province of Italy. Facing a superior military force, Ethiopia was unable to repel the invasion, and by 1936, Mussolini had declared the establishment of an Italian Empire including the occupied Ethiopian territory. During this period, Haile Selassie was forced into exile, taking refuge in Great Britain throughout the occupation. Selassie made his case for the defense of Ethiopia to the League of Nations, including a stern reproach of Italy's use of mustard gas against Ethiopian soldiers and citizens alike. Despite his plea, international assistance was not forthcoming, and years passed before the British East African Campaign of World War II was successful in ending the Italian occupation. Haile Selassie returned to his throne as Emperor of Ethiopia following Italy's defeat, and he would rule successfully for nearly 40 years before the arrival of a new threat.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[In 1974, a Communist-led military coup resulted in Haile Selassie's removal from power and imprisonment within the royal palace. The group deposing him, known as the Derg, formed the Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia and ruled with an iron fist. Selassie died mysteriously while imprisoned, a controversial subject that continues to stir debate today. As the Derg and their communist ideals were not universally supported, their military coup also marked the beginning of the Ethiopian Civil War. This great conflict claimed the lives of several hundred thousand innocent bystanders as fighting continued for over 15 years. In 1991, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front was finally successful in overthrowing the government, leading to the creation of a new constitution and a democratically elected government.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[Known today as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the nation faces a number of major socio-economic issues as the second most populous country in Africa. The wide-ranging geographic isolation facing some groups within the country has made it increasingly difficult to provide education, healthcare, and, in many cases, the basic necessities of life. Although the nation currently holds multiparty elections, corruption within the government is a constant concern, and crackdowns in recent years have led to international condemnation over the killing of protesters and opposition party members.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Ethiopia, Africa's tenth largest nation, covers the majority of the Horn of Africa, nestled along the continent's northeastern coast. Bisected by the Great Rift Valley, Ethiopia's geography is dominated by highly elevated plateaus and disjointed mountain ranges. Sitting atop the African tectonic plate, which has been in the process of splitting apart for millions of years, Ethiopia has found itself on the receiving end of frequent earthquakes throughout history. The country is also home to several dozen active and dormant volcanoes, including Erta Ale, one of the few volcanoes in the world with an ever-present lake of lava on its summit. The climate of Ethiopia varies greatly, although the nation as a whole is part of a tropical zone with heavy rainfall during the summer monsoon season followed by a dry, moderate winter.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The Great Rift Valley cutting across central Ethiopia has long been considered the birthplace of human development. Numerous fossil remains have been discovered within the valley, in particular the famous skeleton known as "Lucy," which is estimated to be approximately three million years old. These early Hominids later developed into the earliest Homo sapiens, who lived throughout Ethiopia in small groups more than 100,000 years ago.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[As early as the 10th millennium BC, Ethiopia was inhabited by tribal peoples who subsisted using early forms of agriculture and animal husbandry. Later during the height of the ancient Egyptian civilization, traders from both nations established routes for the exchange of gold, obsidian, ivory, and other precious materials. These early inhabitants of Ethiopia, who lived in what is known as the mysterious Land of Punt, developed many of the early agricultural practices that are still part of Ethiopian culture today.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As the most advanced of the early Ethiopian kingdoms, the powerful Axumite Empire is well documented in history, but also steeped in legend. Founded in roughly the 4th century BC, Axum grew to become a powerful center of trade over the next five hundred years. The valuable commodities of frankincense and myrrh, harvested from trees prevalent in Ethiopia, brought great wealth to the city of Axum and its people. Through the exportation of these goods, plus lucrative trades in ivory and various precious metals, Axum became an integral part of the trade routes connecting Egypt, Rome, and India, enough so to facilitate the minting of currency within Axum to support the flourishing local economy.
However, after centuries of prosperity, legends say the expansive empire's downfall came at the hands of a rebellious queen named Gudit. As the story goes, Axum had long been a stronghold of Christianity, and the Jewish queen Gudit sought the throne by way of conquest, purportedly devastating the countryside before murdering the royal family of Axum. Although the story of Gudit's life and brief reign is mysterious and controversial, it can be said with certainty that the decline of Axum did coincide with her speculated arrival in the 10th century AD.
The Zagwe Dynasty, established in the early 12th century after the fall of Axum, was the first dynasty of the Ethiopian Empire, which would control the nation well into the 20th century. Although the Zagwe Dynasty was only in power for little more than a century, they contributed greatly to the spread of Christianity throughout Ethiopia, which would play a major role in the future of the country.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[In 1270 AD, the monarchy that would control Ethiopia for the coming centuries arose under the leadership of Emperor Yekuno Amlak, founder of the Solomonic Dynasty. The rulers of the Solomonic Dynasty attributed their lineage to the great biblical king Solomon and his queen, Makeda. As legend has it, in the 10th century BC, Queen Makeda travelled from her kingdom in Sheba (thought to have formed part of modern Ethiopia) to Israel in an effort to learn from the wisdom of revered king Solomon. Although accounts differ as to her relationship with Solomon, Makeda later gave birth to a son, Menelik. Said to have been educated in the court of Solomon before returning to Ethiopia, Menelik brought with him the legendary Ark of the Covenant as a gift from Solomon. Ruling sometime around 950 BC, Menelik I was the originator of the biblical ancestry held sacred by later Emperors of Ethiopia.
Nearly 2,000 years after the reign of Menelik, Yekuno Amlak claimed to have traced his ancestry through a long line of relatives to establish a clear connection to the legendary emperor and his parents. This newly formed Solomonic Dynasty maintained its rule over Ethiopia for more than five centuries, lasting until the reign of Haile Selassie in the 1970s. Fully supported by the influential Ethiopian Orthodox Church (which to this day still claims to be holding the legendary Ark of the Covenant), the Solomonic emperors enjoyed relative stability during their reign, despite several attempted incursions from outside the country.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[During the mid-16th century, Ethiopia was bordered by the increasingly powerful Islamic Kingdom of Adal, led by Imam Ahmad Gargn, known colloquially as "The Conqueror." Initiating a holy war against the Christians of Ethiopia in 1529, Imam Ahmad spurred the great conflict that came to be known as the Ethiopian-Adal War. As battles raged for nearly 15 years, Ahmad was nearly successful in wiping out the entire kingdom, laying claim to vast swaths of Ethiopian territory.
After suffering such great losses, the Ethiopian Empire was forced to call on the assistance of Portuguese reinforcements to help in repelling the Islamic armies. Explorers and missionaries from Portugal had reached Ethiopia in the prior decades, intent on converting the populace to Roman Catholicism, and were fighting a war of their own against the Islamic Ottomans.  After a prolonged conflict that eventually drew the Ottomans in to aid the Adals, the war was settled in 1543 following the deaths of both Imam Ahmad and the Portuguese general Cristovao da Gama. Ethiopia was left to recover from the war, but the rapid spread of Catholicism in the surrounding regions led to internal strife as the Ethiopian Orthodox Church struggled to maintain a firm grip on the nation.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[The period known as the Zamana Mesafent, or "Age of Princes" in the 18th century was marked by near constant turmoil within Ethiopia. The development of opposing religious factions, along with constant regional disputes, led to the collapse of central government control. As battles erupted between the princes, warlords, and nobility, each attempting to divide the region and increase their own power, the common people of Ethiopia were forced to endure the ravages of these futile conflicts.
The Emperor who finally brought an end to the Age of Princes, Kassa Hailu, first gained notoriety as an outlaw and highwayman. Assembling an army and amassing great wealth through his smuggling operations, Kassa Hailu gained popular support by sharing his riches with the poor. After uniting several of the decentralized provinces and gaining a strong following, Hailu was eventually crowned as Emperor Twedoros II in 1855. Following his coronation, Ethiopia as a whole stabilized, and his reign is considered by many to mark the beginnings of modern Ethiopia.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Perhaps the best remembered of Ethiopia's great emperors, Haile Selassie, ascended the throne in 1930 and quickly gained recognition throughout the world for Ethiopia and its people. During his reign he made a strong push for the abolition of slavery, a prospect that had been suggested, but never fulfilled, by his many predecessors. Emperor Selassie was also deeply concerned with modernizing his nation and ending many of the feudal policies that still held sway in Ethiopia.]=];
TITLE = [=[Ethiopia]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Blessings be upon you, honorable and righteous Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie. Your legacy as one of Ethiopia's greatest rulers, and as the spiritual leader to the Rastafarian movement, is outshone only by the influence you had on diplomacy and political cooperation throughout the world. In introducing Ethiopia's first written constitution, you planted the seeds of democracy that would take root over the coming years, and your infinitely wise grasp of global affairs secured Ethiopia's place as a charter member of the United Nations. Spearheading efforts to reform and modernize the nation during your reign, you changed the course of Ethiopian history forever.
Revered king, your composed demeanor once protected the people from the many conflicts that plague the nations of men, and the kingdom looks to you to assure peace once again. Will you lead the people with courage and authority, moving forward into a new age? Will you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Hunnic Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi wrote the opera "Attila" in 1846, which provides a fictional account of Attila's death at the hands of Odabella, a woman he was pursuing.
The Romans nicknamed Attila "The Scourge of God," undoubtedly because of his relentless pursuit of conquest, primarily at the Romans' expense.
Some historians suspect the Huns practiced "headbinding," a process in which they bound the head of an infant with cloth or other materials in order to change its shape. It is believed the Huns hoped to intimidate their enemies by creating broad, flat faces for their men.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Origin of the Huns]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Movement into Europe]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[An Intimidating Force]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Leadership of Attila]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[After Attila]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Hunnic Society]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Migrating throughout Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the nomadic Huns were a tribal people originally thought to have their origins on the steppes of Central Asia. United under the charge of their most memorable leader, Attila, the Hunnic army plundered and pillaged its way across Europe, becoming a notorious scourge to the Romans and their allies.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Believed to have migrated from Mongolia and Central Asia, the Huns first crossed the Volga River sometime in the late 4th century. A region of great geographic diversity, the highly elevated, rugged plains of Mongolia are surrounded by mountainous forests, grasslands, deserts and hundreds of small lakes and marshes. The area is home to various species of wild horses, which surely contributed to the Huns equestrian mastery.
At their height, the Huns controlled a wide range of territory across Central Europe, from the steppes of Central Asia to what is now modern Germany. This vast array of geographic and climatic variations seems to have had little effect on the Huns ability to rule such a broad swath of territory.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[A hotly contested topic, the true origin of the Huns eludes us even today. By most accounts, the Huns "came out of nowhere" and wreaked havoc on anyone they encountered. The Huns were possibly the descendants of the Xiongnu, a tribal confederation of equestrian nomads found in the northern regions of China. The Xiongnu frequently launched raids against the Chinese Qin Dynasty during the 3rd century BC, and, along with various other nomadic tribes, were part of the reason the Chinese built the Great Wall of China. The Huns appeared in parts of Europe just around the time the Xiongnu faded from sight, this mysterious arrival of a new society in the west, coinciding with the disappearance of another in the east, stands as one of the few links between the Huns and the Xiongnu.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Early records of the Huns were far from impartial, having been written from the perspective of their numerous enemies, and leaving behind a spotty history of the Huns' initial conquests. Crossing into Europe in the 4th century, the Huns are said to have subjugated several rival tribes including the Alans, the Ostrogoths, and the Visigoths. While still only loosely united at this point, the Huns also boldly attacked portions of both the Eastern and Western Roman Empire, while also working as mercenaries for Rome against other tribes, successfully playing both sides of the field. It was during this period that the Byzantines (the Eastern Romans) began paying tribute to the Huns in order to secure peaceful relations, although the Romans often failed to meet their obligations.
The history of the Huns becomes more certain in the time directly before the rule of Attila. Preceding him was his uncle Rua, who gradually established complete control over the diverse Hunnic forces and eliminated all opposing leadership. Rua maintained an iron-fisted rule over the Huns and launched a number of successful attacks against neighboring tribes before setting his sights on bigger objectives.
Ruling as King of the Hun Confederation - as it became known at this point in history - Rua initiated a number of conflicts with the Eastern Roman Empire. It seems that several of the tribes previously subjugated by the Huns fled to the Byzantines in the hopes of seeking asylum. Rua, demanding they be turned over, set his armies loose on the Byzantine territory and pillaged Thrace, to the northwest of Constantinople. However, in the midst of his campaign, Rua was killed, allegedly after being struck by lightning, and the Huns were forced to retreat.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Following Rua's death in 434, Attila and his brother Bleda shared a dual kingship, continuing the expansion of Hun territory across Europe. Sustained primarily by a steady income of tribute and plunder, the Huns became an increasingly powerful force on the European continent in the 5th century. The Roman General Aetius, who had previously allied with Rua and used the Huns to aid in securing his position as commander of the Roman troops in Gaul, again hired the Huns to serve as mercenaries in his campaign against the Burgundian raiders attacking the northern Roman provinces.
Flush with wealth, the Huns once again moved on the Eastern Roman Empire (a favored target of their campaigns) and intimidated the weakened Byzantine leadership into signing the Treaty of Margus in 435. This treaty was said to have doubled the previous tribute due from the Byzantines - which was already several hundred pounds of gold per year - further increasing the resources of the Huns. As was the case in the past, the Byzantines failed to meet their obligations and delivered no tribute, and as before, the Huns returned to the Eastern Roman territory and sacked a number of cities, eventually reaching Constantinople in 443. The Byzantines once again agreed to deliver substantial tribute, this time triple the original amount, and the Huns took them at their word and withdrew.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Attila's brother Bleda died in 445, and Attila became sole ruler of the Hunnic Empire. By 447, Attila had defeated the Eastern Roman armies and captured a number of Roman forts, gaining control of the Balkans. The Romans again tried to ply the Huns with tribute, and for a time, they actually paid it ... at least until Attila had focused his attention elsewhere.
In 451, Attila invaded Gaul, attacking a number of cities en route to Orleans. Ironically, the Huns early benefactor, Roman General Aetius was now forced to face them head-on in defense of Gaul. Leading a combined force of Romans and Visigoths, General Aetius and his army met Attila at The Battle of Catalaunian Plains and managed to rebuff the Huns. Suffering the first major defeat of his career as a military commander, Attila was forced to withdraw from Gaul and regroup. Always the ambitious conqueror, Attila moved his forces east with the intention of striking Italy and the heart of the Romans.
Sacking various cities in northern Italy, Attila never made his way to Rome. Although some historians believe it was the intervention of Pope Leo I who convinced Attila not to march further, others claim it was the threat of reinforcements from the Eastern Roman Empire that truly swayed his decision. Shortly thereafter in 453, Attila died unceremoniously on his wedding night, falling to, some historians claim, a simple nosebleed. Without the forceful leadership of the charismatic Attila and his legendary reputation, the Huns mystique as an unstoppable force was broken.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Following Attila's death, the Hunnic Empire was to be ruled by his oldest son Ellac. However, Attila's other sons, Dengizich and Irnk, also sought the throne and internal divisions within the empire quickly brought about its downfall. Only a year after his reign began, Ellac was killed at The Battle of Nedao in 454, during which the Huns were soundly defeated by an army of united Germanic tribes. After his brother's death, Dengizich secured the throne for a brief rule, but the Huns, now in an increasing state of disarray, soon vanished from history as quickly as they had arrived. When Dengizich died in 469, it is thought that the remaining Hunnic people began to migrate back towards their ancestral lands on the Central Asian steppe.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Although mysterious in origin, by most accounts, the Huns ate, slept, and died on horseback, which helps explain why they were known throughout history for their expertise in mounted combat and equestrianism. Sustained primarily by their efforts as herdsmen and shepherds, the Huns kept a variety of livestock that provided mobile food sources as well as hides for clothing. They were also gifted archers who would hone their skills through frequent hunts, employing specially crafted composite bows that made them deadly to adversary and prey alike.
Despite their legacy as conquerors, the Huns also had skilled craftsmen and artisans among their people. A number of bronze artifacts attributed to the Huns have been found within the regions they once inhabited, including bronze cauldrons thought to have been used in Hunnic burial rituals.]=];
TITLE = [=[The Huns]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Huns]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Your men stand proudly to greet you, Great Attila, grand warrior and ruler of the Hunnic Empire.  Together with your brother Bleda you expanded the boundaries of your empire, becoming the most powerful and frightening force of the 5th century.  You bowed the Eastern Roman Emperors to your will and took kingdom after kingdom along the Danube and Nisava Rivers.  As the sovereign ruler of the Huns, you marched your army across Europe into Gaul, planning to extend your already impressive lands all the way to the Atlantic Ocean.  Your untimely death led to the quick disintegration and downfall of your empire, but your name and deeds have created an everlasting legacy for your people.
Fearsome General, your people call for the recreation of a new Hunnic Empire, one which will make the exploits and histories of the former seem like the faded dreamings of a dying sun.  Will you answer their call to regain your rightful prominence and glory?  Will you mount your steadfast steed and lead your armies to victory?  Will you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Mayan Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Priests within the Maya society were often tasked with providing a variety of medicinal treatments to the people, prescribing anything from herbal remedies to "sweat baths," akin to a modern sauna.
Modern Maya women traditionally wear a type of blouse or dress known as a "Huipil," featuring bright colors and distinctive patterns that are unique to the village of their origin.
The Maya are thought to be the originators of the ancient predecessor to hot chocolate. Found predominantly within the Maya territory, cocoa beans were dried and ground, mixed with other local ingredients into a paste, and added to water to create a chocolate drink.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[The Maya Calendar]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Colonial Incursion and Decline]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[Contemporary Maya]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Periods in Maya History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Great Cities of the Maya]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Collapse]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Maya Class Structure]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Agriculture and Hunting]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Honoring the Gods]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Maya Culture]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Primarily inhabiting regions of present-day Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize from the 3rd to 10th centuries AD, the Maya people lived in a network of independent kingdoms sharing a common culture and religion. While their true origin is shrouded in mystery, numerous theories exist as to the early development of Maya civilization. According to archaeological records, the first distinctly Maya settlements were established around 2000 BC. Growing from pre-agricultural communities into vast urban centers, the Maya city-states came to rely on sophisticated farming techniques for both sustenance and trade. Although many of their settlements suffered from an unexplained collapse late in the 1st millennium AD, numerous cities still thrived until the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors in the 16th century.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Of the many noteworthy aspects of the Maya culture, their calendar system has grown to become the most notorious of their advancements, mainly due to enduring theories about its true purpose. An impressively complex system, the Long Count calendar was one of three used by the Maya, the others being the Haab and the Tzolkin.
Source of the 2012 doomsday predictions, the Long Count calendar was used by the Maya as a historical record of time since the creation of the human world. By this calendar, civilization began on August 11th, 3114 BC, and, as selectively interpreted by those who choose to believe in our impending doom, ends on December 21st, 2012. These doomsayers believe that the Maya foretold the end of the world through the calendar, but most researchers simply interpret it as the end of one cycle and the beginning of another, not a cataclysmic end to the world as we know it.
Used in conjunction with the Long Count calendar, the lesser-known Haab was a 365-day calendar that approximated a single solar-year, while the Tzolkin calendar followed a 260 day system used to judge harvest and ritual times.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[The arrival of the Spanish quickly led to the demise of the remaining northern Maya cities, and although the Maya people still exist today in Mexico and other parts of Central and South America, much of their culture and history was lost during the conquest of the Conquistadores. Beginning in the early 1500s, the Spanish sent expeditions into the Yucatan Peninsula in hopes of establishing a permanent settlement. However, the decentralized nature of the Maya city-states allowed for independent resistance to the Spanish incursions, and it would take the Spanish nearly 200 years to fully subdue the Maya people throughout the area.
During the subjugation of the Maya, there were various attempts to convert the populace to Roman Catholicism by the Spanish. Of these efforts, the most notorious were those undertaken by Spanish bishop Diego de Landa, who served the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatan. De Landa is said to have held an inquisition in the small settlement of Mani, where he burned Maya idols as well as rare written codices, in an attempt to root out the native religion. Although his actions are widely viewed with disdain, De Landa is noted by some historians for keeping his own detailed records of the Maya religion and language as he observed it firsthand traveling among them.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[There are an estimated seven million contemporary Maya living throughout parts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador in the present day, many of whom still maintain aspects of their cultural heritage. Although there are more than 20 distinct languages separating the Maya, like their ancestors they are joined by a common culture and tradition, and together they continue to celebrate the legacy of the ancient Maya.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Maya settlements were primarily found within Belize and Guatemala, along with the modern Mexican states of Quintana Roo, Campeche, and Yucatan, which comprise the region known as the Yucatan Peninsula. Consisting of mountainous highlands, lush wetlands and arid lowland regions, the Maya territory varied widely, from dense jungle to open plains.
Tropical rainforests in portions of their territory provided the Maya with a diverse range of flora and fauna to supplement their agricultural production, while also providing access to fresh water that was otherwise scarce. Within the forest, annual rainfall amounts over 100 inches were not uncommon, and the waterlogged soil allowed for rain to gather into limestone sinkholes known as "Cenotes," pooling for easy collection.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Various theories exist as to the origin of the Maya people, and it's only within the last 50 years that archaeologists studying Mesoamerica have managed to piece together a timeline of their early civilization. Breakthroughs in deciphering the Mayan script during the 1960s and 70s led to a revival in the study of Maya history, which had previously been mired in conjecture due to the lack of written records.
Maya civilization is categorized into several distinct cycles, the Pre-Classic, Classic, and Post-Classic periods. Beginning in the Pre-Classic period, the first settlements are thought to have formed between 2000-1500 BC, when the earliest Maya began to transition from a strictly hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a more community-focused agricultural subsistence. Over time these early communities would evolve into an increasingly complex society, not only implementing advanced agricultural practices and trade networks, but also creating grand works of art and architecture.
The height of Maya civilization occurred from roughly 250 AD to 900 AD, during a time known as the Classic period. During the Classic period, the Maya developed some of their best known hallmarks, moving towards large independent city-states, each with vast urban centers teeming with monuments to their gods and kings.
The Post-Classic period began with the decline of major urban centers throughout the southern Maya territory, an unexplained collapse that led to the complete abandonment of some of their greatest cities. However, many of the northern settlements continued to grow and prosper well into the new millennium.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Although the immense cities of the Maya were united by a shared culture, they were also fiercely independent, invariably going to war with one another over territory, trade, and political disputes. Despite this independence, all of the great Maya cities shared a role in influencing their culture as a whole, as each contributed the unique characteristics that defined them as individuals.
Believed to be the longest inhabited settlement found anywhere in the Americas, Kaminaljuyu was home to a large Maya population from roughly 1500 BC until about 1200 AD. Dozens of archaeological excavations at the site over the past century have revealed that the city may have been the primary producer of obsidian and jade in the region, and the remnants of more than 100 mounds and ancient structures have been discovered. Unfortunately, commercial construction and development of the surrounding area during the 19th and 20th centuries has all but destroyed the remains of this once great city, leaving only fragments behind.
El Mirador, flourishing from roughly 600 BC until 100 AD, was another great city of the Maya. A settlement of significant size, El Mirador is noted for its numerous elevated roadways, known to the Maya as the "Sacbe." Used to connect structures within the settlement complex as well as distant trade centers, the sacbe were a crucial mechanism in establishing the Maya trade networks. Similar to modern causeways that are raised over stretches of unstable land, the sacbe covered vast expanses, the longest connecting the ancient city of Coba with the smaller settlement of Yaxuna some 60 miles (96 km) away.
Perhaps the best known of the Classic Maya cities, Tikal, served as capital of the powerful Tikal state, an ambitious and aggressive state that often initiated fierce battles against its neighboring rivals. Tikal is thought to have been occupied for nearly 2,000 years, and was home to some 100,000 people at its peak. One of the lesser known innovations found at Tikal, the "Aguada," was an ingenious system of water reservoirs, designed to harvest and collect rain water funneled from the plaster walls of the city.
Chitzen Itza was one of the last surviving Mayan settlements, and as such it's also one of the best preserved of their cities. With extensive constructions covering an area over 2.5 sq. miles (6.5 sq. km), Chitzen Itza features prominent examples of nearly every form of Maya architecture including massive step pyramids, multiple ball courts, and ornately-decorated temples.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Approaching the 9th century, many of the southernmost Maya settlements entered a period of swift decline for reasons still unknown today. Labeled the Classic Maya collapse, the dissolution and abandonment of these great kingdoms is the subject of controversy. Overpopulation, environmental damage, warfare and disease all stand as plausible theories on their own, but it seems most likely that within the larger city-states a combination of these factors led to their abandonment.
While the mysterious collapse mainly effected the settlements in the southern Maya territory, many of the northern city-states continued to prosper well into the second millennium AD. Marking the beginning of the Post-Classic period, it wasn't until after the collapse that the famous city of Chitzen Itza first rose to prominence. Chitzen Itza survived for several hundred years before falling into a ruinous civil war with the neighboring Mayapan in the 1300s. Mayapan, along with Uxmal and Coba, were among the few remaining Maya cities in the north, post-collapse.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Although the Maya were never unified as a single empire, instead living in city-states similar to the ancient Greeks, each independent state still followed a similar class structure. Beginning around the 3rd century BC, the Maya were ruled by hereditary succession, unless a suitable heir was unavailable. The king was joined by his family and other high ranking citizens to form the upper class of nobility. Beneath the nobles, the priestly class of shamans made up the next tier, guiding the Maya kings and leading the people through the many rituals and ceremonial rites undertaken throughout the year. Beyond these ruling classes, the majority of the Maya were simply the "common folk"-farmers, craftsmen, and laborers. Lower still, the underclass consisted primarily of slaves, who were prisoners of war and criminals.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[While working with limited access to fresh groundwater, the Maya utilized a number of agricultural techniques that allowed them to take full benefit of the rich soil within their domain. The "Milpa" system of crop rotation, known to have been used by a variety of Mesoamerican societies, was particularly effective for the Maya. A type of slash-and-burn farming, the Milpa system involved intercropping multiple species of vegetation together followed by periods where the fields were left fallow, or unseeded. Typically this rotation period allowed for two or three years of planting, followed by six to eight years without use. The crops of the Maya farmers were primarily corn, squash, and beans, known collectively as "The Three Sisters."
The Maya were not only able farmers, but also skilled hunters and fishermen. Relying on a number of tools and weapons, the Maya primarily hunted deer, rabbit, and the "peccary," a pig-like creature found in the rainforest. The Maya also utilized an innovative spear-throwing device, the Atlatl, which they used for both hunting and warfare. Using a wooden shaft with a cupped end, the spear (or dart) would be laid along its length, and, using the thrower's natural motion, the spear would be propelled at a much higher rate of speed due to the additional extension provided by the device. Spears thrown from the Atlatl are said to be capable of reaching speeds over 100 mph (160 km/h), which allowed the Maya greater confidence in stalking larger, faster prey.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Like other polytheistic societies throughout the world, the Maya worshipped a vast pantheon of gods, led by the creator god Itzamna. Special emphasis was placed on the sky gods, particularly Kinish Ahau, the sun god, and the moon goddess, Ixchel. The Maya also had gods for the weather, their crops, and the various professions in their society. The Maya maize god was of particular importance once the crop became a staple of survival during the later stages of their development.
Throughout the year, the Maya held a number of rituals honoring the gods, based largely on their knowledge of astronomy and the calendar.  Of the cultures that utilized human sacrifice, the Maya were far from the most prolific, but they did partake in bloodletting and sacrifice during their most important rituals. Human sacrifices were thought to have promoted fertility, and the Mayas were known to sacrifice humans by throwing them into freshwater sinkholes, honoring the rain god, Chaac. The famous Sacred Cenote, found at Chitzen Itza, was the site of numerous human sacrifices during the Classic period of Maya history.
Along with many other Mesoamerican cultures, the Maya played a ritualistic ballgame where they attempted to knock a solid rubber ball (weighing 5-10 lbs) through a vertically mounted hoop using their hips. The game was played both recreationally and at ceremonial events, and was also used as a competitive means of settling territorial disputes, potentially resulting in the deaths of the losing team.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[At the height of their civilization, the Maya created many great works of art featuring intricate carvings and reliefs in stone and jade, as the artisans of each city incorporated unique regional characteristics into their work. The Maya also developed a range of pigments and dyes using the available resources of the jungle, most notably the color "Maya Blue," a vivid blue tone made from indigo dye that was later adopted into the works of the European colonists, following the decline of Maya society.
Among Maya architecture, its most recognizable aspect is the step pyramid, dozens of which were constructed during the later stages of their civilization. Just as it sounds, the step pyramid consisted of layers of stone built in stepped levels cresting in a flat peak where religious ceremonies often took place. It is thought that the Mesoamerican step pyramids were built upon existing burial mounds or earlier temples, and may have been rebuilt over time based on calendar cycles. The most prominent example of the Maya step-pyramid is found at the site of Chichen Itza in the Yucatan Peninsula, a well-preserved example under the stewardship of the Mexican government.
The Maya writing system, made up of a script often referred to as glyphs or hieroglyphs because of its similarity to the ancient Egyptian writing system. Found inscribed on works throughout their territory and gradually deciphered over the past century, the Maya used this script to memorialize many aspects of their culture. Although there is evidence that Maya scribes created bound volumes using bark and animal skin, much of this work was destroyed during the colonial incursions of the Spanish in the 16th century, as it was thought to be as heretical.]=];
TITLE = [=[Maya]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Maya]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Your people kneel before you, exalted King Pacal the Great, favored son of the gods and shield to the citizens of the Palenque domain. After years of strife at the hands of your neighboring rivals, you struck back at the enemies of your people, sacrificing their leaders in retribution for the insults dealt to your predecessors. The glory of Palenque was restored only by the guidance afforded by your wisdom, as you orchestrated vast reconstruction efforts within the city, creating some of the greatest monuments and architecture your people- and the world -have ever known.
Illustrious King, your people once again look to you for leadership and counsel in the coming days. Will you channel the will of the gods and restore your once proud kingdom to its greatest heights? Will you build new monuments to forever enshrine the memories of your people? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Dutch Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[One of the largest exports of Holland, tulips, are produced en masse throughout the country. During the height of Dutch economic power in the 17th century, an event known as "Tulip Mania" spurred widespread speculation and price manipulation in the tulip trade, driving the prices of rare tulip breeds to astronomical levels before eventually collapsing.
Consumed the world over, Heineken Beer, first produced in Amsterdam in 1873, is widely recognized today as a signature product of the Netherlands with its distinctive green and red labeling.
The name "Holland" is said to have derived from the Dutch term "holtland," meaning "Woodland" or "Wooded Land."]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[Dominance of Trade]=];
HEADING_11 = [=[Struggles for Naval Dominance]=];
HEADING_12 = [=[Establishment of the Kingdom]=];
HEADING_13 = [=[The World Wars]=];
HEADING_14 = [=[Modern Netherlands]=];
HEADING_15 = [=[Cultural Icons]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pre-History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Roman Occupation]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Frisians and Franks]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Shifting Empires]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Transitions of Power]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Protestant Reformation]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Uprising against Spain]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Kingdom of the Netherlands, often referred to simply as "Holland," has, under the influence of many ambitious empires, grown from a minor province of northern Europe into one of the world's premier trade centers.  Beginning with the conquests of the Romans, the later rise of the Franks, and eventually the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands became a frequent target of expanding European kingdoms. However, none would leave a greater mark than the Spanish Habsburgs, whose persecution of Dutch Protestants under King Philip contributed directly to the outbreak of the Eighty Years' War. Pitting the Dutch citizenry against their Spanish masters in a near-century long conflict for independence, once free of Spanish rule, the people of the Netherlands worked tirelessly to establish their own national identity. As the new republic grew to become a leading economic power, many great cultural and scientific figures rose from the newly formed nation.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[Following the Eighty Years' War and the creation of the Dutch Republic in the north, the Netherlands quickly became the dominant center of trade in Europe. Led by the Dutch East India Company, the world's first multinational corporation, Dutch traders established new commercial routes and settled colonies across the globe. This period that came to be known as the "Dutch Golden Age" also saw the swift ascension of Dutch scientific advancements, military innovation, and a flourishing culture of art and music within the Netherlands.]=];
TEXT_11 = [=[As England grew increasingly concerned over Dutch trade with the English, French, and Spanish colonies, hampering British trade efforts and profitability, a series of acts passed by the British Parliament in 1651 sought to control the extent of Dutch shipping. Known as the Navigation Acts, these regulations sought to restrict Dutch access to the English ports. These efforts by England to control the seas led directly to a series of conflicts known as the Anglo-Dutch Wars, fought throughout the 17th century. Over the course of the next 100 years and well into the mid-1700s, Dutch power in both political circles and world trade was greatly reduced as a result of numerous naval battles that reduced the size and power of the Dutch fleet.]=];
TEXT_12 = [=[During the Napoleonic Wars, the Netherlands as a whole were seized by the French in 1795, leading to the formation of the short-lived Batavian Republic, a satellite of the French Republic. With the signing of the Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1814, formally declaring the end to Napoleon's conquests of Europe, the Dutch people were once again able to claim their independence by forming the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Shortly thereafter, Belgium, which had still been considered part of the Netherlands up until this time, broke off to form an independent nation of its own in 1830.]=];
TEXT_13 = [=[Since first establishing themselves as a sovereign nation, the Dutch continually made efforts to maintain a policy of strict neutrality whenever possible. As such, the Netherlands remained neutral throughout the great conflict that was World War I, committing no arms to the fight but still maintaining economic ties with the belligerents of both sides.
During World War II, the Dutch again declared their neutrality at the outbreak of hostilities. However, this time Germany would not allow the valuable Dutch territory to remain unaligned. Invading in 1940, the Nazis faced initial resistance from the Dutch military, but the Netherlands were ultimately overrun and occupied by the Third Reich. During the German occupation, the Dutch government fled the country and operated in exile, leaving the nation under the control of Nazi forces. Although a resistance movement within the Netherlands grew as the Nazi occupation became increasingly unbearable, the Nazis were still successful in killing thousands of Dutch Jews as well as Jewish exiles from Germany, including Anne Frank, whose diary has become a widely read chronicle of the Holocaust.
In 1944, in an effort to seize control of the bridges leading from the Netherlands to Germany over the Rhine and Maas rivers, the Allies launched one of the largest airborne missions in history, known as Operation Market Garden. The allies dropped thousands of paratroopers into the region, but the mission was met with limited success. Allied commanders blamed poor weather and communication issues with hampering the allied push. As a result, the Netherlands remained under the grip of the Nazi regime until the eventual surrender of German forces in the spring of 1945.]=];
TEXT_14 = [=[The modern Kingdom of the Netherlands is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliamentary body serving alongside the Queen Regent, Beatrix. As one of the founding members of the European Union, the kingdom has long contributed to the efforts of the union to bring peaceful relations and economic stability to the region. The Hague, the third largest city in the Netherlands, is home to both the Dutch government as well as the United Nations International Court of Justice.]=];
TEXT_15 = [=[Throughout its history, the Netherlands has produced some of the world's most esteemed artists, scientists, researchers, and scholars, many of whom were integral in establishing the foundations of modern practice in their respective fields. Renowned painters Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent Van Gogh were both Dutch, and today their work is among the most admired-and valuable- in the art world. Scientists such as Christiaan Huygens, who was the first to discover the rings of Saturn, and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the "Father of Microbiology," both made immense contributions to the future of scientific discovery.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The Kingdom of the Netherlands rests along the coast of northern Europe, while also governing the territories of Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten in the Caribbean Sea. The provinces of the Netherlands in Europe are extremely low in elevation, with much of the territory having been reclaimed from the sea through the extensive use of dykes. Despite a relatively small land area, approximately twice the size of the U.S. state of New Jersey, the Netherlands is home to more than 16 million people. Due to the minimal land available, the Netherlands have established a long history of urban planning and development, as many of the Dutch people reside in dense urban centers, including the capital city of Amsterdam.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Before the arrival of the Romans during the 1st century BC, the region of the Netherlands was inhabited by a wide range of Germanic tribes. Migrating from the surrounding areas, particularly Scandinavia, these tribes were also the early descendants of the Celts, who traced their origins to nearby Austria and Germany. Of these tribes, the Batavi, who lived on an island along the Rhine River, were among the most powerful and feared. Although the Batavians weren't known to have been particularly successful in trade or craft, their renown in battle alone was enough to secure their dominant position among the surrounding tribes.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The southernmost region of the Netherlands, known to the Romans as the province of Germania Inferior, was occupied during the 1st century AD by the Roman military. As documented by Julius Caesar in his "Commentaries on the Gallic Wars," the tribal Batavi are said to have fought alongside the Romans as mercenaries during their campaigns across Europe. The Batavi eventually revolted against the increasingly restrictive Roman control, which led to their subjugation. Roman forces controlled the area uncontested for nearly 400 years, until the collapse of the empire as a whole.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Although written records of this period are scarce, following the decline of the Roman Empire, the territory the Romans once occupied within the Netherlands was quickly absorbed by the Franks and the Frisians. Although these tribal groups had lived throughout the area for centuries, with the absence of the once powerful Romans, the opportunity for their expansion was now greatly increased. The Empire of the Franks eventually encompassed nearly all of the Netherlands and Germany, except for the Frisian Kingdom situated along the northern coast. Living in such close confines, the Franks and Frisians eventually became bitter rivals, settling their territorial disputes through a series of wars. In 734, the Franks' victory at the Battle of the Boarn marked the dissolution of the Frisian Kingdom and their absorption into the Frankish Empire. The later conquest of Italy and the Frankish expansion under Charlemagne created the foundations of several future kingdoms, including those of France and Germany, under whose dominion the Netherlands fell in the coming centuries.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Following Charlemagne's death in 814, the Frankish Empire was divided into three parts, the Middle, Eastern, and Western Frankish kingdoms. The majority of the Netherlands became part of the Middle Kingdom, under the rule of Lothair I. The division of the once vast empire also led to the creation of the Kingdoms of Germany (which would become the Holy Roman Empire) and France, both of whom battled for influence and territory within the Netherlands.  While much of the region would eventually fall under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire through the 15th Century AD, the Dukes of Burgundy, an offshoot of the French royal family, began to look towards the Netherlands with an eye for acquisition.
It was also during this period that the first of many terrible floods struck the Netherlands, killing thousands and destroying much of the infrastructure within the country. In 1287, the disastrous St. Lucia's flood struck the Netherlands, killing over 50,000 people and turning a small lake into an inlet of the North Sea that was known as the Zuiderzee. The Zuiderzee was only finally sealed off from the North Sea in the 20th century, reestablishing the freshwater lake as it once was.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[During the 14th and 15th centuries, the Netherlands and neighboring Belgium fell under the near-complete control of the Burgundian dukes. Throughout the 1400s, the French dukes continually acquired more and more territory throughout the Dutch Low Country, via marriage and inheritance, carefully timed purchases, and annexation.
The Burgundian holdings within the Netherlands were inherited by the House of Habsburg through the marriage of Mary of Burgundy to the Duke of Austria, Maximilian I. Although his inheritance of the Burgundian lands was disputed by the King of France, the land was eventually passed to Mary's son, Phillip I, ensuring the transfer of power to the Habsburgs.
In 1521, the House of Habsburg was divided between the Spanish and Austrian Habsburg family lines, with the Spanish Habsburgs maintaining control of the Netherlands while the Austrians held Germany and the surrounding region as successive Holy Roman Emperors.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[During the Protestant Reformation of Europe, wherein the traditional authority of Roman Catholicism came into question, the Protestant movement established a firm foothold within the Netherlands.  The spread of Protestant beliefs within the Netherlands was of great concern to the nation's Catholic rulers, initially Charles V, and, more importantly, the later rule of his son, Philip II of Spain. King Philip's increasingly vicious persecution of the Dutch Protestants would lead to a surge in discontent among the Dutch people in the coming years.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[As resentment of Philip's policies spread throughout the Netherlands, the most prominent figure of the Dutch revolt, William of Orange, emerged as a vocal proponent of religious tolerance. William was himself raised as a Protestant, but converted to Catholicism as part of his noble upbringing. Despite his religious views, he firmly believed that all people had the right to practice their own beliefs. As William was a Dutch nobleman, and served Spain as a loyal subject, he was initially hesitant to defy the king. However, when Philip made no attempt to appease the concerns of the Dutch, William's hand was forced.  By 1567, small rebellions were already underway, and by choosing to fund the uprising and turn his back on Philip, William was declared an outlaw by Spain.
After William led his army to several victories in open warfare against Spain, in 1581 the Republic of the Seven United Provinces was created in the liberated northern territories. However, these initial successes only marked the beginning of a long conflict known as the Eighty Years' War, during which time the Spanish king remained in control of the southern Dutch territories. William of Orange was assassinated in 1584 by a Catholic follower loyal to king Philip, and the war raged on until 1648, when the Dutch Republic in its entirety was finally freed of Spanish control.]=];
TITLE = [=[The Netherlands]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Netherlands]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Hail stalwart Prince William of Orange, liberator of the Netherlands and hero to the Dutch people. It was your courageous effort in the 1568 rebellion against Spanish dominion that led the Dutch to freedom, and ultimately resulted in the Eighty Years' War. Your undertaking allowed for the creation of one of Europe's first modern republics, the Seven United Provinces. You gave your life to the rebellion, falling at the hands of an assassin in 1584, but your death would only serve to embolden the people's charge, and your legacy as "Father of the Fatherland" will stand as a symbol of Dutch independence for all time.
Brave prince, the people again yearn for the wise stewardship your wisdom afforded them. Can you once again secure the sovereignty of your kingdom and lead your people to greatness? Can you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Swedish Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Renowned Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, namesake of the Nobel Prize, held over 300 patents and was responsible for numerous scientific breakthroughs including the invention of dynamite.
Twentieth century Hollywood film star Greta Garbo, born Greta Lovisa Gustafsson, was born in Stockholm, Sweden in 1905. Immigrating to the United States in 1925, she is widely considered one of the greatest female movie stars of all time.
IKEA, the international furniture retailer founded in Sweden, is known for its wide range of ready-to-assemble products, often accompanied by vague, pictographic assembly instructions.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_10 = [=[Modern Sweden]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Geography and Climate]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pre-History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Vikings of Sweden]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Early Kingdoms]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Kalmar Union]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Rise of Swedish Power]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Swedish Industrialization]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Advent of Neutrality]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The Kingdom of Sweden, found in Northern Europe, joins Denmark and Norway in forming the region known as Scandinavia. A progressive and economically powerful nation in the present-day, Sweden's early history was chronicled in the Norse Sagas, within which the first records of their legendary kings appeared. Although there is no precise date associated with the kingdom's formation, over time the loosely collaborated Viking chiefdoms gave way to a united Swedish people. Reaching the height of military and political power in the 17th century, Sweden reached its zenith under the stalwart leadership of revered king and general Gustavus Adolphus.]=];
TEXT_10 = [=[In the present-day, Sweden is known as a progressive nation with a high standard of living. Sweden's robust economy, which relies heavily on exported machinery, raw materials, paper and furniture, has allowed for the creation of a broad system of welfare and social security.  Based on various studies, the benefits of this system, including universal access to healthcare and education, as well as legally mandated paid vacation time, have contributed to Sweden's standing as one of the "Happiest Countries in the World."]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Extending from the southern Baltic Sea to the Arctic Circle in the north, Sweden is situated between the Nordic countries of Norway and Finland. A nation of great forests, the majority of the country is heavily wooded with indigenous pine, spruce, and birch trees.  Sweden has an overall temperate climate which is surprisingly dry compared to neighboring regions, although there are distinct weather variations from north to south. The eastern coastline of Sweden has long provided an abundance of fishing resources, which contributed to the Swedes' capable seafaring ways throughout their history.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Long before the Vikings, Sweden was inhabited by tribal peoples who migrated throughout the region. As early as 12,000 BC, hunter-gatherers living in Sweden moved with the seasons and eventually formed small fishing communities utilizing primitive flint and slate tools. These early tribes developed more cohesive agricultural-based societies starting in the Neolithic era and continuing into the Nordic Bronze Age around 1700 BC. An influx of imported bronze allowed for the use of progressively more advanced tools and weapons during this period.
As the dawn of the Viking Age approached in the new millennium, Sweden was primarily inhabited by several large Germanic tribes. The original "Swedes" were initially only a singular tribe living in small kingdoms and chiefdoms throughout Svealand, the historical center of Swedish development. Neighbored by the Geats to the south and the Gutes on the isle of Gotland in the Baltic, the Swedes were eventually unified with their neighboring tribes, although the date of their unification is still a mystery. The collaboration of these early tribal kingdoms throughout the Viking era implies a gradual fusion of their territory.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The conquests and expansion of the Vikings into central Europe wreaked havoc on unsuspecting settlements across the region. During the 7th and 8th centuries, the Vikings typically set sail from Scandinavia each spring in search of plunder, returning in the fall burdened with spoils. While their Danish counterparts were best known for raids in England and France, the Vikings of Sweden primarily sailed across the Baltic Sea and along the river inlets into the Russian frontier.
Moving into Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine during the 9th century, many of the Swedish Vikings settled in these eastern lands, where they came to be known as the Rus people. Although there are a number of theories as to the origin of their name, the most common belief is that it derived from the Swedish region of Roslagen, meaning "Land of the Rowers." After capturing the city of Kiev in the mid-9th century, the Rus formed a state that survived for nearly 400 years until the arrival of the Mongols in the 13th century. This "Land of Rus" is notably credited as the namesake for the modern nation of Russia.
Following long held tradition, the Swedish Vikings honored their most historic victories and revered leaders through the use of runestones. Inscribed with runic glyphs and symbols, these monumental stones provide some of the earliest records of the Vikings' exploits, and are scattered throughout the regions they once held dominion over.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Throughout the first millennium AD, Sweden was a loose collaboration of independent provinces. Although a number of early kings are mentioned in the Norse sagas, attempting to separate legend from factual history leaves their lineage and succession still somewhat muddled. Olaf Skotkonung, son of King Eric the Victorious, ruled from 995 until 1022, and is considered the first to truly unite the Swedish tribes under one king.
In the mid-12th Century, noted regent Birger Jarl served Sweden as "Jarl" (the equivalent of an Earl or Viceroy) during the reign of King Eric XI. Birger is credited with ending longstanding hostilities with rival Norway by negotiating the Treaty of Lodose, going so far as to marry his own daughter Rikissa to the son of Norwegian King Haakon IV. Birger is also thought to have had a hand in selecting the location for Sweden's future capital, Stockholm, as the first written evidence of the name Stockholm came from Birger's own letters.
An unimaginable horror would strike Sweden in the 14th century with the arrival of the Black Death. A devastating pandemic that swept across Europe, the plague reached Sweden in 1349. Although Sweden was one of the last kingdoms to suffer the plague's effects, the disease ravaged the nation, by some accounts wiping out nearly half the population.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[From 1397 until 1523, Sweden was part of the Kalmar Union, which effectively united Sweden, Norway and Denmark under the rule of a single monarch. Although each of these nations was theoretically independent, in terms of foreign policy and action, the decisions of the Danish king were absolute. Sweden's involvement in the union was brought about by internal strife between then King Albert and the leading nobility, who had supported Albert during his succession until he attempted to reduce their assets and landholdings. Turning to Queen Margaret of Denmark, the nobility named her regent of their lands, and a force of Danish troops marched against Albert, defeating his armies in 1389.
Meeting in the Swedish town of Kalmar in 1397, the union was officially formed, under the stipulation that the monarch of the union would always be Danish. The Swedish nobility agreed to the union based on the promise by Margaret that their influence and holdings would be protected, and that Swedes would hold positions of authority within the country aside from the throne itself. A relative of Margaret's, Erik of Pomerania, was crowned as the first king of the new union, but his own ambitions quickly cast doubt on the promises made by Margaret.
Within 50 years, turmoil enveloped the union, as frequent conflicts initiated by the Danish king against Swedish trade partners riled the Swedish nobility and damaged the economy of Sweden. In 1440, King Eric was deposed, but this brought little peace to the union. Conflicts between Denmark and Sweden spilled over into the 16th century, until the rise of Gustav Eriksson.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[King Gustav I, also known as "Gustav Vasa," of the House Vasa, led a successful rebellion in 1521 against the Danish king Christian II, who ruled the Kalmar Union. Free from the grasp of the Danish monarch, Gustav was elected King of Sweden by the Riksdag in 1523, bringing an end to the union after more than a century.
It was the later rule of esteemed King Gustavus Adolphus who truly ushered in the "Great Power Era" of Sweden, a dramatic ascension of Swedish authority in Europe during the 17th century. Upon taking the throne in 1611, Adolphus found himself at the reins of a nation mired in conflict. His father Charles, having unseated the rightful king (and Charles's own nephew), Sigismund, in order to gain the crown, left Sweden on the brink of three wars. Adeptly navigating these domestic and foreign quarrels, Adolphus negotiated a fragile peace with Sigismund, while settling conflicts with Russia and Denmark in the following decade.
The most famous of Adolphus's military achievements came during the Thirty Years' War, a great conflict that culminated with the defenders of Protestantism facing off against the Catholic forces of the Holy Roman Empire. Under Adolphus, Sweden's military was bolstered and modernized, and he effectively protected the Protestant movement through several key victories in the war. Although not involved from the onset, in 1630, Adolphus led the armies of Sweden in defense of the German Protestant states against the forces of the Holy Roman Empire. Regrettably, Adolphus was killed in 1632 while leading a charge at the Battle of Lutzen, robbing Sweden of her most honored general.
Maintaining the prestige Sweden gained during the reign of Gustavus Adolphus was no easy task, but his successors Charles XI and XII were both skilled and respected leaders. Continuing the military improvements started under Adolphus, both kings came to utilize a specially trained force known as the Caroleans. The Carolean army emphasized quality over quantity, relying on skill and discipline rather than sheer force of numbers.
During the Great Northern War of 1700-1721, fought between Sweden and a united force led by Russia, the Caroleans overcame insurmountable odds, sometimes outnumbered 3 to 1, and still emerged victorious in repeated battles. Unfortunately, the Swedes were eventually overcome by the opposition forces, leading to an infamous retreat in 1718 known as the "Carolean Death March." When Charles XII fell in battle, an officer by the name of Carl Armfeldt retreated with his company of 5,000 men, marching headlong into a blizzard. Some 3,000 men died before the army finally made their way back to Sweden.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Before the mid-1800s, Sweden's economy was primarily based on agriculture, leaving the nation behind its neighbors in industrial development. With a vast wealth of natural resources, particularly lumber and iron ore, Sweden's economy underwent a rapid transformation from 1870 onwards. Expansions in rail development allowed Sweden to move vast quantities of raw materials to coastal ports, leading to rapid growth in the early 20th century.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Despite a history of armed conflict with its neighboring rivals, Sweden has maintained peaceful international relations since the Napoleonic Wars, when Sweden joined the coalition opposing Napoleon. In 1808, Sweden lost nearly a third of its eastern-most territory to Russia, land that became the predecessor to modern Finland. Since suffering this great loss, Sweden has maintained a policy of strict neutrality up to the present day.
During the First and Second World Wars that enveloped Europe in the 20th century, Sweden generally maintained its independence from German influence and was uninvolved in the overall conflict. However, Sweden did quietly support the resistance movement in Denmark by aiding the Danish Jews in their escape in 1943.]=];
TITLE = [=[Sweden]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[All hail the transcendent King Gustavus Adolphus, founder of the Swedish Empire and her most distinguished military tactician. It was during your reign that Sweden emerged as one of the greatest powers in Europe, due in no small part to your wisdom, both on and off the battlefield. As king, you initiated a number of domestic reforms that ensured the economic stability and prosperity of your people. As the general who came to be known as the "Lion of the North," your visionary designs in warfare gained the admiration of military commanders the world over. Thanks to your triumphs in the Thirty Years' War, you were assured a legacy as one of history's greatest generals.
Oh noble King, the people long for your prudent leadership, hopeful that once again they will see your kingdom rise to glory. Will you devise daring new strategies, leading your armies to victory on the theater of war? Will you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Assyrian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Neo-Assyrian emperors would deport thousands of people to insure pacification of newly-conquered kingdoms, continuing a policy instituted by the first emperor Adad-nirani II. Among the most infamous of these forced resettlements: 65,000 from Persian lands to the Assyrian-Babylonian border in 744BC; 108,000 Babylonians and Chaldeans to the western frontier in 707 BC; and in 703 BC emperor Sennacherib ordered the scattering of 208,000 residents of Babylon across the empire.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early People]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[First Assyrian Empire]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Assyrian Resurgence]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[A Dark Age]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Neo-Assyrian Empire]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Collapse]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The many ancient kingdoms of Assyria, long since swept into the dust of history, were at various times among the most prosperous and powerful of any on Earth. Centered in the heart of Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq), Assyria was founded by Semitic descendants of Akkadian and Sumerian refugees following the collapse of the Akkadian Empire c. 2154 BC, whose languages and customs slowly coalesced into two distinct Mesopotamian peoples: the Assyrians in the north and Babylonians in the south. Despite a number of initial attempts at forming an independent kingdom, the Assyrians were continually thwarted by the expansion of their neighbors, particularly Babylon. Eventually, commencing with the near-legendary Tudiya, Assyrian kings succeeded in establishing a great empire - and on more than one occasion Assyria was the most powerful state in the region. However, Assyria also continued to suffer at the hands of neighboring rivals, and by the late 6th Century BC, the empire was no more.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Located in the fertile region of Mesopotamia around the Tigris-Euphrates river system, Assyria lay in a land capable of producing bountiful harvests of wheat and other grains. Widely considered to be the cradle of Western civilization, in the Bronze Age Mesopotamia was dominated by the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian cultures. The climate of Assyria was semi-arid, although the kingdom received ample water in the form of snowmelt and rain from the Zagros Mountains throughout the year. The river region (some 5800 square miles) is marked by marshes, lagoons, mud flats and reed banks. Irrigated agriculture spread south from the Zagros foothills commencing around 5000 BC; Assyrian farmers are known to have planted such crops as wheat, barley, onions, grapes, turnips and apples. The land that once constituted the Assyrian homeland is now primarily encompassed by parts of Syria, Iran, Iraq and Turkey. Bordered to the north by rugged mountains, to the west by the Aramaeans, to the south by the kingdoms of Babylonia and Elam and the Amorite tribes of Arabia, the Assyrians were in a fruitful but tenuous position.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The oldest Neolithic sites in Assyria date to c. 7100 BC, and the earliest evidence of human culture, the Hassuna culture, to c. 6000 BC. The region that would encompass Assyria is home to the first known examples of irrigated agriculture, and to some of the earliest human settlements. Among these can be included Assur, which was founded at some point in the mid-3rd millennium BC; it appears to have been an administrative center for Sumaria rather than an independent city. Nineveh, although likely established far earlier, is first mentioned in historical records in 1800 BC as the center of worship for Ishtar, the primary deity of Mesopotamia.
During the third and second millenniums BC, a cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and Semites gave rise to the Akkadian empire, of which the Assyrian cities were a vital element. The list of Assyrian kings, commencing with Tudiya, begins with the fall of the Akkadian empire, destroyed by internal strife, economic collapse and the incursions of barbarians. However, after a brief period of independence, the Assyrian lands were absorbed by the Third Sumerian Empire of Ur, which had been founded in 2112 BC. From the decline of the Akkadian and subsequently the Sumerian empires, a distinct Assyrian culture emerged to establish customs and traditions of their own, coinciding with crucial technological developments in agriculture, animal husbandry, pottery, and metal working.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Although the ancient Assyrian "King List" records many early kings, dating back as far as the 19th Century BC, the earliest Assyrian king for whom any definitive historical context exists was King Shamshi-Adad I, who ruled the city of Assur and established Assyrian control over much of Mesopotamia. He had deposed the Akkadian ruler of Assyria in 1813 BC and proclaimed himself the new king. Shortly thereafter, Shamshi-Adad began a campaign of expansion. He placed one of his sons on the throne of the nearby city of Ekallatum, and reestablished authority over Assyria's small Anatolian colonies. He next conquered the kingdom of Mari along the Euphrates, placing another son on the throne there.
Shamshi-Adad retired to oversee construction of a new capital city for himself, but died c. 1790 BC before it was completed. His sons fared poorly thereafter. The younger was overthrown by a rebellion in Mari, whose new king promptly allied himself with the king Hammurabi, who was in the process of making the newly-created kingdom of Babylon a major military power. The Babylonian forces swept into Assyria, overwhelming several cities. With Hammurabi's support, the Anatolian cities revolted and broke away from the Assyrian kingdom. Finally, the Babylonian king conquered Ekallatum itself, and the first fledgling Assyrian Empire fell and was fully absorbed into Babylon by 1756 BC. However, the bloodline of Assyrian kings survived as vassals to Hammurabi.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Hammurabi's short-lived empire rapidly unraveled following his death c. 1750 BC, and Babylon lost control over Assyria during the reign of his immediate successor. Commencing with the overthrow of an Amorite king ruling Assyria for Babylon by the vice-regent Puzur-Sin, the country plunged into a period of unrest and civil war, marked by relatively short reigns by the Assyrian kings. In the 16th Century BC, the Mittani - an Indo-European people - overran Anatolia and pushed eastwards, capturing and sacking Assur around 1480 BC. The Assyrian monarchy survived as vassals, and the Mittani appear to have been content to avoid interference in internal Assyrian affairs so long as tribute was paid.
By the reign of Eriba-Adad I (1390-1366 BC), Mittani power had declined significantly and his successor, Ashur-uballit, spent his years making Assyria an empire again. Having defeated the Hurrians and the Hittites to end any threat from that quarter, Ashur-uballit married his daughter to the last Kassite king of Babylon. When the Babylonian king was murdered by an unruly political faction, Ashur-uballit promptly invaded and absorbed Babylon. Shortly after he moved against the Mittani, crushing their forces despite military support for them from the Hittites and Hurrians. The lands of the Mittani and the Hurrians were appropriated, making Assyria a large and powerful kingdom once again.
Over the next two centuries, an unbroken succession of able kings insured the prosperity and stability of the kingdom, making it the dominant power in Mesopotamia. Internal reforms and policies maintained their popularity among the people and nobles, while a sequence of victories expanded Assyrian holdings into Asia Minor and the Levant. In 1274 BC, the great warrior king Shalmaneser I ascended the throne, pushing the boundaries of the Assyrian empire into the Caucasus Mountains and overrunning eastern Anatolia. At its peak, the empire stretched from the shores of the Persian Gulf to those of the Mediterranean. But following the death of emperor Tilgath-Pileser I, Assyria entered a 300-year period of decline.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Mesopotamia entered a "Dark Ages" (dated c. 1200-900 BC) as less-civilized peoples overran much of the region. Semitic peoples such as the Arameans and Chaldeans nibbled at the western and southern borders of the Assyrian Empire, conquering much of Babylon. The Medes and Persians swept into the lands east of the Assyrian heartland. To the north, the Phrygians overran the Hittites and Armenian tribes pushed the Assyrians out of the Caucasus. Cimmerians and Scythians began migrations outward from their Black Sea homelands. Assyrian kings during this time seem to have contented themselves with defending a compact area centered on Assur and Nineveh and the trading center of Nimrud, surrendering the outer areas and colonies to the inevitable. They largely limited their military adventures to sporadic punitive raids against these barbarians, interspersed with the occasional effort at re-conquest of lost territories. Nonetheless these efforts slowly transformed Assyria into a warrior culture, even as trade collapsed and religion flourished. Anshur became the state god, and the priesthood rose to be a major political power in the kingdom, culminating in the murder of king Tukulti-ninurta I.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The resurgence of Assyrian influence begins with the accession of Adad-nirani II in 911 BC. This "Neo-Assyrian" Empire would survive until the fall of Nineveh in 612 BC to an allied force of Babylonians, Medes, Scythians and Cimmerians. At its zenith, around 671 BC, the empire would reach from the Nile River across northern Arabia to the Persian Gulf, north to the Zargos and Caucasus mountain ranges, and deep into Asia Minor in the west. It would cover all or portions of the present-day nations of Iraq, Iran, Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Kuwait, Egypt and Saudi Arabia - the largest empire yet seen in human history.
Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirani, Assyria subjugated the border territories and vassals that had seen only nominal Assyrian authority for a century. King Adad-nirani I then proceeded to conquer troublesome Aramean, neo-Hittite and Hurrian populations to the north. It was at this point that he instituted the state policy of deporting and resettling new subject peoples to other parts of the Assyrian empire, a ruthless policy his successors would follow. In the last years of his reign, he launched a successful campaign against Babylonia.
Upon Adad-Nirani's death in 892 BC, his heir would consolidate these gains as well as conquer the Persian and Medean settlements in the Zargos Mountains. Subsequent rulers would use the revitalized Assyrian military, notably its siege engines (which were particularly effective against mud-brick city walls), to great benefit as they overran vast tracts in the Arabian Peninsula, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia itself. Even the queens pursued Assyrian expansion. When Adad-nirani III (810-782 BC) came to the throne he was a small boy; his mother, semi-legendary queen Semiramis, serving as regent, crushed the last holdings of the Medes and Persians for the empire before abdicating power to her son after a few years.
Following a brief period of peace, expansion continued apace under Adad-nirani's successors in an unbroken string of conquests. Tiglath-pileser III (who reigned 745-727 BC), Sargon II (722-705), and the ruthlessly-effective Sennacherib (705-681) would add Phoenicia, Israel, Judah, Samaria, Palestine, Cyprus, Moab and vast tracts in the Taurus Mountains and the Arabian Peninsula to the empire. Sennacherib's heir Esarhaddon crossed the Sinai Desert to invade Egypt, driving its Nubian rulers out and, in the process, destroying the Kushite Empire. Returning to Assyria, Esarhaddon began the rebuilding of the city of Babylon which had been leveled following a revolt but died while preparing another invasion of Egypt.
Esarhaddon's death in 669 BC brought Ashurbanipal, considered to be the greatest of neo-Assyria's emperors, to the throne. Although more concerned with reform and scholarship, Ashurbanipal proved a capable warrior as well. Although he spent much of his time suppressing revolts and border incursions, he also completed the conquest of Egypt, the last expansion of the neo-Assyrian Empire. However, Ashurbanipal is best known for his efforts to rebuild cities, sponsor advances in Assyrian arts and sciences, and establish libraries throughout the realm. The cuneiform and scribal texts found by archeologists in his great palace library in Nineveh have provided much of what is known of not only Assyria but the entire region during this era.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Following the death of Ashurbanipal in 627 BC, a number of short-lived rival successors claimed the throne; Assyria was thrust into a period of civil war. The disarray and devastation brought by these conflicts led directly to the decline and dissolution of not only the Assyrian Empire, but also to the culture distinctly identified as "Assyria." In 605 BC, an alliance of Babylonians and Medes would defeat an Assyrian-Egyptian force at Carchemish and Assyria would become a Babylonian province. Following the collapse of the Baylonian Empire, the traditional Assyrian homeland would be overrun by waves of invaders ranging from the Persians through the Arabs. Knowledge of its glories and works would virtually disappear until brought to light by modern archeologists and historians, beginning with the excavations of fabled Nineveh in 1845 AD.]=];
TITLE = [=[Assyria]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[The people bow to your esteemed will, oh wise and illustrious King Ashurbanipal of Assyria. Across the world, you are known as both a scholar and a warrior, and yet the legends represent merely a glimmer of your true ambition. Although your enemies cowered at the thought of your ferocity in conquest, you were most proud of your intellectual pursuits. Your thirst for knowledge led to your establishment of the royal library at Nineveh, which came to represent one the greatest collections of ancient texts and tablets found anywhere in the world - securing your legacy as one of Assyria's greatest kings.
Wise and fearsome king, the time has come for you to return the kingdom of Assyria to its greatest heights. Will you once again strive to acquire the knowledge and histories of all the world's peoples? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Brazilian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Construction of Brasilia, one of the few purposely-built capitals in the world, began in 1956 AD when President Juscelino Kubitschek activated an article in Brazil's first republican constitution dating back to 1891 stating that the country's capital should be centrally located; built in 41 months, the government was relocated to Brasilia in April 1960.
Celebrated in cities across the country, the Carnival of Brazil accounts for 70% of the nation's annual tourist trade; punctuated by samba and axe music, the 40-day celebration preceding Lent is marked by parades, costume balls, street festivals, dances and the occasional religious ceremony.
From the 1500s through the 1700s, the bandeirantes - private expeditions led by Portuguese and Brazilian adventurers - explored and mapped much of the Amazon in their search for slaves, gold, gems and rare plants and, in the process, established bases deep in the rainforest, steadily pushing Brazil's western boundaries outward.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Portuguese Colonization]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Independence]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Empire]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Dictatorship]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Modern Brazil]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Paulo Coelho, Brazil's greatest novelist, wrote of the history of his people, "They were seeking out the treasure of their destiny, without actually wanting to live out their destiny." Among former colonies, Brazil is unique in the Americas because, beyond gaining its independence through a relatively peaceful path, it did not fragment into separate countries as did British and Spanish possessions. Brazil was a Portuguese colony from the time of the arrival of Pedro Cabral, who claimed it for his sovereign in 1500 AD, until the royal family in exile from their occupied homeland elevated it to the status of kingdom in 1815. Full independence was achieved in 1822 when the Empire of Brazil was created with a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary government. With the overthrow of Pedro II, the second and last emperor, in 1889 AD it became a republic. Although the republic would suffer through dictatorships and military juntas over the next century, true democracy returned in the 1980s when the first elected civilian government assumed power after a negotiated transition. Under a succession of able leaders, Brazil achieved political and economic stability, became a vital and influential member of the international community, and has at last achieved "the treasure of [[its] destiny."]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Brazil is the world's fifth largest country, encompassing half of South America's landmass; it is one of 17 nations considered to have a "mega-diverse ecology," home to manifold flora and fauna, habitats, natural resources and terrain. Brazil contains most of the Amazon River basin, the world's largest river system as well as the world's largest virgin rainforest. Thus, the country has a wide range of tropical and subtropical landscapes, including wetlands, savannahs, jungle-covered plateaus, and low mountains. Along Brazil's 7500-mile coastline lie a number of archipelagos. The main upland area of Brazil occupies most of the southern half of the country, rising to a mass of low mountain ranges such as the Mantiqueira and Espinhaco, whose highest peaks reach about 4000 feet. Lying on the equator, most of the nation has a tropical climate, divided into five subtypes: equatorial, tropical, highland tropical, temperate and subtropical. Temperatures across Brazil average 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Vegetation ranges from rainforests in the north to tropical savannahs in the center to coniferous forests in the south. As might be expected with such varied terrain and climate, Brazil's biodiversity is one of the richest in the world, with jaguar, ocelot, tapir, anteater, sloth, armadillo, deer, piranha, caiman, parrot, monkey and thousands of other species sharing the land and waters.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The origins of the native inhabitants (called indios by the Portuguese) of Brazil are unknown; the earliest human fossils date back 10,000 years to the highlands of Minas Gerais. When Portuguese explorers arrived on the coast, some 2000 native tribes existed; semi-nomadic, they subsisted on hunting, fishing, migrant agricultural, tribal warfare and cannibalism. The land was claimed by Pedro Cabral in April 1500 when the fleet he was leading around the Cape of Good Hope was borne so far westward that he made landfall in South America. The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 AD had divided the New World between Spain (west) and Portugal (east) along the longitude of 46 degrees. As the discovery fell well within the Portuguese zone, and spurred by reports of its riches, in 1532 the first Portuguese settlement was founded.
The discovery of brazilwood - a dense, orange-red hardwood highly prized in dye-making and in the making of musical instruments and furniture - incited the crown's interest; in 1534 AD King Dom Joao III encouraged private colonial ventures. In 1549 the king appointed a governor-general and Brazil officially became a Portuguese colony. In wars with the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their holdings to the north and south, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567 and Sao Luis in 1615. In 1680 AD they claimed the lands around the Rio de la Plata, which became their southernmost territory. In the meantime, British and Dutch strongholds in the Amazon were overrun; the native tribes were either assimilated, enslaved or exterminated.
By the end of the 17th Century, Brazil was the largest and most important of Portugal's scattered colonies. Besides brazilwood, sugar, dyes and spices were major exports. The Portuguese began their import of slaves from Africa to meet the growing international demand for these commodities; eventually Portugal would become one of the major slave-trading nations and slaves in Brazil would number in the hundreds of thousands. Concurrently, prospectors had sought in vain for gold in the jungles and hills of Brazil until extensive deposits were discovered in Minas Gerais. The subsequent gold rush brought such vast sums that the colonial capital was transferred from Salvador south to Rio de Janeiro in 1763 AD in order to better administer the new wealth. The treaties of Madrid (1750), Pardo (1761) and Ildefonso (1777) recognized Brazil's borders, while colonial reforms insured that it remained a placid, prosperous and profitable colony for Portugal.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[In March 1808 AD, the Portuguese royal family and ministers arrived in Rio de Janeiro to take refuge in Brazil as Napoleon's forces overran their homeland. The prince regent Joao, ruling in the stead of his mother Maria I, who was incapacitated due to mental illness, re-established his capital in Rio and ruled the empire from there. While in residence, he put in place all the ministries of a sovereign capital, as well as founding a royal library, a military academy, a royal mint, a printing office, and medical and law schools. In 1815, Joao declared Brazil a kingdom, co-equal with Portugal in the empire. Following the defeat of France, he preferred to remain in Brazil until called back to Portugal to deal with radical revolts. In April 1821, Joao appointed his son Pedro to the regency. Pedro's ministers, many Brazilian born, urged independence; the young regent issued a declaration of independence for Brazil in September 1822 and was crowned as Emperor Pedro I within three months. In 1825 the Portuguese government officially recognized Brazil's sovereignty, and within the year most of the European nations followed suit.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Pedro I and his ministers sought to insure that Brazil did not suffer the discord and revolutions that were plaguing Brazil's South American neighbors. To that end, he was the primary architect of a new constitution, one quite liberal and advanced for its time. But Pedro was increasingly involved in affairs in Portugal, and in 1831 AD abdicated in favor of his five-year-old son so he could return to Europe to reclaim the Portuguese crown for his daughter. To settle the political unrest and discord the abrupt departure left, Pedro's son was officially declared of age at 14 and crowned Emperor Pedro II within the year. The new emperor's five-decade reign was enlightened and progressive, and Brazil enjoyed a "golden age" in every realm - politically, economically, industrially, socially, culturally. Under Pedro II, Brazil won three wars, expanded its international reputation, modernized, reformed its legal and monetary systems, boosted its agricultural diversity, and abolished slavery. But the latter had eroded support among the landed gentry; moreover, as he aged Pedro II increasingly lost touch with the new urban middle class and liberal student movements his ideals and policies had fostered. Although still respected and beloved by his people, in November 1889 a bloodless military coup deposed Pedro in favor of a republic. Ever a patriot, when he departed into exile in Europe, Pedro II expressed his "ardent wishes for the greatness and prosperity of Brazil."]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Manuel de Fonseca, who had led the coup, became the provisional president of an increasingly military-dominated government. Supported primarily by the military and the increasingly prosperous coffee planters, he established the republic, separated church and state, and promulgated a new constitution. However, under its provisions, he was declared unable to hold office; when he attempted to dissolve the new legislature and rule by decree, he was forced to resign in the face of public outcry. He was replaced by his vice-president, also a general, who spent his time fending off several military and monarchist revolts but took on increasingly dictatorial powers.
In 1894 AD, amid general peace, General Peixoto reluctantly surrendered the presidency to the first civilian to hold the post, Prudente de Morais. He had been governor of the coffee-rich state of Sao Paulo, and has been deemed the first of the "coffee presidents." These presidents, primarily wealthy politicians and landowners from Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, helped reform the economy, modernize the nation's infrastructure, keep the peace, and guide the nation through troubled international times through a policy of near isolationism. However, in doing so they offered little real democracy because only the landowning minority was allowed to vote, fraudulent elections were common, and regional political bosses operated with virtual impunity so long as they supported the president in power.
Two developments finally ended the period of the "coffee presidents." First, coffee prices fell precipitously during the world-wide depression of the 1930s. Second, a movement composed of junior officers (the tenentes) grew in influence. Espousing populism, the tenentes championed not democracy but reform and progress; they fervently believed that only the military could propel the nation into the modern age. To do so, the young officers planned to oust civilian politicians, expand the reach of the federal government, modernize the military, and eradicate regionalism through a strong, centralized government.
The depression and the general unrest led to Getulio Vargas, a defeated presidential candidate, to seize control with support of the tenentes. Vargas was supposed to assume power temporarily for the duration of the economic crisis; instead he closed the Congress, dismissed the constitution, and replaced the Brazilian states' governors with his supporters, mostly military officers. Following a failed Communist coup in 1935 and a failed Fascist one in 1938, Vargas' regime evolved into a full dictatorship, noted for its brutality and censorship of the press. Brazil joined the Allies in 1942 as an active participant, committing both significant ground in Italy and naval forces in the Atlantic. Despite being a dictatorship, Vargas insisted that in recognition of its service in World War II, Brazil be one of the founding members of the United Nations.
But the economic boom brought by the war and international pressure had made Vargas' position untenable; in 1945 AD he was ousted by another military coup. Democracy was "reinstated" by the same cabal that had suspended it 15 years before. Ironically, Vargas would be elected president in 1950, but committed suicide in 1954 at the Catete Palace in the midst of a political crisis. Several brief governments followed Vargas' death, marked by various levels of accomplishment as well as corruption. In 1964, yet another military coup toppled the civilian government; in 1968, the military junta became a full dictatorship with the powers vested in it by the Fifth Institutional Act. Although its methods were harsh, the junta was less brutal than those in other parts of the continent. Moreover, it promoted capitalism, modernization, and international accords. Thus, the junta was highly popular with the lower and middle classes even during the years of repression.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[General Ernesto Geisel assumed the presidency in 1974, and immediately launched into a "slow, gradual and safe" policy of returning rule to a democratic government. Over several years he ended the torture of political prisoners, censorship of the press, and finally the junta itself when he repealed the Fifth Institutional Act. His successor continued the process, and in 1985 the first free elections made Jose Sarney president. With a stable government and thriving economy, Brazil has since taken a leading role in regional affairs, being a founding member of organizations such as the Latin Union, Organization of American States, Mercosul, and Union of South American Nations. At the beginning of a new millennium, Brazil is poised to assume an equally influential role on the world stage.]=];
TITLE = [=[Brazil]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[All Hail his most respected and magnanimous Emperor, Pedro II of Brazil. It was with great insight and unshakeable dignity that you ruled the Brazilian empire for over 50 years, ushering in a time of lasting peace and prosperity. Your reputation as a stern, but fair leader was never blemished by controversy, as your unwavering dedication to the people of Brazil provided hope and established the kingdom's position in South America. Your scholarly pursuits and staunch defense of freedom of speech led to the creation of several institutions of higher learning, strengthening Brazil's sense of national identity.
Revered Emperor Pedro, your people long for a return to the peaceful days when you walked among them, hearing their stories and reassuring them of a bright future. Will you once again lead your kingdom to prosperity? Can you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Indonesian Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[In 1883 AD Krakatoa, a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait, erupted and exploded, causing massive tidal waves that killed between 36 and 120 thousand people. The final explosion was heard over 3000 miles away, making it the loudest sound heard in recorded history.
Once known as the Spice Islands, today Indonesia produces 75% of the world's production of nutmeg and mace, and is a major producer of black pepper, cinnamon (from Indonesian cassia vera), cloves, coriander, and vanilla. Spurred by Dutch rule and modern demand, the country has also come to be among the world's leading exporters of coffee, cocoa, tea and sugar.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Hindu-Buddhist Kingdoms]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Islamic States]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Dutch Period]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Independence]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Modern Indonesia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The history of the 18,307 islands that comprise the Indonesian archipelago is actually that of hundreds of city-states, small kingdoms, and occasional empires. The first of which is thought to be the kingdom of Dvipantara mentioned in the Indian epic Ramayama, composed c. 200 BC. The last significant Hindu kingdom, the Majapahit Empire, unified most of the archipelago in the 13th Century AD. There followed a succession of Islamic sultanates which dominated the major islands until the arrival of European explorers and traders. Known as the "Spice Islands" to the Europeans, lying astride trade routes between the Far East and the West, the Portuguese, Spanish, British and Dutch vied for control of the island chain until the Dutch East India Company came to rule Indonesia. Despite a four-year armed struggle for independence against the Dutch following the Second World War, and periods of unrest since, the country is now more stable, progressive and harmonious than ever, despite occasional outbreaks of sectarian and political violence. Reflecting the ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic pluralism that resulted from this contentious past is Indonesia's national motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika ("Unity in Diversity").]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Indonesia is the largest country in Southeast Asia, consisting of over 18000 islands scattered along the equator between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Of these, according to 2002 Indonesian government sources, 8844 islands have been named, with 922 of those having some permanent settlement thereon. The chain is approximately 3200 miles in length, the equivalent of one-eighth of the Earth's circumference. The major islands are characterized by densely forested mountains in the interior sloping down to alluvial swamps and jungles along the coastlines. The smaller ones range from jungle-covered volcanic peaks to barren sand islets. The chain lies atop the juncture of three major crustal plates, and Indonesia's history has been marred by volcanic eruptions and severe earthquakes. Given its location, Indonesia has a tropical climate, marked by two monsoon seasons. Average rainfall in the lower elevations ranges from 70 to 125 inches annually, while the mountain slopes receive up to 240 inches. Temperature varies little; the daily range in the capital is 79-86 degrees Fahrenheit throughout the year. Although extremely fertile and surrounded by rich coastal shallows, the islands are subject to frequent typhoons and gales.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Fossilized bones of Homo erectus, a possible ancestor of humans popularly known as "Java Man," were discovered by Dutch scientists in 1891 AD and have been dated to be at least 700 thousand years old. The archipelago was formed by the thaw following the last great ice age, and Homo sapiens crossed to the islands some 45,000 years ago. An ideal climate and the development of wet-field rice cultivation led to the first human settlements c. 8th Century BC, and the initial "kingdoms" - little more than collections of villages with common ethnic and linguistic backgrounds - arose during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC.
The first record of an indigenous kingdom is that referring to Dvipantara in India's earliest epic, the Ramayana (c. 200 BC); in it the general Sugriva dispatches troops in search of the god Rama's consort Sita there. From descriptions in the epic, Dvipantara lay on either Java or Sumatra. The earliest archeological evidence of any cohesive kingdom is located in west Java, where a statue of the Hindu deity Ganesha dates to the 1st Century AD. Around the same time, the Roman historian Pliny the Elder writes that Indonesian boats were engaged in trade along the east coast of Africa. The next century, the geographer Ptolemy incorporated information from Indian sources about the islands in his Geographike Hyphegesis.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[In the following centuries, a number of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished and then collapsed. By 850 AD the Medang kingdom had attained dominance on Java, and even challenged the hegemony of the powerful Srivijaya Empire. Little is known of Medang save for scattered Sanskrit inscriptions related to Sri Sanjaya, who founded the dynasty c. 730 AD, and the king Dharmawangsa, who launched a naval invasion of Srivijaya lands in Sumatra in 990 AD. Dharmawangsa was killed in 1006 when the Srivijaya retaliated, sacking his palace and destroying the Medang kingdom.
Srivijaya was an ethnic Malay kingdom centered on Palembang in Sumatra, a thalassocracy founded on maritime trade and naval power. Without a central government in the modern sense, it was a loose confederation centered on a royal heartland, with various colonies and vassal states. Focused on the spice trade, by the 7th Century AD Srivijaya controlled most of the coastal areas of Sumatra, Java and the Malay Peninsula and dominated the Sunda and Malacca straits. Although its hegemony had waned by the 11th Century, it remained a formidable sea power until the 1300s. But gradually, various portions gained independence as regional kingdoms. Srivijaya ceased to exist when its last king converted to Islam, fled a Majapahit invasion in 1398 AD, and founded the Moslem sultanate of Malacca based on his new stronghold at the mouth of the Betram River in 1402.
On the ruins of Srivijaya arose the kingdoms of Singhasari and Majapahit on Java. The history of the kingdom of Singhasari commences with the probably mythic account of Ken Arok, who founded his dynasty c. 1182 AD. By 1280 the Singhsari had erased the last vestiges of Srivijaya, but had drawn the attention of emperor Kublai Khan. The great Khan sent envoys to the court of king Kertanegara to demand Singharari's submission and tribute; rebuffed, Kublai sent delegations with the same demands again in 1281 and 1289 - with worse results, as his ambassador was mutilated on the king's orders. Enraged, Kublai Khan dispatched a fleet of 1000 warships carrying an invasion force. Taking advantage of the situation, a number of Singhararin vassals rebelled. In the ensuing chaos, Singharari collapsed, Kertanegara was killed, the Mongols driven out - making the Indonesians one of the few peoples to resist a Mongol onslaught - and the king's son-in-law, Raden Wijaya, established the Majapahit kingdom in 1293 AD.
Despite the lack of documentary evidence, it is known that Majapahit was the most powerful of the pre-Islamic kingdoms. Two generations after the founding of Majapahit, its ambitious Prime Minister Gajah Mada extended its rule over most of the archipelago before his disgrace and downfall. Successive Majapahit emperors would complete the task Gajah Mada had begun, eventually unifying what is now Indonesia. Although the Majapahit rulers toppled neighboring dynasties and conquered vast areas, their focus seems to have been on controlling the rich and growing commercial trade of the region. In the process, Muslim traders and missionaries entered. After its peak in the 14th Century, Majapahit influence declined precipitously. Unable to thwart the rising power of the Malacca sultanate, the Majapahit Empire ended around 1520 AD.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Although the spread of Islam across Indonesia commences in the 1200s in Sumatra, it became a tidal wave under tolerant Majapahit emperors. Its spread was driven by increasing trade; in general, traders and the nobility of Majapahit holdings were the first to adopt the new religion. By the 16th Century, it was the dominant faith in Sumatra and Java, mixing with existing cultural and religious beliefs, creating a Muslim faith particular to Indonesia. Only Bali and a few smaller islands would retain a Hindu majority.
Along with the powerful Sultanate of Malacca, two other long-lived Islamic kingdoms dominated the islands until the arrival of the Europeans: the Sultanate of Mataram on Java, and the Sultanate of Banten, which controlled the Sunda Strait. Throughout most of their existence, the Islamic sultanates were immensely rich from the spice and silk trades, ruled by patrons of the arts and sciences, guarded by well-captained navies. But the arrival of the Portuguese, soon followed by other colonial powers, saw the submission of the various Islamic states to ruthless exploiters with better technology.
First to fall was Malacca, captured by Portuguese forces led by Alfonso de Albuquerque in August 1511. In 1603, the Dutch East India Company established its first permanent trading post in Indonesia in Banten; after two centuries of conflict and interference, the governor-general of the Dutch announced from his headquarters in Serang that the Sultanate of Banten had been absorbed into the company's holdings. In the meantime, taking advantage of dynastic struggles in the Sultanate of Mataran, the Dutch had forced the aged and ill Sultan Pakubuwana signed an agreement in 1749 AD through which sovereignty of the kingdom was ceded to the company. After the Portuguese handed Malacca over to the Dutch, the Dutch East India Company "owned" the Spice Islands.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[After the Dutch East India Company dissolved in bankruptcy in 1800 AD, the Dutch government took over administration of its holdings in Indonesia. For most of the following 150 years, Dutch rule was relatively benign but tenuous. However, a policy of forced cultivation of cash crops and the introduction of indentured labor which forced peasants to work government-owned plantations 60 days each year led to widespread unrest. Furthermore, the Dutch colonists formed a privileged upper class, codified by laws establishing two legal categories of citizens, European and indigenous, with differing rights. The unrest in Indonesia brought the Dutch to modest political reforms in 1901, embodied in the "Ethical Policy" which included increased investment in native education and changes in property laws. Significant Dutch investment in the infrastructure of the country - notably in ports and roads - with the goal of modernizing the economy also quieted nationalistic movements ... but only for a time.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Dutch rule collapsed in the face of Japanese invasion and occupation in 1942 AD. The events of World War II fanned the flames of nationalism that had arisen in the country in the previous four decades. The first nationalist movement, the Budi Utomo, had coalesced as early as 1908; the first Indonesian political party, Sarekat Islam, was founded in 1912. The latter was followed by the Indies Social Democratic Association, which would evolve into the Communist Party of Indonesia in 1924. Finally, in July 1927, the pro-independence Partai Nasional Indonesia was formed by Sukarno (who would become Indonesia's first president) and other liberals. Following an abortive revolt led by the Communists, Sukarno and most other nationalist leaders were arrested.
In July 1942, Sukarno accepted Japan's offer to rally public support for the Japanese war effort. Japan's occupation was often brutal, with torture and forced labor in some instances; but many of the nationalists continued to cooperate in hopes of attaining their goal of independence promised by the Japanese administrators. In March 1945, in the face of a military defeat, Japan announced the formation of a committee to institute Indonesian independence. But events overtook the committee. Two days after the Japanese surrender to Allied forces, Sukarno unilaterally declared Indonesia free of colonial rule. The Netherlands, initially backed by Great Britain, attempted to re-establish their domination and a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ensured. The fight did not end until the Dutch, in the face of growing international pressure, formally recognized Indonesian independence.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Sukarno and his supporters tried to institute a Western-styled democratic government for the new state in the 1945 and 1950 constitutions, which mandated a parliamentary style of government with the executive branch responsible to the elected parliament. But, with Indonesia suffering from extreme poverty, authoritarian traditions, regional differences and fears of Javanese political domination, Sukarno proclaimed that the country would instead adopt what he termed a "Guided Democracy." In July 1959, Sukarno abrogated the 1950 Constitution, dissolved parliament, and replaced it with one appointed by and subject to the will of the President.
In 1967, following a coup engineered by the military, Sukarno was forced to resign in favor the general Suharto, Indonesia's second president. In power as a virtual dictator for the next 31 years, Suharto struggled to suppress dissent, stabilize the economy and foreign policy, and navigate the Cold War. Marked by growing corruption and civil rights abuses, his administration finally collapsed in the face of the 1997 Asian financial crisis. In exchange for a $43 billion bailout by the United States, Suharto agreed to wide-sweeping reforms. But again events would overtake the movement for freedom; a student-led uprising forced Suharto to resign in May 1998. In 1999, the reconstituted national parliament elected Abdurrahman Wahid president, the first in a line of democracy-minded reformers to lead Indonesia into the future.]=];
TITLE = [=[Indonesia]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Honor be with you, oh great hero Gajah Mada, prime minister of Majapahit and unifier of the Indonesian archipelago. The stories of your heroism on the battlefield are bested only by the legends of your sworn oath to unite the far-flung islands of Indonesia under one banner. Serving your queen and empire with loyalty, you not only strove to fulfill your oath and conquered any who stood in your path, but you succeeded in capturing what was then the entirety of the known archipelago, the first to unite what is today modern Indonesia.
Mighty warrior Gajah Mada, your people yearn for a strong leader who can return them to prosperity! Will you set out to conquer the neighboring kingdoms, further expanding the glory of your empire? Will you build a civilization that can stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Moroccan Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Arabic, one of the two official Moroccan languages, is spoken by roughly two-thirds of the current population; Tamazight, made the second official language in 2011, is the native tongue of the remaining third.
According to legend, the founder of the Alouite line that today rules in Morocco was brought to the country by the inhabitants of the oasis at Tafilalt to be their new iman. Their hope was that he, being a direct descendant of Mohammed through the Prophet's daughter Fatimah, would bless the yield of their date palms.
In 1777 AD, under Mohammed ben Abdellah, Morocco was the first sovereign nation to recognize the United States of America as an independent country.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Ancient Morocco]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Islamic Morocco]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Berber Dynasties]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Saadi Sultans]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Alouites]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[European Protectorates and Independence]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[According to the widely-travelled American journalist Richard H. Davies (1864-1916), "Morocco is a very fine place spoiled by civilization." Whatever the truth of that statement, today Morocco is one of the most progressive of Muslim states, maintains close economic and cultural ties with the liberal Western nations, yet retains its distinctive cultural identity. Although the area comprising Morocco has been inhabited since antiquity - with settlements founded by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans and Vandals - the country was first unified following the Berber Revolt (739-743 AD) which overthrew Arab rule. Under successive Islamic caliphates, Morocco dominated the vast Maghreb, a region of Northwest Africa that encompasses the Atlas and Rif mountain ranges, western Sahara, and southern Mediterranean coast. In 1554 AD, the Saadi sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh claimed sovereignty over the whole of Morocco. Morocco turned back various invasions and incursions by the Europeans and Ottoman Turks during the following century, making it the only Arab country never to experience Ottoman dominance. The 17th Century saw the Saadi supplanted by the Alaouite dynasty, which continues to rule as a constitutional monarchy. Despite a fifty-year period as a French and Spanish protectorate, Morocco gained its independence again in 1956 AD.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Much of modern Morocco is mountainous; the Rif Mountains border the Mediterranean from the northwest to the northeast, and the Atlas Mountains run from the northeast to the southwest through the center of Morocco. The western Saharan desert covers most of the southeast portion of the country. The Maghreb is marked by a Mediterranean climate in the north between the Atlas Mountains and the coast and the arid Sahara to the south. Thus, the northern areas of Morocco enjoy cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers, while the Sahara is characterized by extreme heat and a lack of precipitation. The coastal plains have been heavily cultivated since the earliest arrival of human beings in the region. Where the Rif Mountains tend to be barren, covered with grasses and moss, the higher Atlas Mountains were thick with oak, juniper, and cedar forests and many species of game through most of recorded history. By contrast, the Sahara contains only sand dunes and rocky outcrops, broken by the occasional oasis. While other peoples colonized along the rich coastlines, it was the harsh Rif and Atlas mountains that gave rise to the native Berber peoples.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The land that comprises Morocco has been home to humans for hundreds of millennia; the bones of early Homo sapiens uncovered at Jebel Irhoud date to 160 thousand years ago. A Neolithic culture - which would give rise to the Berbers - arose between 6000 BC and 3000 BC in the Maghreb, which was less arid than currently. The Berber language, along with agricultural settlements, came into being in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains and along the Atlantic coast around 2000 BC.
Phoenician traders, exploring the western Mediterranean c. 1200 BC, established settlements along the coast to mine salt and minerals in what is now Morocco. Carthage, expanding westward from its core territories in Tunisia, developed relations with several Berber kingdoms by the 5th Century BC. Although Carthage extended its hegemony along most of the North African Mediterranean coast, a powerful Berber kingdom - Mauretania - remained independent. Following the Punic wars, Roman rule replaced Carthaginian and most of the Berber kingdoms, including Mauretania, became Roman vassals. In turn, the decline of Rome in the west brought the Vandals across the straits from Spain in the 5th Century AD. Under their great king Genseric and his successors, the seafaring Vandals built an empire upon Roman ruins that reached from the Atlas Mountains to Corsica and Sicily.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The Arabs overran the Maghreb in the latter half of the 7th Century, converting the indigenous Berber population to Islam. While local governors were appointed to administer the region, in general the Arab rulers considered the Berbers as little more than a troublesome, conquered people, imposing high taxes and demands for tribute on the tribes. In 740 AD, the Berbers revolted. Begun among the tribes of western Morocco, the rebellion spread across the Maghreb liked wildfire but petered out before the walls of the Arabic fortress city of Kairouan. Nonetheless, the Berbers had established their independence from the Arabs, and neither the Umayyad nor their Abbasid successors were able to re-establish authority over Islam's "wild west" again. Morocco was marked by dozens of small, autonomous Berber kingdoms; meanwhile, the Berbers in these separate kingdoms shaped Islam to their own tastes, ranging from radical Islamic sects to a synthesis of other faiths with Islam.
Morocco quickly became the haven for refugees, radicals, rebels and adventurers from the eastern Arabian caliphate. One of these, Idris ibn Abdallah, made common cause with the Awraba Berbers, to conquer a number of other tribes and found the Idrisid dynasty in 788 AD. His son, Idris II, built a new capital in Fes and Morocco grew into a major power and center of Islamic scholarship.
This "golden age" ended in the early 900s when another group of religious refugees arrived from the east. The Fatimids had seized power in what is now Tunisia, and proceeded to invade Morocco, conquering both the Idrisids and the Sijilmassa kingdom to the south. But the invaders found it impossible to enforce their rule on the Berber tribesmen. The Maghreb fell into chaos, fought over by the Fatimid generals, Idrisid loyalists, Umayyad adventurers, tribal chieftains, and militant religious prophets. In 965 AD the Fatimid caliph al-Muizz brought a massive army into Morocco to impose order, which lasted only until the Fatimids turned their attention to Egypt and their new capital in Cairo.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[After nearly a century of anarchy, Morocco would attain its height of culture and power in the 11th and 12th centuries under a succession of Berber dynasties: the Almoravids, Almohads, Marinids, and Wattasids. Each of these dynasties that would briefly unify Morocco arose in the lands on the southern edge of the Atlas Mountains, was founded by religious reformers, and was each based on loose, competing tribal confederations. Although these kingdoms gave the Berbers some sense of a collective, national identity, none managed to create an integrated political unity in the Maghreb. Despite some brilliant works of culture and learning, the Berber dynasties collapsed in the face of unruly tribes that demanded autonomy and prized individual identity.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The rule of the Saadi dynasty, an Arabic family which claimed direct descent from Mohammed, began in 1554 AD when Mohammed ash-Sheikh defeated the Wattasids and their Berber allies at the Battle of Talda. The Saadi had already captured the Wattasid capital of Fes, and when the last Wattasid ruler died at Talda ash-Sheikh declared himself undisputed sultan of Morocco. His reign was cut short, however, when the Ottomans had him assassinated in 1557 and invaded the country the following year. The Ottoman army was defeated by a coalition of Saadi, Berber and Spanish forces, insuring that the Saadi family would retain control of the throne.
The next in line of succession, Abdallah al-Ghalib (1557-1574 AD), spent his rule consolidating his sovereignty over the unallied Berber tribes, and playing the Spanish off against the Ottomans. Upon his death, a power struggle between his sons ended with the fifth, the extremely able Ahmad al-Mansur, ascending the throne. Born of a Berber mother, he enjoyed unparalleled support among the Berbers and, being a devout Moslem, among the Arabs as well. Enriched by ransom from Portuguese nobles following the Battle of Ksar el-Kabir (the so-called "Battle of the Three Kings") and the invasion of the Songhai Empire across the Sahara, Morocco entered an age of relative peace, artistic and scientific advances, and construction.
Al-Mansur's death of the plague in 1603 AD sparked a war of succession that lasted 24 years, and precipitated the collapse of the Saadi dynasty. Although four subsequent Saadi sultans would rule over reunified Morocco between 1627 and 1659, those years would be marked by a steady loss of territory, wealth and influence.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[During the period of unrest following the death of al-Mansur, the Alouite family was able to unite several of the Berber and Bedouin tribes that lived in the area surrounding the oasis at Tafilalt. By 1664, the whole of the Moroccan Sahara and Draa River Valley were under Alouite sovereignty. Two years later, with a small army of tribesmen, Moulay al-Rashid marched into Fes and ended the influence of the zaouia of Dila, a nationalistic Berber movement that controlled much of northern Morocco. In 1669 AD, the last Saadi sultan was overthrown in the fall of Marrakech to al-Rashid, who proclaimed himself sultan of all Morocco.
For 150 years, Morocco thrived under Alouite rule, spurred by modernization, administrative reform, religious tolerance and increasing trade with Europe and the United States. But when sultan Moulay abd al-Rahman ibn Hisham (1822-1859) supported the Algerian independence movement of abn al-Qadir, he was decisively defeated by French forces in 1844. His successors, Muhammed IV and Hassan I, were increasingly drawn into conflict with the European powers. Although the independence of Morocco was supposedly guaranteed by the Conference of Madrid (1880), the French repeatedly interfered in its internal affairs. German efforts to counter French influence in the Maghreb resulted in the First (1905-1906) and Second (1911) Moroccan Crises. In 1912, the Alouite sultans were forced to recognize a French Protectorate of Morocco in the Treaty of Fes in December 1912. Around the same date, the Rif region of northern Morocco was placed under the "protection" of Spain.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Technically, the protectorates did not deprive Morocco of its status as a sovereign state; the Alouite sultans "reigned but did not rule." In establishing their administration of the country, France had lengthy experience gained by their conquest of Algeria and protectorate over Tunisia. However, there were some crucial differences. For one, the Moroccan protectorate was established less than two years before the outbreak of World War I, which brought new concerns over the morality and challenges of colonial rule. Too, the new French administrators rejected the previous policy of assimilation of the native people; instead, they opted to use urban planning and education to prevent cultural mixing. Finally, Morocco had a thousand-year tradition of independence, based on the fierce individuality of its Berber tribesmen.
The French governors of Morocco allied themselves politically with the tens of thousands of French colons (colonists) that flooded in to buy vast tracts of rich agricultural land. In France itself, political factions supported the most draconian of measures to increase French control. As pacification of the Berbers and nationalists proceeded slowly, the French government sought to force economic development, including the exploitation of Morocco's rich mineral deposits, the creation of a modern transportation system, and investment in a modern agricultural industry aimed to feed the French markets.
The Spanish protectorate was more benign, maintaining the local laws and the authority of local rulers. The fact that the Rif had many enclaves of Sephardic Jews, descendants of refugees from Spain and Portugal in the 1490s, that had profited from commerce between Africa and Iberia over the centuries certainly made Spanish rule more comfortable in terms of language and culture. Nor did the Spanish government encourage their citizens to immigrate to Morocco, although it did encourage investment in Moroccan businesses. In general, with the exception of the period of the Spanish Civil War in the late 1930s, Spanish Morocco was peaceful and profitable for all concerned.
Following years of unrest, urban riots and tribal uprisings, in 1953 the French exiled the beloved Moroccan sultan Mohammed V and replaced him with Mohammed ben Aarafa, whose claim to the throne was universally viewed as illegitimate. Three years later, faced with unified Moroccan resistance and a civil war raging in Algeria, France agreed to negotiate a return to independence for the country. Mohammed V successfully negotiated the gradual restoration of Moroccan sovereignty, agreeing - among other things - to the establishment of a constitutional monarch and a two-chamber parliament to govern. The succeeding Alouite kings continued to forge ever-closer ties with the western democracies, making modern Morocco one of the most stable and liberal of the Muslim nations, with a vibrant culture and economy.]=];
TITLE = [=[Morocco]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[The people of Morocco await your guidance, great Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur of the Saadi Dynasty. Well known for your skill as both a negotiator and a diplomat, your careful words allowed for the forging of new alliances, securing the sovereignty of your nation and its people for decades. And still, when words failed, you found equal success in conquest, leading the Moroccan armies to victory on the battlefield while greatly expanding the grasp of your empire.
Wise and respected Sultan, the people look to you for leadership. Can your skill in diplomacy match that of your rivals, or will you meet them sword in hand? Your once great kingdom yearns for that former glory -can you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Polish Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Polish-born Casimir Pulaski and Tadeusz Kosciuszko were patriots in their homeland for their resistance to Russian overlordship; both were also American patriots, serving in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War as officers - Pulaski dying in the defense of Savannah in 1779, and the military engineer Kosciuszko surviving the conflict to be the first Pole granted American citizenship.
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849), Poland's greatest composer, wrote his first works - two polonaises, in G minor and B-flat major - at the age of seven and completed the last of his 230 published works a few months before his death in Paris.
Przystanek Woodstock, an annual free rock festival held in various locations in Poland since 1995, has been called "the largest open-air festival in the world" - in 2011 attendance was estimated at above 700 thousand.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[The Founding of Poland]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Piasts]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Jagiellon Dynasty]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Age of Partitions]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Independence through Iron Curtain]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Free Again]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Invasion, occupation, partition, rebellion and rebirth - that cycle has characterized the tragic and triumphant history of Poland for the past millennium. Lying between the Baltic Sea to the north and the Carpathian Mountains to the south, the Polish plain served as the gateway for invasions of the heartland of Europe from the east and invasions of the vast tracts of Russia from the west. Poland became a recognizable ethnic and political entity in the mid-10th Century AD under the Piast dynasty of kings; its modern history begins in 966 when the first Piast king, Mieszko I, was converted to Christianity. For hundreds of years afterward, Poland's fortunes waxed and waned at the hands of powerful neighbors and invaders, from the German Teutonic Knights to the Mongol Golden Horde to the Soviet Union's forces. Even in times of national crisis, however, Polish ideals of revolution and independence remained strong. Those ideals, carried abroad by Polish expatriates such as Pulaski and Kosciuszko, informed the American and French revolutions. The Polish constitution of 1791 AD, the oldest in Europe, incorporated those same democratic ideals. Restored as a free nation in 1918 but ravaged by two world wars, few peoples suffered as much in the 20th Century as the Poles. Following a half-century of totalitarian rule as a communist satellite, in the 1980s the Polish movement Solidarity oversaw its transformation into a sovereign state once again. At the beginning of the 21st Century, Poland is a progressive, market-based democracy, an important member of both NATO and the European Union.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[A land of striking natural beauty, Poland is a landscape of broad forests (covering roughly 30.5% of the country), great rivers (notably the Vistula and the Oder), and broad plains. Poland lies in the physical center of Europe, and is divided into four distinct terrains: the Tatras range of the Carpathian Mountains in the south (the highest peak being 8199 feet), the hills to the immediate north, the central lowlands that form the heart of the country, and the swamps and dunes that border the Baltic. The great ages of glaciation that shaped Poland's terrain also left the loam and loess soils of the Polish plain some of the richest in the world. With almost ten thousand, Poland has one of the highest density of lakes of in the world; in Europe only Finland has higher. The climate is universally temperate, with precipitation falling throughout the year, although winter tends to be drier than summer. The rich soils and the moderate climate make the country an agricultural powerhouse, one of the world's leading producers of sugar beets and triticale wheat, and Europe's primary source for potatoes and rye. Indeed, Poland has been declared by some to be the "breadbasket of the European Union."]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[On the fringes of the ancient Mediterranean and Near East civilizations, the peoples of Poland progressed relatively ignored by them through the Stone, Bronze and Iron ages of human development; the first settlements date back approximately 7500 years. Part of the great migrations that occurred near the end of the Western Roman Empire, the Slavs moved into the region. There they settled, first as tribal organizations and later coalescing into small kingdoms. From one of these came Mieszko, the first ruler of the "Poles" to be mentioned in historical records.
According to the semi-legendary account, the Polanie tribe, centered on the fortified settlement of Gniezno, was ruled by Mieszko, who forged close ties with the Wislanie tribe living around Krakow. When Great Moravia, of which the Wislanie were a part, was destroyed by the Magyars around 960 AD, Mieszko united the Polanie and the Wislanie, founding the Piast Dynasty. Convinced by Roman Catholic missionaries from Bohemia to the south, Mieszko converted to Christianity and was baptized in 966; despite some debate, most scholars accept this date as the beginning of modern Poland.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[A series of strong successors to Mieszko I slowly converted the pagan Poles to Christianity, created a strong kingdom, and integrated Poland into the broader European culture. His son Boleslaw I established a purely Polish-Catholic ecclesiastical organization, and his secular authority was recognized by the Germanic Holy Roman Emperor. This led to Boleslaw's coronation in 1025 AD, making him the first "King of Poland." By the end of the century, Poland stretched from the Baltic to the Carpathians, loosely establishing its historical borders.  However, upon the death of Boleslaw III in 1138, with no tradition of primogeniture, the kingdom was divided among his several sons. The resulting fragmentation led to continuous internal conflict and external pressures throughout the 12th and 13th centuries.
Wladyslaw (1261-1333 AD), known as "the Elbow-High," a minor duke of Piast lineage, spent his life reunifying the realm. In defending Poland, King Wladyslaw I waged crusades against the pagan Lithuanians and Mongols, as well as war to expel the Teutonic Knights. Upon Wladyslaw's death, his even more able son, Casimir III, took the throne. Casimir the Great would not only secure his father's gains through astute diplomacy and brief, victorious warfare, but make Poland a center of culture and learning and trade. He more than doubled the size of the kingdom, reorganized the nation's economy and legal system, and provided the impetus for the establishment of Poland's first university. Under Casimir's liberal rule, Poland became a haven for the dispossessed and persecuted; Germans settled in the cities, Armenian and Slavic refugees in the rural lowlands, and thousands of Jews settled and flourished across the country. However, having no male heirs, Casimir the Great was the last Piast king, dying in 1370.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Casimir had designated as his successor his nephew, Louis I of Hungary, whose brief reign in Poland proved uneventful. After Louis's death in 1382 AD, the Polish nobles selected his younger daughter Jadwiga as queen. Four years later the nobles elected Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogalia (in Poland, known as Wladyslaw Jagiello) king after he married Jadwiga and converted to Catholicism. Coming to the aid of the Lithuanians locked in a vicious war with the Teutonic Knights, Wladyslaw II brought the Poles into the conflict in 1401. At Grunwald in July 1410, after one of the most ferocious battles of the Middle Ages, his combined Lithuanian-Polish force won a victory so overwhelming that the Teutonic Order was virtually annihilated, with most of its leaders killed or captured. The victory secured Wladyshaw's throne for his lifetime, and established the resultant Jagiellon Dynasty.
The Jagiellon monarchs would spend the following decades at war with their covetous neighbors, against the resurgent Teutonic Knights, the Duchy of Prussia, the kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and, to the south, the Ottoman Turks and the Crimean Tatars, the latter launching no less that 75 separate incursions between 1474 and 1569. Overall, Poland's kings were able to maintain its borders and influence throughout the dynasty.
More significant and lasting than the military successes and failures were the social and scientific changes under the Jagiellons. In 1505 AD, the Nihil Novi Act transferred most legislative power from the monarch to the Sejm, a parliament composed of the Polish nobility, a dramatic step towards democracy. Protestant Reformation movements, notably that led by John Hus of Bohemia, made inroads into Polish Catholicism and resulted in the establishment of laws promoting religious tolerance. Renaissance ideals evoked in the Jagiellon kings Sigismund I and Sigismund II an urge to promote Polish arts and culture, which flourished through the 1500s. And in 1543, the year of his death, his epochal work confirming a heliocentric model of the solar system was published by Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Spurred by nationalism, democratic precepts, and concerns about foreign threats, in June 1569 the Sejm passed an act establishing the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a unified federal state with an elected monarch but which was governed primarily by the nobility through local assemblies and a central parliament. In July, the childless Sigismund II, last of Jagiellon dynasty, accepted and signed the act. Although the commonwealth is credited with instituting a period of stability and prosperity and the spread of Western culture to areas such as the Ukraine and western Russia, it found itself repeatedly embroiled in conflicts with Russia, Sweden, the Ottomans, and Cossack uprisings. The toll of these wars, notably Poland-Lithuania's involvement in the Great Northern War (1700-1721 AD), coupled with a succession of weak elected kings, left the nation desperately in need of internal political reform. During the middle years of the 18th Century, the Sejm moved to implement commercial, military, social and educational reforms, which included the Commission of National Education in 1773, the first state-sponsored education system in Europe.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[These efforts at reform, which threatened to return Poland to its previous glory, provoked the growing powers bordering it to intervene. In 1792, the First Partition occurred when Russia, Austria and Prussia occupied portions of the country. Following the short Polish-Russian War, Prussia and Russia executed the Second Partition, which stripped Poland of so much territory as to leave it incapable of supporting itself economically or militarily. In 1795 the Third Partition by Austria, Russia and Prussia ceded the nation's last holdings to these powers and independent Poland ceased to exist.
From 1792 through 1918, Poland was effectively an occupied country, with brief periods of relative autonomy. In 1807 AD, the emperor Napoleon recreated the free Duchy of Warsaw, but after the Napoleonic Wars the Congress of Vienna again divided Polish lands among the victors. The decades of partition were also marked by numerous Polish rebellions seeking independence, notably the November 1830 uprising and the January 1863 revolt, both of which sought liberation for those areas under tsarist Russian rule. Despite the oppression, Poland did profit from broad industrialization and modernization programs instituted by the occupying powers, especially in the areas under the relatively enlightened administration of Prussia. This enforced modernization would make Poland more economically and politically viable in the 20th Century. Nonetheless, Russian, and to a lesser extent Austrian and Prussian, control was tenuous and troubled; as the composer Wybicki, whose 1797 mazurka would become the Polish anthem in 1927, wrote, "Poland is not yet lost ..."]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Shortly after the armistice in November 1918, and seizing the opportunity granted by the turmoil of the Russian Revolution, Polish nationalists declared the creation of the Second Polish Republic. The Western Allies had already agreed to the reconstitution of Poland as the thirteenth of American President Wilson's famed Fourteen Points. The Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1921 forced Lenin's Russia to accept Poland's freedom, and incidentally halted Communism's advance into Europe. But the threat of totalitarian regimes in Russia and Germany, coupled with the world-wide depression, brought the right-wing nationalists of the Sanacja movement to power and the government became increasingly authoritarian.
The Sanacja movement controlled Poland until Nazi Germany's invasion in 1939 set off World War II. Joined by Stalin's Russia, Hitler's Wehrmacht quickly overran what Winston Churchill would declare as the "first ally." German and Russian occupation was brutal and efficient; of all the nations involved in the war, Poland suffered the highest percentage of population loss, over six million - roughly one-fifth of the pre-war population, almost half of them Polish Jews. The German invasion of the Soviet Union would result in the eventual "liberation" of Poland by Russian forces, which proved unwilling to depart. At the insistence of Stalin, Great Britain and the United States sanctioned the creation of a provisional, pro-Communist coalition government for Poland. In 1952, the People's Republic of Poland was officially proclaimed, and it immediately became a pivotal part of the Iron Curtain and member of the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War.
Communist rule was harsh and costly for Poland. Despite widespread opposition and outcry, eastern portions of the country were permanently ceded to the Soviet Union. Repressive policies limited every aspect of Polish life, from cultural expression to religion to travel to educational and economic opportunity for individuals. The nation's wealth, both natural and industrial, was plundered for the good of Soviet Russia, leaving Poland a virtual pauper on the world stage. Despite all this, Poland was at the time considered one of the least repressive states of the Iron Curtain.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Labor turmoil in the 1980s led to the founding of the trade union Solidarnosc (Solidarity), which over time became a force in Polish politics. Despite persecution and the imposition of martial law, the movement eroded the dominance of the Polish Communist Party throughout the following decade. As the Soviet Union dissolved and the Communist regime there collapsed, Solidarity prospered. In 1989, it had a hand in forcing Poland's first free (albeit partially so) parliamentary elections. The next year, Lech Walesa, the Solidarity candidate, won the presidency; Russian domination and Communist rule in Poland effectively ended. Within short order, the Solidarity-led government returned civil liberties to the Polish people and turned Poland's socialistic economy into a modern market-driven one.
After two generations of facing eastward, democratic Poland resumed its significant role in the cultural, economic and political life of Europe. In 1999, Poland joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to insure regional security. The Poles then voted to join the European Union, becoming a full member of the economic dynamo in May 2004. Having returned to its traditions of freedom, self-reliance and tolerance, Poland can again revel in its rich and diverse past.]=];
TITLE = [=[Poland]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[All Hail noble King Casimir the Great, protector and sovereign of the Kingdom of Poland. You ascended to the throne during a time of great turmoil, with the nation's economy in shambles and its people demoralized by the wars of your predecessor. And yet, your reign marked the beginning of a new era, with affluence and security afforded only by way of your careful governance. Among your most notable achievements, the code of laws you established gave legal authority to many of the accepted customs of the time, strengthening the nation.
Honored king Casimir, the people have long admired the steady hand of governance you wield. Can you return your kingdom and its subjects to a golden age of prosperity? Will you conquer all those who oppose you, or strive for peaceful relations? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Portuguese Empire]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[In 1373 AD, the kings of Portugal and England signed a treaty of alliance; ratified by the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, the pact remains in force, making it the oldest continuous alliance in the world.
The "Great Lisbon Earthquake" (now estimated to be a 9 on the Richter Scale) and ensuing tidal waves in 1755 AD razed the city and devastated much of central and southern Portugal, causing damage and death as far away as North Africa. The death toll in Lisbon alone has been placed as high as 100,000 people, making it one of the deadliest earthquakes in history.
Fado is a music genre that originated in Lisbon in the 1820s, although its roots reach further back; it was recently added to the "World's Intangible Cultural Heritage" list by UNESCO, the United Nations' cultural organization.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Ancient History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Muslim Iberia & Reconquista]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Founding of Portugal]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Empire]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Restoration]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Revolution and Republic]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[A New Order]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Inhabited since prehistoric times, Portugal was reached by Phoenician and later Carthaginian traders in the first millennium BC, there meeting Celtic tribes that had pushed into Iberia across the Pyrenees. Over the following centuries, the Romans, Suebi and Visigoths ruled the peninsula; but the history of Portugal might be said to begin with the Muslim invasion in 711 AD. During the Reconquista, Portugal was born as an independent Christian kingdom in 1139. Spearheading the "Age of Discovery," in the 15th and 16th centuries Portugal would establish the first global empire, stretching from South America to Africa to the Far East. The 1800s saw the dismantling of that empire, Brazilian independence in 1822 being the most serious blow to the power and prestige of Portugal. After the 1910 revolution which ended the monarchy, Portugal suffered through a succession of juntas and dictatorships until democratic elections were finally held in 1975. A new constitution in 1976 and membership in the EEC in 1986 insured that it would remain a progressive democracy. The erroneous view that Portugal has been no more than an outpost on the fringe of Europe was summarized by American journalist Richard H. Davis, who wrote, "Portugal is a high hill with a white watch tower on it flying signal flags. It is apparently inhabited by one man who lives in a long row of yellow houses with red roofs, and populated by sheep who do grand acts of balancing on the side of the hill." But, with its rich history and culture, and now one of the world's most globalized nations, Portugal is much, much more.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The modern nation of Portugal occupies a portion of the Iberian Peninsula in Europe, as well as two archipelagos in the Atlantic: Madeira and the Azores. Not a large country, it nevertheless offers a diversity of terrain, ranging from the low-lying coast to rolling plains in the south to the Estrela Mountains, rising to 6500 feet at their highest point. The Azores lie 1019 miles west of Lisbon, straddling the mid-Atlantic Ridge; Madeira is 605 miles southwest of Lisbon. Three rivers arise in the Meseta, the central plateau of Spain, and flow through Portugal to the Atlantic; these are the Duro in the north, the Tejo in the center, and the Guadiana along the southeastern border. Portugal's climate is Mediterranean. Despite cooler temperatures in the mountains, it is one of Europe's warmest countries. Average annual rainfall ranges from 118 inches in the northern mountains to less than 12 along a stretch of the Duro. The archipelagos have a climate classified as Maritime Temperate, although Madeira is considerably drier than the Azores. With humans having been settled in the area for thousands of years, little is left of the original flora and fauna. The most notable vegetation is the several species of pine and oak. Portugal has the usual mammalian and avian species common across Iberia. On the other hand, Portuguese waters are among the richest in the world in terms of biodiversity, with thousands of species of fish including several of sardine, tuna and mackerel.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[A distinct human culture emerges in Portugal in the Mesolithic period, c. 5500 BC. Within 2000 years, Neolithic tribes from Andalusia moved into Portugal, bringing agriculture, pottery and the working of soft metals. At some point prior to 500 BC, Iron-Age Celtic peoples crossed into Iberia from the north, supplanting the Neolithic inhabitants. Around the same time, voyagers from Phoenicia and Carthage established trading posts and settlements. When Rome gained control of the peninsula in 201 BC as result of the Second Punic War, the Lusitani federation resisted Roman rule from its fortresses in the west until the Celtic tribes were at last suppressed around 140 BC. In 25 BC, Caesar Augustus founded Augusta Emerita (modern Merida) as the capital of the province of Lusitania, which encompassed all of Portugal.
As the Western Roman Empire declined, a Germanic tribe, the Suebi, crossed from Gaul into Iberia. There they settled in southern Galicia, annexed Lusitania, and overran the rest of the peninsula. They in turn were supplanted by the Visigoths, who after a period left Iberia for North Africa. By 550 AD the Suebic kingdom had been restored and its king converted to Catholicism; but the Gothic kingdom was weak and divided, plagued by decades of unrest. When Muslim forces invaded in 711 AD, the only serious resistance was centered on Merida. Within two decades, the Moors overran most of Portugal and Galicia. In 756, Abd al-Rahman I established the Umayyad caliphate at Cordoba.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Portugal would remain under Muslim rule for the next five-and-a-half centuries. In 1031 AD the Caliphate of Cordoba was dissolved into 23 separate "taifa" kingdoms, each with its own emir answerable to Damascus. Most of Portugal fell under the Taifa of Badajoz, but incessant warfare among the taifa led to conquest by the Almoravids from Morocco in 1086, who were in turn supplanted by the Almohad dynasty in 1147.  The Moorish rule of al-Andalus, the Muslim portion of Iberia, was by turns enlightened and ruthless. Only the northern kingdom of Asturias remained Christian, defeating the Moors several times to retain its independence.
Fifty years after Charles Martel turned back the Muslims at the Battle of Tours, Charlemagne opened the Christian effort to reclaim Iberia in his invasion of 778 AD. Making common cause with Asturias, the Franks and Teutonic Knights would spend the next 500 years slowly pushing the Moors back until by 1300 the only Muslim holdings in the peninsula were centered on the Emirate of Granada on the Mediterranean coast. In doing so, the crusaders created a number of Christian kingdoms in Iberia: Navarre in 824; Leon in 910; Aragon in 1035; Castile in 1037 ... and Portugal in 1139 AD.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The county of Portugal, a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Leon, was awarded to Alfonso Henrique by the king for his service in the efforts to drive back the Muslims. In 1128, the newly created Count of Portugal defeated his mother's forces to insure his sole reign. For the next decade, Henrique conducted a continuous campaign against the Moors until, at the Battle of Ouique in July 1139, he won a decisive victory. Immediately after, he was unanimously proclaimed King Alfonso I of Portugal by his soldiers. Alfonso established his Cortes at Lamego, where he was officially crowned by the Archbishop of Braga. The new kingdom was recognized as an independent Christian state by the King of Leon and Castile in 1143, and by Pope Alexander III in 1179.
Alfonso I and his successors continued their push southward against the Moors. In 1249, Portugal's Reconquista ended with the capture of the Algarve region, giving the country its present mainland borders. Following the Reconquista, Iberia was largely peaceful, and the kingdom prospered both economically and culturally. In 1383, John I of Castile, son-in-law to the aging and heirless king of Portugal, claimed the throne. A faction of lesser Portuguese nobles and commoners, led by John of Aviz (later King John I), defeated the Castilians and the House of Aviz ascended to rule Portugal.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[John I of Portugal soon found an outlet for the restless among his adventurous sons. Long a maritime people, the Portuguese would be leaders in the voyages of exploration, in the process building a globe-spanning empire. The empire began modestly enough with the conquest of its first overseas outpost, the Muslim city of Ceuta on the north coast of Africa in 1415 AD. Under the patronage and direction of John's third son, Infante Henry - better known as Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) - Portuguese captains would soon after discover Madeira and the Azores, sparking the first wave of Portuguese colonization. Throughout the rest of the century, the Portuguese would sail south along the African coast, claiming territories, as they sought a route around it to India and the East.
Vasco de Gama final opened a sea route to India in 1498, bringing the wealth of the East to Portugal. Two years later, the errant fleet of Pedro Cabral would discover and claim the land of Brazil for the crown. A decade after that, Afonso de Albuquerque would conquer Goa in India, Ormuz on the Persian Strait, and Malacca in Malaysia. Other Portuguese merchants would establish trading posts along the shores of India, Taiwan, Japan and Timor. By the beginning of the 16th Century, the small nation of Portugal held dominion over the sea lanes of the Indian and South Atlantic oceans, making its economic, military and political power the rival of any in Europe.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 would lead to a union of Spain and Portugal under Philip II of Spain; although still a sovereign nation, this union deprived Portugal of a separate foreign policy, which in turn led to its embroilment in Spanish wars in Europe and abroad. Spurred by the diversion of income from its overseas colonies and trade to Spanish coffers, in 1640 AD an uprising of Portuguese nobles would restore independence to Portugal, in the form of the House of Braganza, which would supply rulers for both Portugal and Brazil.
For the next 150 years, Portugal would remain largely untroubled by the politics of Europe. With the exception of a brief Spanish invasion during the Seven Years War, the Portuguese crown and people were content to enjoy the fruits of their colonial empire and peace. That is, until French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte intervened. Portugal had managed, despite being allied with Great Britain for over four centuries, to remain out of the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1807, after the Prince Regent Joao - serving in place of his incapacitated mother Maria I - refused to join the Continental Blockade, which banned British imports to Europe, French and Spanish troops invaded Portugal. Unable to resist, in November, the prince along with the administration and court (about 10,000 people) fled across the Atlantic to Brazil.
Although Portugal would be liberated by guerrillas and Anglo-Portuguese forces under the command of Wellington, the five-year occupation and the relocation of the government would herald a slow but inexorable decline that lasted into the 20th Century. The erosion of the colonial empire, most significantly the independence of Brazil in 1822, would cripple Portugal's economy. With the exception of colonial affairs and revolts, the government largely maintained an unofficial policy of isolationism. The nation fell behind other European countries both socially and technologically. Agriculture, including the fishing industry, and tourism became the major sources of income; Portugal came to be increasingly viewed as a "sleepy backwater of Europe."]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Twice during this period, in 1892 AD and again in 1902, King Dom Carlos I was forced to declare Portugal bankrupt. In both cases, the announcements were followed by protests, riots, social turmoil, localized revolts, and widespread criticism of the monarchy. This culminated in the assassination in February 1908 of the king and the heir apparent, his son Luis Filipe. Carlos' second son, Manuel II would assume the crown, but was unable to improve conditions. In October 1910, a popular revolution would discard the monarchy and establish a free republic. But economic instability, social chaos, and political unrest were fertile grounds for radicalism. In response, a 1926 coup d'etat led by the military established the Ditadura Nacional ("National Dictatorship"). Governed by a series of military juntas, Portugal's fortunes and influence continued to slip. Beginning in 1960, independence movements in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974). As a result Portugal faced trade and arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions by the international community.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[The junta devoted blood and money Portugal could ill-afford in its efforts to resist decolonization. Facing a tide of dissent, both external and internal, the junta was finally swept away by the Carnation Revolution, a relatively bloodless left-wing military coup in April 1974. The revolution led to independence for the remaining overseas territories, as well as the restoration of democracy after a two-year transition period. The Portuguese constitution was rewritten in 1976 AD to accommodate both socialist and communist principles. Since then, the government has swung between neosocialism and neoliberalism. Land reforms and nationalizations were undertaken, and Portugal was obliged to twice allow International Monetary Fund stabilization programs to recover economically. In 1986, Portugal joined the EEC, and subsequently the European Union. In 1999, the last Portuguese colony, Macau, was handed over to the Republic of China. Through such efforts, Portugal has once again been integrated into Europe and taken its place among the fraternity of the world's nations.]=];
TITLE = [=[Portugal]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Blessings be upon you, most gracious Queen Maria, protector and sovereign of the Portuguese people. As the first ever Queen regnant of Portugal, it was your wise stewardship that protected the royal court from the incursions of Napoleon, establishing a safe haven in Brazil to preserve the integrity of Portuguese rule. Despite struggling with illness throughout your reign, your efforts to ensure Portugal's close cooperation with Brazil are credited with helping that state gain its eventual independence - and for this you will always be admired and respected by the people of both nations.
Oh noble and pious queen, will you once again guide the kingdom of Portugal in the spirit of cooperation and prosperity? Will you establish a new legacy, one that will surpass all those who came before you? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
COMANCHE_RIDERS_TEXT = [=[The Comanche were a branch of the Shoshone driven southward into Oklahoma and northern Texas by increasing pressure of the Northern Plains Indians. As Hunter-gatherers, under conditions of incessant conflict with other Indian peoples and Mexican and American settlers, the migratory Comanche developed a horse-warrior culture. Mounted on sturdy plains ponies, Comanche boys were taught to ride at a very early age. The warriors were armed with obsidian-tipped spears, devastating against opposing warriors on foot, and with bows and later rifles. The favored style of combat was guerilla warfare: short, intense, close-in mounted attacks aimed at killing as many of the enemy as possible and driving off their livestock. The so-called Comanche Wars, beginning with their first raids against Spanish outposts in New Mexico in the 1700s, raged nearly continuously until the last bands were subdued by the U.S. Army in 1875.]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[A Lemhi Shoshone, Sacagawea (in the Hidatsa tongue meaning "Bird Woman") was kidnapped by a Hidatsa raiding party at the age of 12 in 1800 AD; she was subsequently sold to the French fur trader Toussaint Charbonneau in 1804 to become one of his wives. In the winter of 1805, Charbonneau was hired as a guide and interpreter by the Lewis and Clark expedition. However, since the Frenchman did not speak Shoshone, the explorers agreed to have the pregnant Sacagawea accompany the expedition.
Jim Bridger, one of the foremost American frontiersmen, had two Shoshone wives; his third marriage, in 1850 AD, was to the daughter of Chief Washakie, a renowned warchief of the Eastern Shoshone later decorated by the United States government for his help in their campaigns against the Northern Plains Indians.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Distribution]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Coming of the White Men]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Cooperation and Resistance]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Reservation Life]=];
PATHFINDER_TEXT = [=[Among the Native American tribes of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains, some members were trusted as superior scouts, relied upon to carry out critical duties for the nomads. Called by a variety of titles, these "pathfinders" tracked game and enemies, scouted routes for migration, spied on foes and interlopers, and protected the winter encampments. So skilled were they that the armies of the major powers hired them as scouts and advisors, beginning as early as the Pequot War (1637-1638 AD) when the English colonists of Massachusetts Bay were aided by scouts of the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes. However, with the end of the frontier and the confinement of Native American tribes to reservations, the role of the pathfinder faded.]=];
TEXT_1 = [=["I don't speak your language, and you don't speak mine. But I still understand you. I don't need to walk in your footsteps if I can see the footprints you left behind." Unfortunately, this Shoshone saying did not apply when the white man came into their lands. The Shoshone arose from the intermingling of various indigenous peoples who had lived in the western part of North America for thousands of years; the Shoshone tongue, one of the Uto-Aztecan languages, was their most distinctive characteristic, and so common that, despite divergent dialects, members from distant tribes could converse with ease. At their greatest extent, the Shoshone stretched from northern Idaho to northern Arizona, from eastern California to western Montana. The first contacts between the Shoshone and whites included the passage of the Lewis and Clark Expedition through their northern lands in 1805 AD and the arrival of fur trappers and traders in the Rocky Mountains in the 1820s. The white explorers were followed by white pioneers, notably the Mormon settlements in Utah around the Great Salt Lake at the heart of Shoshone tribal lands. For the next three generations Shoshone chiefs fought against the loss of their hunting grounds, destruction of their culture, and forced relocation by the U.S. Army. But, while valiant, the fight was eventually futile. By 1890 the last Shoshone had been relocated to reservations administered by the U.S. Indian Bureau.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The traditional homeland of the Shoshone stretched across the arid Great Basin region of the United States. It included all of what is now Utah and Nevada, as well as portions of Oregon, Idaho, Montana, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming. The Great Basin is the largest endorheic watershed in North America, and includes terrain ranging from the highest point (Mount Whitney) to the lowest point (Badwater Basin) in the contiguous United States. The primary watershed is the Humboldt River, draining some 17,000 square miles. Although mostly characterized by the North American desert eco-region, large portions of the Shoshone land was forested mountain ranges and prairie valleys. The tribal lands also include numerous lakes, among these the Great Salt Lake and Lake Tahoe, the continent's largest alpine lake. Extensive deserts ranged by the Shoshone include the Black Rock, Great Salt Lake, Sevier, Smoke Creek, Mojave and Sonoran, as well as the Nevada salt flats. Climate ranges from desert arid to alpine temperate across the region, with temperature extremes above 100 degrees Fahrenheit in the south to well below zero in the north. The rich diversity of flora and fauna allowed the Shoshone to thrive as hunter-gatherers, with their primary game the plentiful pronghorn and mule deer and plains buffalo.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[As time passed, the Shoshone divided into three large subgroups. The Western, or "unmounted," Shoshone were centered in Nevada, with tribes in Oregon and California; among the latter are the Timbisha Shoshone which has for centuries lived in the Death and Panamint valleys and surrounding mountains. The Northern, or "horse," Shoshone lands spanned Idaho, northern Utah, and western Wyoming. The Eastern, or Wind River, Shoshone lived in Wyoming, southern Montana, and western Colorado. In the early 1700s AD, the Blackfoot, Crow and Piegan Indians to the north and the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho to the east were better armed and had an abundant supply of horses. Consequently, these tribes gradually pushed the Shoshone south from the northern plains and west across the Continental Divide. In the process, some of the Eastern Shoshone migrated south into west Texas, evolving into the Comanche, considered by some to be a fourth subgroup of the Shoshone.
From 1780 through 1782, smallpox ravaged the natives of the Great Plains, especially the Shoshone. Moving northward from Spanish settlements in Mexico and Texas beginning in 1779 AD, the smallpox pandemic may have cost the Shoshone between one-third and one-half their number. Although it brought a lull in the pressure from Blackfoot, Sioux and Cheyenne, also suffering its effects, according to tribal oral histories the disease "badly shattered" the Eastern Shoshone, leaving only isolated bands unable and unwilling to resist the arrival of the white Americans.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[By 1800 AD, the Western Shoshone had co-existed with Spanish and Mexican settlers for several generations. Meanwhile, the lands of the Eastern Shoshone were being explored by isolated American frontiersmen and explorers. But the best documented first contact between the whites and the Shoshone occurred when the Lewis and Clark Expedition entered Shoshone lands in Montana in August 1805. Dispatched by President Jefferson to explore and map the northern and western portions of the Louisiana Purchase, the expedition enjoyed cordial relations with the Northern Shoshone, thanks in part to the presence of Sacagawea, a Lemhi Shoshone accompanying the party. Meanwhile, American frontiersmen such as Jim Bridger began moving into the Rocky Mountains in the 1820s, and established annual fur trading rendezvous in the Wind River, Green River and Snake River regions. At these rendezvous, held from 1825 through 1840, the Shoshone in Wyoming, Montana, Idaho and Utah not only acquired goods and weapons, but became familiar with the ways of the whites.
Following the fur traders came the settlers. Relations with the waves of homesteaders, miners, ranchers and tradesmen that migrated into or through the Shoshone lands were not always as friendly as those with the explorers and frontiersmen. The eastern and northern portions of the Shoshone lands had been "acquired" by the United States through the Louisiana Purchase; the treaty in 1848 AD that ended the Mexican-American War ceded the remainder of the Shoshone tribal lands to the Americans. The California and Oregon trails, the primary routes to the west coast territories of the United States, cut through the heart of this tribal territory. In the lands of the Eastern Shoshone, white sodbusters and cattlemen spread across the plains and eastern slopes of the Rockies. The discovery of gold in California (1848) and Montana (1864) and of the silver Comstock Lode in Nevada (1858) brought an influx of settlers and fortune seekers into the heartland of the Shoshone.
The most significant white incursion occurred when Brigham Young led his band of Mormons into the Salt Lake basin in 1846, seeking to found a faith-based republic free from the persecution they had suffered in Missouri and Illinois. For centuries the Ute and Northern Shoshone had hunted and migrated through the basin, but had no permanent camps there. By December 1847, two thousand Mormons had settled around the Salt Lake in Utah; an estimated 70,000 more followed in wagon trains over the next decade. Upon his arrival, Young had selected a site for the construction of a temple for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; around that Salt Lake City grew. From the basin, Mormon missionary settlers fanned outward. In 1847 the town of Bountiful was founded, followed by Ogden in 1848 and Provo in 1849.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The response to the American expansion varied greatly among the Shoshone tribes. The Eastern Shoshone, under the leadership of Chief Washakie, reached an amiable accord with the whites. At the urging of his son-in-law Jim Bridger, Washakie agreed to participate in the council meetings at Fort Laramie in 1851 AD. There he signed a treaty pledging cooperation with the Americans for rights to hunt and camp in the Wind River Range. In 1868, another treaty created the Shoshone and Bannock Indian Agency located in west-central Wyoming. Unique among reservations, the U.S. government permitted Washakie and his chieftains to select the land, about three million acres, they would settle. In the ongoing Indian Wars, the Eastern Shoshone supplied scouts and guides to the U.S. Army, notably in General Crook's campaign against the Sioux and Cheyenne following the defeat of Custer at the Little Bighorn.
In general, the Western Shoshone tribes co-existed peacefully with the white settlers and miners that entered their lands. This was largely due to the fact that the territory - extensive deserts and dry hills - they inhabited was inhospitable and barren. Lacking the warrior tradition of the Northern and Eastern Shoshone, the members of the Idaho and Oregon tribes subsisted on herded sheep, while those in Nevada and California were primitive hunter-gatherers. The nomadic bands, none numbering more than two hundred members, were gradually relocated onto small reservations in Nevada during the 1880s and 1890s. Despite some opposition, the several Western Shoshone tribes were combined into the Te-Mouks Bands Council under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act.
By contrast, the Northern Shoshone resisted the incursion of the whites. Initially, the tribes established an accord with the Mormon settlers, whose elders acquiesced to supply food and goods to replace the loss of game habitat to farming and timber operations. Although at times troubled by minor skirmishes and the occasional murder, from 1847 AD until the late 1850s the Shoshone and Mormons maintained the peace. But the increase in migrant wagon trains and of gold prospectors in their hunting lands took ever more game; in 1859, Jacob Forney, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Utah Territory, recognizing the impact of the migrants, wrote, "The Indians ... have become impoverished by the introduction of a white population." Desperate and starving, the Shoshone began attacking isolated farms and stealing cattle as a matter of survival. Mormon support for the natives eroded, and the donations of food and supplies to the Shoshone gradually ceased.
Commencing in 1860 AD, Shoshone chiefs such as Pocatello and Bear Hunter sent raiding parties to attack wagon trains, mail riders, telegraph crews and parties of miners in an effort to curb the influx. The Lincoln administration mired in the Civil War and concerned about the security of communication routes to California and Oregon, uncertain of the loyalties of the Mormons, ordered U.S. Army troops into the area to quell the disturbances. In October 1862, Colonel Patrick Connor led a detachment of troops from California to establish a base three miles east of Salt Lake City. Meanwhile, a number of Shoshone tribes gathered at their annual winter encampment in Cache Valley. A series of small but bloody incidents between miners and settlers and Shoshone braves brought Connor to mount an attack on the encampment with about 300 infantry and cavalry on the morning of January 29, 1863.
Although Pocatello led his tribe away when scouts brought word of the approaching force, the other chiefs determined to remain. Bear Hunter and other chiefs assumed that a settlement could be reached, perhaps with the Shoshone paying reparations. Instead, Connor attacked without negotiations. According to witnesses, when the Shoshone fought back, the American officers appeared to lose control of the cavalrymen, who began a wholesale slaughter. By the time it ended, nearly 500 native men, women and children had been killed, most of them non-combatants, in what came to be known as the Bear River Massacre. Among the dead was Bear Hunter; the surviving nine chiefs led by Sagwitch surrendered and their tribes forced onto reservations under the provisions of the Treaty of Box Elder in July 1863. After eluding capture for nearly five years, Pocatello's starving and diminished tribe surrendered at last and was confined to the Fort Hall Reservation as well.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Reservation life was brutal and harsh, made worse by the broken promises and corruption of the U.S. Indian Bureau. Unable to find sufficient game and usually unable to farm the poor lands they were assigned, many of the captive Shoshone died of starvation and disease. The American administrators repeatedly failed to supply food, medicine, clothing and supplies to the reservation Indians. In response, as happened elsewhere, several incidents of Shoshone despair and defiance occurred when tribes left the reservations. Such doomed uprisings led to the Bannock War in 1878 involving the Northern Shoshone and Bannock tribes and the Sheepeater Indian War in 1879 involving about 300 Western Shoshone. Eventually, reforms in the 1920s and 1930s brought the reservation tribes the rights of American citizenship, lifted most restrictions, and granted special privileges to the tribal councils.
Today, the remaining members of the Shoshone tribes - approximately 12,000 - live on several reservations in Wyoming, Idaho and Nevada, the largest being the Wind River Reservation of the Eastern Shoshone in Wyoming. The other major Shoshone reservation, the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho, originally encompassed 1.8 million acres, but has been reduced to 544,000 acres due to enforced land sales and the creation of the American Falls Reservoir. Since the 1934 act granting recognition and citizenship, the Te-Mouk have established a series of private communes on purchased land in Nevada, such as the Death Valley Indian Community and the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony.]=];
TITLE = [=[Shoshone]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Shoshone]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Blessings be upon you, wise and fearsome Chief Pocatello, revered leader of the Shoshone people. As the young chieftain of the Shoshone, you rose to face a wave of encroaching American settlements across the western United States.  Forced to defend the Shoshone ancestral lands from a seemingly endless stream of new emigrants, your war band struck fear into those who would claim the sacred lands of your people. After years of strife, you skillfully avoided a direct conflict with the armies of the U.S. government, and negotiated a series of treaties in the hopes of establishing a lasting peace for the Shoshone.
Most esteemed Pocatello, your people once again look to you for guidance. Will you conquer your enemies, driving them far from your lands? Or will you seek out peaceful diplomacy and trade? Will you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Republic of Venice]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Most of the compositions of Antonio Vivaldi, known as the "Red Priest" and a virtuoso violinist, were written for the Baroque female ensemble of the Ospedale della Pieta, a convent-orphanage and music school in his native Venice.
The title "doge" in the local dialect is a corruption of the Latin dux ("leader"); the English equivalent would be the term "duke," although the powers and rights were never equivalent, not the least because the former was elected and the latter hereditary.
At the heart of Venice's economy in the Medieval Age was the colleganza, a form of joint-stock company created by a merchant to finance a single, lengthy expedition; these ventures allowed daring entrepreneurs - even artisans, craftsmen, widows, commoners and students - to have the possibility to enjoy high profits from successful trading ventures.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pre-Republic History]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Venice in the Middle Ages]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Renaissance]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Decline]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[After the Republic]=];
TEXT = [=[The city of Venice stretches across 118 small islands in the saltwater Venetian Lagoon, between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers. No exact date is known for the founding of Venice, but some archeological evidence shows that the city's original citizens may have been Roman refugees fleeing the Germanic invasions and the Huns. As the centuries passed, the originally small settlement began to spread across the islands, its inhabitants using the small rivulets and canals as their roads.  The city fell under Byzantine rule early in its life.  In the late 700's AD the ducal seat was moved to Venice and a basilica dedicated to St. Mark the Evangelist was built, heralding the birth of the "Queen of the Adriatic". The city eventually gained its independence from the Byzantines and became an autonomous city-state.
The city flourished as a trade center between Western Europe and the rest of the world, its strategic location making its commercial and naval power unmatched in the Adriatic. Venice began to expand outside of the islands as it seized cities along the eastern shores of the sea, later extending its holdings as far west as the Adda River in mainland Italy. It soon came to control most of the islands in the Aegean Sea, including Cyprus and Crete, and became a major power in the Near East.  While it did take most of these cities and regions by force, the people of its empire quickly rallied to Venice's aid whenever she was threatened by invaders, as the city-state actively improved the standards of living in all these territories.
Venice's dominance was further secured in 1204 when it sacked the city of Constantinople, securing the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Considerable wealth was brought back to the city, and combined with its already formidable riches from trade, made Venice the wealthiest city in all of Europe. The city also became known as a hub for culture, music, and the arts, and was especially famous for its operatic composers.  Venice can also lay claim to the invention of the paperback book, and by 1492 was the printing capital of the world.
The glory days for Venice couldn't last, and a war with the Ottoman Empire cost the city most of its eastern Mediterranean holdings, including Constantinople. Shortly thereafter Christopher Columbus discovered the New World and Portugal found a sea route to India, peacefully destroying Venice's trade route monopoly where all others had failed. In the late 1500's the city was ravaged by the Black Death, which killed over 50,000 people in three years, a third of its total population.
On May 12, 1797, Napoleon conquered Venice and ended over 1,000 years of the Republic's independence. Venice then became the property of Austria when Napoleon signed it over later that year. A revolt in the 1800's attempted to restore independence to the Republic of Venice, but in 1866 it became a part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.
The current threat to the city comes not from war or encroachment upon its trade economy, but rather from the very environment around it - the city has slowly been sinking into the sea since artesian wells were dug into the lagoon bed in the early 20th century.  The sinking has slowed dramatically as measures are being taken to preserve the city, but new plans are being put in place to either build an inflatable bulkhead (to stop rising tidal waters) or to physically raise the city itself by restoring the seabed damaged by the wells.]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[La serenissima ("the most serene" or "sublime") Republic of Venice was built on islands in a lagoon of the Adriatic Sea and became the greatest seaport of medieval and Renaissance Europe, the continent's commercial and cultural link with the East. Settled initially by Roman refugees from German and Hun invasions, in 726 AD the citizens of the city rose in rebellion against Byzantine rule, declared themselves a free republic, and elected the first of the 117 doges that would administer the city-state. From the 9th through the 12th centuries Venice developed into a naval and commercial power that dominated the Mediterranean trade routes from the Levant and Orient, from Morocco and Spain. Venetian merchant-explorers fanned out across Asia and Africa, bringing ever more wealth to the city, as well as making it one of the cultural centers of Europe. Venetian seamen would challenge both the Byzantine and Ottoman empires for supremacy along Mediterranean shores. Eventually, for reasons including the discovery of the New World and dynastic struggles among the European nations, Venice would decline in wealth, influence and power. In 1797 AD Napoleon conquered the city, and it would never again be an independent entity. However, since then Venice has held an unrivaled place in the world's collective imagination. The spectacle of its canals, marbled churches, frescoed palaces, and magnificent works of art reflected in the sparkling waters of the lagoon basking under blue skies has made it one of the most romantic locales of modern civilization.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Situated at the northeastern end of the Adriatic, Venice was built on an archipelago of 117 small islands lying in the crescent-shaped Laguna Veneta. The lagoon is roughly 32 miles long, reaching from the marshes of Jesolo to the town of Chioggia at the southern end. The shallow waters of the lagoon are sheltered by a line of sandbanks with three gaps, permitting tidal flow and shipping passage into the city. The lagoon is divided into two zones: the living and the dead. The latter is comprised of salt inlets and marshes formed by the sedimentary deposits of the dozens of small streams and the rivers Po and Piave; the latter is the main portion of the lagoon, separated from the sea by the strip of land known as the Lido. The climate of Venice is temperate, determined by the weather patterns of the Alps to the north and Adriatic to the south. Summers are marked by moderate temperatures, averaging in the 80s Fahrenheit, and winter temperatures in the 30s, with frequent fog and mist. Annual average rainfall is about 34 inches. Built upon for centuries, the islands of Venice have little native wildlife or vegetation remaining.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[While there are no records that detail the earliest settlement of Venice, Roman historians indicate that refugees from cities such as Padua, Aquileia and Treviso moved into the lagoon basin, displaced by the incursions of the Huns and Lombards in the 5th Century AD. There the Romans mixed with the itinerant fishermen and salt miners to create villages on several of the islands. The founding of the city itself is generally accepted as the date of the dedication of its first Christian church, San Giacomo on the island of Rialto, in March 421. The city was considered part of the Exarchate of Ravenna, which was overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople. In 726 AD, the people of the Exarchate rebelled against Byzantine rule at the urging of Pope Gregory II, who was concerned with the spread of Eastern Orthodox Christianity into the West. In the turmoil, the citizens of the Venetian lagoon declared their independence and elected their own leader. Their choice, Ursus, was the first of an unbroken line of doges elected from the foremost families of the city.
A long series of disputes among the powerful families over the role and rights of the doge did not halt the boom in trade for the new naval power. Protected by their fleet, Venetians established trading posts in the major Mediterranean ports, and wealth flowed into the city from as far as the Christian Slavic kingdoms to Moslem states in Spain and North Africa. The increase in personal incomes led to stability by creating a broader ruling class capable of limiting the power of the doge, as well as giving rise to a sense of national identity. Despite efforts by various popes, by Charlemagne, and by King Pepin of Lombardy to curtail or end Venetian economic and military growth, the city prospered. In 775 AD an episcopal see (i.e., diocese) was established on the Venetian island of Olivolo, signifying an accord between the popes and the doges. Two events marked the growing stature and influence of Venice more than any others during this period: the construction of St. Mark's Basilica in 832 AD to house supposed relics of St. Mark the Evangelist (the city's patron saint) stolen by Venetian merchants from Alexandria, and extensive fortifications were built on several islands to guard the lagoon and city.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[In the early 1100s, the republic embarked on a massive shipbuilding program, centered on the Venetian Arsenal, a 110-acre shipyard in the heart of the city; within a generation Venice had 36,000 sailors manning 3300 warships, the largest navy in the Mediterranean. By 1200 AD, Venice had seized a number of cities and established fortified outposts along the Adriatic coast in Dalmatia and Istria. A succession of expansionist doges also acquired territories on the mainland to the north, primarily to guarantee Venetian Alpine trade routes and secure a supply of wheat for the city. Having the most powerful navy in the Mediterranean and seeking to control the trade in salt, Venice acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegean from the declining Byzantine Empire, including Cyprus and Crete. By the standards of medieval Europe, Venetian rule of its territories was relatively enlightened, and the citizens of towns such as Bergamo, Brescia, Verona and Ragusa often enthusiastically supported Venice in its wars and ventures.
Venice became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade. The aged and blind but brilliant Doge Enrico Dandolo "took the cross" and brought Venice into the crusade, which saw Constantinople captured and sacked in April 1204 AD. Before his death a year later, Dandolo played a key role in the subsequent treaty partitioning the Byzantine Empire, gaining new lands and trading concessions from both the Byzantines and the crusader states.
Early in the Middle Ages, the government of the republic took on its enduring form. Similar in many ways to that of the Roman Republic, it was embodied in the Grand Council, an assembly of the members of the city's oldest and richest families. This council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate of 200 to 300 individuals. To handle vital matters of state, a ducal council, the Council of Ten which included the doge, was elected from the ranks of the Grand Council. Common citizens had the right, theoretically, to grant or deny approval of those nominated for the major posts, including the dogeship.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD to the Ottoman Turks brought Venice to the fore in the European resistance to their advances; the seizure of the Venetian city of Morea in 1499 gave the Turks access to the Adriatic itself and insured there would be no accord between the two empires. For the next century, even as the Ottomans strangled Venetian trade with the East and Africa, Venice was locked in a struggle with the Turks for dominance. The conflicts continued until the Battle of Lepanto, when the Venetian led Christian fleet decisively defeated a Turkish armada, in October 1571. Although the victory insured that the Ottomans would not spread into the West, it also marked the beginning of a long decline in Venetian fortunes.
Nonetheless, the opulence and wealth of Venice was still renowned, and the nobles of Venice became the leading patrons of the Italian Renaissance that spanned the 14th through 16th centuries. Already a cosmopolitan city, Venice saw an influx of artists such as Titian and native-born talents such as Giovanni Bellini and Tintoretto, composers such as Gabrieli, and architects such as Longhena (one of the greatest Baroque designers). At the same time, progressive scholars such as Galileo, who taught at the prestigious Padua University, found refuge in liberal Venice's territories. The newly invented printing press spread through Europe during this period, and by 1482 AD Venice was the printing capital of the world; the leading printer in the city, Aldus Manutius, created the first, affordable books, cheaper because of their paperbacks. Even as its political fortunes waned, Venice's cultural prominence waxed. As a traveler from Milan in the 1500s wrote, Venice was "the most triumphant city I have ever seen ... [it is] impossible to describe the beauty, magnificence and wealth of this unique assemblage."]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[A number of factors contributed to the decline of Venice. The Black Death devastated the city in 1348, in 1575 through 1577, and again in 1630 AD; the latter outbreak killed some 50,000 citizens, roughly a third of the city's population. Advances in shipbuilding and armaments by the nations of Portugal, England, Holland and Scandinavia rendered the republic's war-galleys and trading vessels obsolete. In 1498 AD, Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, opening a sea route to the riches of the East; Portuguese, English and Dutch traders soon supplanted the Venetians in Europe's economy. Meanwhile, Spain was bringing more wealth from the New World than Venice could hope to match. As Spain, France and the Holy Roman Empire fought for hegemony over the Italian peninsula, Venice's political influence dwindled, even as military matters drained the republic's coffers.
By 1508 AD, these powers - together with the Papacy, Hungarians, Savoyards and Ferrarese - made common cause in the League of Cambrai against the long Venetian dominance of the Mediterranean. Although the republic was saved from complete defeat by internal bickering in the league, most of its mainland holdings were lost. Although the victory at Lepanto bolstered Venice's international reputation for a period, the battle caused the Turks to turn back to complete their slow conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean. After a four-year campaign, in 1669, Venice lost Crete, its last holding east of Italy. Although a successful campaign to re-establish itself in the east was culminated with the liberation of Morea, the effort proved exhobitant in terms of both lives and money; in 1718, the hard-won territories were returned to the Ottomans in exchange for trading concessions.
For the next decades, the republic stagnated, living on the memories of past glory. A succession of ineffectual doges left Venice isolated politically, economically and diplomatically. The tides of the French Revolution would finally sweep it away. Napoleon, ever ruthlessly practical in matters military, claimed that the city-state was a threat to his line of retreat during the Austrian campaign of 1797. The Peace of Leoben that resulted from Austria's defeat left Venice without a viable ally to resist French demands; in May 1797, the last doge, Ludovico Manin, was deposed at Napoleon's insistence. Later that same year, the city was ceded to Austria by France in the Treaty of Campo Formio.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[In 1848 AD, the city was briefly a provisional republic again in the wake of the revolutions that swept through Europe. However, it fell to Austrian forces again the following year. In 1866, following the defeat of Austria by the Prussians, Venice was transferred to Italy, which had become a unified country five years previously. Henceforth, Venice's fortunes would be tied to that of Italy through world wars, fascism, the Cold War and the European Union. Nonetheless, the Republic of Venice remains the longest-lived democratic republic in the history of the world.]=];
TITLE = [=[Venice]=];};
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Greetings, most astute Doge Enrico Dandolo of Venice, master of statecraft and shrewd negotiator. Although you rose to power late in life, old age did little to slow your cunning or ambition, as you deftly managed the bustling commercial center of Venice during a time of great instability. In aligning yourself with the Fourth Crusade, you carefully gained a strategic advantage and used the Crusaders to reacquire lost territory for Venice. Your role in guiding the Crusaders during the sacking of Constantinople led to an even greater expansion of your power, and secured your legacy throughout history.
Most insightful and cunning Doge, Venice once again requires the service of a skilled leader, one who can bring the republic back to the forefront of world affairs. Can you establish your nation through careful trade, or will you work to conquer your enemies through diplomacy? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?]=];
Description=[=[Zulu Kingdom]=];
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[In the Nguni language group, "Zulu" means "sky"; according to legend it was the name of the chieftain who led his people southeast from central Africa to the Umfolozi Valley and founded the royal line c. 1670 AD.
Considering that in Zulu culture cattle equals wealth, it is noteworthy that only rarely did Zulus enjoy beef as a meal; at those times, the boiled or roasted meat was apportioned according to rank - from a sirloin cut for the chief, flank steaks for the warriors, down to broiled spleen for the junior herd-boys.
Among accomplished modern Zulus are past presidents of the African National Congress (including its founder, Pixley ka Isaka Seme), Nobel Peace laureates and a president of the Republic of South Africa (Jacob Zuma who became president in 2009 AD), as well as numerous award-winning artists and authors.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Climate and Terrain]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise of the Zulu Kingdom]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Shaka's Successors]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Cetshwayo and the Anglo-Zulu War]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[End of the Zulu Kingdom]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Modern Zululand]=];
IMPI_TEXT = [=["Impi" is the Zulu word for an armed body of men, although in common usage during the 1800s it referred to one of the Zulu empire's regiments. While impi had long been a feature of Zulu culture, their great chieftain Shaka instituted broad innovations upon his ascension to the throne in 1816 AD. In addition to their traditional club and throwing spear, Shaka armed his troops with the assegai, a short-shaft stabbing spear with a broad, foot-long blade. He introduced a larger, heavier cowhide shield (isihlangu) and trained his forces to quickly close with the enemy for devastating hand-to-hand combat. Strategically, the impi relied on speed and surprise to suddenly outnumber and overwhelm their enemy. Using such methods the Zulu won impressive victories, even against rifle-armed Europeans, although their own casualties were high.]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[At the beginning of each winter, the all-conquering Zulu warriors would gather in their ancestral land to pledge themselves to new glories with the cry "Ngathi impi" (loosely: "Because of us, war"). This was the spirit with which Shaka would forge a Zulu empire, and Cetshwayo would challenge the mighty British. In 1816 AD, Shaka would seize the chieftainship of the relatively insignificant Zulu tribe; two years later he would assume leadership of his mentor's tribe, the Mtetwa. Over the course of the next decade Shaka and his warriors conquered and absorbed most of the tribes in the region, building the largest native empire ever seen in southern Africa. Upon Shaka's assassination, one of the murderers, his half-brother Dingane, would take the throne. Under successive chieftains, the Zulu would clash with the white settlers - first the Dutch Voortrekkers and then the British Cape Colony. The latter resulted in the Anglo-Dutch War; despite early victories, Cetshwayo was toppled in 1879. The Zulu lands were annexed by the British Empire in 1887. Although defeated and occupied, the Zulu fighting spirit was not buried, and Zulu leaders would eventually take a leading role in the end of apartheid and the direction of modern South Africa.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The KwaZulu-Natal region, which encompasses what was the Zulu kingdom, has a subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid; winters, clear and cool, with snow in the Drakensberg Mountains. The geography consists of three distinct terrains. The lowlands along the coast of the Indian Ocean are marked by deep ravines and subtropical forest thickets. Along the west and north are two mountainous areas, the Drakensburg and the Lebombo. Between the sea and the mountains lies the Natal Midlands, an undulating hilly plateau, rising gradually to the west. This midland region was the heart of the Zulu Empire, and is characterized by moist grasslands with pockets of Afromontane forest. It was in this region that the Zulu raised large herds of beef cattle, which figured prominently both in their economy and their culture. Although the tribes had little in the way of cultivated agriculture, today kwaZulu-Natal has extensive fields of sugar cane and maize, and is South Africa's leading supplier of fruits such as bananas and pineapples.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[The Zulu were a small tribe of the Nguni people when Shaka seized the chieftainship with aid from Dingiswayo, the chief of the powerful Mtetwa. Shaka and his mother had been given sanctuary by the Mtetwa when exiled by Shaka's father. Under Dingiswayo's patronage, Shaka grew to be an imposing warrior, was given command of one of Dingiswayo's regiments, and served with distinction. During this period he perfected reforms of the weaponry (arming his units with the assegai, a broad-bladed spear with a two-foot shaft) and tactics (the "buffalo horns" formation, meant to encircle and annihilate an enemy force), and established an age-grade organization, whereby boys of similar ages were trained as warriors at military kraals known as Ikanda and fought together in the same regiment throughout their lives. In 1816, upon the death of his father, Shaka would outmaneuver and kill his older brother to seize control of the Zulu; being a relatively bloodless coup, the Zulu readily accepted him as their new chief.
Given exceptional latitude as a Mtetwa vassal, Shaka proceeded to ruthlessly use his new military forces to defeat and absorb several neighboring tribes, including his mother's. Upon Dingiswayo's murder at the hand of the Ndwandwe, Shaka moved quickly into the Mtetwa power vacuum, merging his holdings with that of his fallen mentor. Over the course of the next decade, the Zulu Kingdom would overrun and absorb most of the neighboring tribes. It would resist the first assault of the Ndwandwe; two years later, Shaka's forces would decisively defeat the Ndwandwe and their allies at the Battle of Mhlathuze River. As was his practice, Shaka would assimilate the remnants of these defeated tribes. By the time of Shaka's assassination in 1828, the Zulu kingdom had become an empire.
The impact of Shaka on African history cannot be underestimated. By 1825, he had conquered an area covered approximately 11,500 square miles. In the process he had established a warrior culture that dominated southeast Africa, reaching from the Tugela River in the south to the Drakensberg Mountains in the north. Although overshadowed by his military reforms, Shaka stabilized the agrarian economy and fostered trade throughout his empire. He established cordial relations with the encroaching Europeans, even as he warned his chieftains to resist their greed and culture. Perhaps the most eduring result of Shaka's reign was the mass migration of peoples known as the Mfecane ("the Scattering"), as tribes fleeing the Zulu expansion displaced other tribes which in turn radiated outward, changing the ethnic and cultural face of Africa forever.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[One of Shaka's assassins, his half-brother Dingane (1795-1840 AD), took the throne and proceeded to execute most of his royal kin, the exception being his half-brother Mpande. Dingane feared even more than his family the regiments of Shaka's army, many of whom remained loyal to Shaka's memory. To appease them, Dingane granted the older warriors the right to marry and to serve as militia rather than full-time soldiers; having eroded the Zulu martial superiority through these measures, lacking Shaka's military skills, Dingane faced successful rebellions among some of his subject tribes. Moreover, in 1837 Dingane agreed to cede Zulu lands south of the Tugela to the Voortrekkers, Dutch colonists expelled from the British Cape Colony. But he later murdered Piet Retief, leader of the Voortrekkers, and his diplomatic party at his royal kraal and then massacred some 500 Dutch men, women and children camped nearby. In response, about 450 rifle-armed Voortrekkers crushed Dingane's 10,000-man army at the Battle of Blood River in December 1838. Dingane burned his kraal and fled north.
Mpande defected with 17,000 Zulu warriors and joined forces with the Dutch. In January 1840, Dingane was assassinated by disaffected officers in his army. Mpande (1798-1873 AD) replaced Dingane, and maintained a close relationship with Andries Pretorius, the new captain of the Voortrekkers. The Dutch, with Mpande's blessings, formed the Boer republic of Natalia, south of the Tugela and west of the British settlement at Port Natal. When war broke out between the Boers and the British, resulting in the annexation of the Dutch colony, Mpande shifted his allegiance to the British and remained on good terms with them until his death. Mpande was generally perceived as a weak leader by his people, in part due to his close relations with the encroaching whites and his inability to curb the ambitions of his sons, Cetshwayo and the younger Mbulazi. In 1852 a struggle for the succession broke out between the two, culminating in a pitched battle on the banks of the Tugela where Mbulazi was killed.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In September 1873 AD when Mpande died Cetshwayo became ruler of the still-powerful Zulu Empire. As was customary among the Zulus, he created a new capital named Ulundi ("the High Place"). Fancying himself Shaka's first true successor, he readopted most of the military policies and practices of Shaka and, impressed by his observations of Dutch settlers, even armed some of his impi with muskets. Taking Shaka's final warning about the whites to heart, Cetshwayo banished Christian missionaries from his lands; he encouraged other tribes to rebel against Boer expansion into the Transvaal and himself began a policy of cattle raids into British territories along the Zulu borders.
In 1878 AD, Sir Henry Frere, British Commissioner for South Africa, demanded reparations for the border incursions from 14 Zulu chieftains. Cetshwayo deemed the terms of the ultimatum unacceptable and put his regiments on a war footing. In December, British forces crossed the Tugela to enforce their terms and punish the Zulus. But the first invasion suffered a decisive defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January, where the Zulu overwhelmed the main British column, causing some 1300 casualties, primarily among the British regulars. It was the worst defeat the British Army had suffered at the hands of an African force to date. However, Cetshwayo failed to turn the stunning victory into a strategic or diplomatic advantage. After a period of panic and planning, the British again crossed the Tugela, this time with more caution. A series of British victories followed, culminating in the siege and destruction of Ulundi. A month later, Cetshwayo was captured and taken first to Cape Town and then exiled to London, not to return to Africa until 1883 AD.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The British divided the truncated Zulu Empire into 13 "sub-kingdoms," which soon erupted into conflict, destabilizing the colonial borders yet again. The British returned Cetshwayo to Africa, installing him as over a buffer territory carved from former Zulu lands in the hopes of restoring order. However, it was not long before Cetshwayo was attacked at Ulundi by one of the sub-kingdoms, the Zibhebhu, supported by Boer mercenaries. Cetshwayo was wounded but escaped to the kraal at Eshowe, where he died of complications from his injuries in February 1884.
The second sack of Ulundi is considered by historians to be the definitive end of the Zulu kingdom. Cetshwayo's son Dinuzulu, then 15, inherited the remnants. Recruiting Boers led by Louis Botha, he defeated the Zibhebhu and added their lands to his own. Forced to honor his pledge to the Boers, he ceded about half of his "Zululand" to them, where they formed an independent Dutch republic. This so alarmed the British that they annexed Dinuzulu's reduced kingdom in 1887 AD. The chief himself became embroiled in native politics, was arrested by the British in 1906 for his role in the Bambatha Rebellion, was tried for treason and sentenced to imprisonment on St. Helena Island. When the Union of South Africa was founded in 1910, Botha, the new nation's first prime minister, arranged for Dinuzulu to be returned to live out his last years on a farm in the Transvaal.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Formed of four British colonies - the Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River - the Union of South Africa was a dominion of the British Empire with an autonomous government. Within the union, the Zulu were the largest ethnic group. In 1948, fearing the growing numbers and influence of the native tribes, leaders of the governing Afrikaner National Party created the apartheid laws to maintain white control while insuring racial separation. These "race laws" affected every aspect of social, political and cultural life; all blacks were required to carry passbooks containing fingerprints, photo and information of the bearer's access to "non-white" areas. In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act established native reserves, known as "homelands," the largest of which was kwaZulu.
When the union was replaced with a republic under the constitution of 1961 AD, the apartheid laws were carried over. Moreover, through the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s the government instituted a policy of resettlement to force natives to relocate to and remain in their homelands. However, by the late 1980s apartheid was collapsing, under pressure from internal activists (notably the United Democratic Front) and international organizations such as the African National Congress and United Nations. Apartheid was finally dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 through 1993, culminating in free elections in April 1994. Throughout the period, Zulu nationalists played a prominent role as activists and politicians. In the process, the Zulu chieftainship was reestablished; although the Zulu king has no political power (but considerable cultural influence), in post-apartheid South Africa the position is constitutionally recognized and the succession guaranteed.]=];
TITLE = [=[Zulu]=];};
ShortDescription=[=[The Zulus]=];
DawnOfManQuote=[=[Your people kneel before you, great warrior Shaka of the Zulu Kingdom. As you rose from a place of exile to become the true leader of the Zulus, you ushered in changes throughout the Zulu society, implementing new laws and cultural reforms that strengthened the position of your kingdom. However, it was your tenacity in the art of war that truly established your reputation, as your tactics and strategies on the battlefield forever changed the face of combat across the plains of southern Africa.
Most formidable king, your people once again long for the unity and strength your leadership afforded them. Can you return the Zulu kingdom to such great prominence? Will you build a civilization that stands the test of time?]=];
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