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--[Field]                              [Type]
--Type                                 String
--Description                          String
--Civilopedia                          String
--CivilopediaTag                       String
--ArtDefineTag                         String
--VictoryCompetitiveness                Int64
--WonderCompetitiveness                 Int64
--MinorCivCompetitiveness               Int64
--Boldness                              Int64
--DiploBalance                          Int64
--WarmongerHate                         Int64
--WorkAgainstWillingness                Int64
--WorkWithWillingness                   Int64
--DenounceWillingness                   Int64
--DoFWillingness                        Int64
--Loyalty                               Int64
--Neediness                             Int64
--Forgiveness                           Int64
--Chattiness                            Int64
--Meanness                              Int64
--PortraitIndex                         Int64
--IconAtlas                            String
--PackageID                            String
 
local data ={
 
LEADER_ALEXANDER={
Description=[=[Alexander]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ALEXANDER_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Alexander held a state funeral for his horse, Bucephalas, when it died in 326 BC. He also named a city in India "Bucephala" after his dead horse.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Creation of An Empire]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Fall of Alexander]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[356 - 323 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Alexander]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Greeks]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Alexander the Macedonian is unquestionably one of the great warlords of all time. In 17 short years he marched his army to victory after victory across Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East, conquering every civilization he could reach.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Alexander was the son of King Philip II, an extremely successful king and warlord who had restored his kingdom from the verge of extinction and then led his people to triumph by conquering Athens, Illyria, and Thrace - the three powers who, a few short years before, had been on the verge of conquering Macedonia. As the son of the most powerful monarch in the "civilized" world, Alexander got the best of everything, including education - the scholar Aristotle, the great thinker of Western Civilization, was his tutor.
 
Taught by his mother Olympias that he was descended from Hercules and Achilles, Alexander did not lack for self-confidence, even at a very young age. At the age of 14 Philip left him in charge of Macedonia while he was away attacking Byzantium; Alexander crushed a Thracian rebellion during his father's absence. Two years later he commanded the left wing of his father's army during the battle in which Philip's forces defeated the allied Greek states and conquered all of Greece.
 
The next year Alexander's good fortune deserted him, for a while, at least. King Philip divorced Alexander's mother for a woman named "Cleopatra Eurydice", and mother and son fled Macedonia. Alexander and his father were reconciled some time thereafter, but Alexander's position as Philip's heir would have been in grave jeopardy had Philip not conveniently died before producing another son.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Following the conquest of Greece and the Balkans, King Philip had been working on building an army to invade and conquer Persia. In 336 Philip was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguard, Pausanias, while attending his daughter's wedding. (Some believe that Alexander's mother, Olympias - or indeed Alexander himself - was behind the assassination, but as Pausanias conveniently died during the murder there was no actual proof.) At the age of twenty Alexander was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army and nobility. He celebrated his victory by murdering all potential rivals to the throne, then resumed planning his father's interrupted invasion of Persia.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Alexander's force consisted of 30,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 cavalrymen, a huge army for the day, and was accompanied by engineers, surveyors, scientists, and even historians.
 
In battle Alexander had amazing success against the Persians. He repeatedly beat their best soldiers, routinely fighting against odds of 10-to-1. His success can be attributed to his military genius, his force's superb training and equipment, and their magnificent esprit de corps, largely engendered by their faith in Alexander's invincibility.
 
Alexander appeared to be without fear. He commonly led the elite Macedonian Companion Cavalry into the thick of battle personally, and he received a number of dangerous wounds during his military career, none of which dampened his military ardor.
 
Having secured Persia's surrender, Alexander then moved south, conquering Syria, Palestine, much of modern Iraq, and eventually Egypt herself. He returned to Persia, destroyed the last of the Persian forces and took over the entire country. He continued east, eventually coming into contact with the great Indian King Porus, who fought him to a standstill. Alexander eventually won the conflict, but at such a heavy cost that his men begged him to end the campaign and let them return to their families. Alexander himself returned to rule his empire from the captured city of Babylon.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In eight short years of fighting, Alexander had conquered more territory than any other living being. He successfully led his forces into battle against all of the great nations of the day, but none could stand against him. He was the absolute ruler of the largest empire the world had ever seen.
 
Apparently he found this boring.
 
Once in Babylon, Alexander began an inexorable decline. He began drinking heavily and engaging in all kinds of available debauchery (and there was much debauchery to be found in Babylon). He became subject to fits of anger and bouts of paranoid delusion. One night, in a state of blind rage and under the influence of alcohol, Alexander murdered Clitus, his closest associate. This barbaric act was to haunt Alexander for the rest of his life - which wasn't very long.
 
In June of 323 BC, his body weakened by his excesses, Alexander died of malaria. He was 32 years old.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=["When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."
 
This extraordinary man (and his father before him) conquered Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Persia, and Asia as far east as Afghanistan. His empire did not long survive Alexander's death - it was simply too large for any mere mortal to hold - and it was divided between a number of Alexander's generals. But Alexander's conquests allowed Hellenic culture to spread across most of the known world, and Greek would become the language of culture, art and science for centuries to come.
 
With the exception perhaps of one or two religious leaders, no single man has had such a great effect upon western civilization as did Alexander the Great.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Alexander the Great]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Alexander_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=8;
WonderCompetitiveness=7;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
Boldness=8;
DiploBalance=3;
WarmongerHate=2;
DenounceWillingness=7;
DoFWillingness=4;
Loyalty=4;
Neediness=4;
Forgiveness=5;
Chattiness=7;
Meanness=7;
PortraitIndex=9;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_ASKIA={
Description=[=[Askia]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ASKIA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pilgrimage to Mecca]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Military Expansion]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Organization of the Empire]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1440 - 1538 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Askia]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Songhai]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Mohammad ibn Abi Bakr Ture, also known as Mohammad I Askia (reigned 1493 - 1528), welded the central region of the western Sudan into a single Songhai empire, the largest in African history. Although he fought several military campaigns, he is primarily remembered for reorganizing, modernizing and bringing stability to the Songhai. He is also remembered for making a famous pilgrimage to Mecca.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Askia was a general under Sunni Ali, the first great leader of the Songhai Empire. Ali extended Songhai control along the Niger River, capturing the wealthy cities of Timbuktu and Jenne. Although nominally a Muslim, Ali continued to practice African animism as well, tolerating Muslim and non-Muslims within his kingdom. In 1492 Ali died in a freak accident; he and his horse fell in a river and were swept over a waterfall. Ali was succeeded by his son, Sunni Baru. Askia almost immediately began plotting Baru's overthrow, successfully gaining power in 1493 with the assistance of Muslim rebels.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[1495, two years after he took the throne, Askia undertook a pilgrimage to Mecca. This pilgrimage has become famous for the pomp, style and wealth Askia displayed during the long journey. In Mecca Askia met the Caliph of Egypt, who appointed him the Caliph's religious representative, giving him the title "Caliph of West Africa." In a more colorful version of the events, the chronicler Mahmud Kati, who accompanied Muhammad, wrote that the jinn (demons) of Mecca had Askia named caliph.
 
By the time Askia returned to Songhai in 1497, he was deeply committed to Islam. During his reign Askia enthusiastically supported the religious universities in Timbuktu, and he opened many mosques and religious schools across Songhai.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[During his reign Askia expanded the empire to the north, south, and west, fighting successful campaigns against various neighboring cities and kingdoms. Not all of his battles were successful, however, and he is generally acknowledged to be an adequate but not exceptional military leader.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As the empire grew, it became increasingly difficult to manage. Askia divided the regions into provinces, each under a governor. He expanded the Songhai court, creating the posts of directors of finance, justice, interior, agriculture, waters and forests, and of the "tribes of the white race" (the Moors and Taureg subjects of Songhai). He also created a standing army and navy (the latter consisting of war canoes).
 
In addition, Askia restructured the tax system and imposed regulations on agriculture, hunting and fishing.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Askia ruled for some thirty-five years. In 1528, old and blind, he was deposed by one of his sons, dying some 10 years later. He is judged to be an extremely competent administrator, his reign a golden age for religion and knowledge in Western Africa. While not a great general, he was able to expand his empire and to hold on to what he had taken until age robbed him of his powers. Overall, Askia is generally considered to be one of the best sub-Saharan rulers in history.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Askia (Usurper)]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Askia_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=5;
WonderCompetitiveness=8;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
Boldness=7;
DiploBalance=6;
WarmongerHate=4;
DenounceWillingness=5;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=6;
Neediness=4;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=6;
PortraitIndex=20;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_AUGUSTUS={
Description=[=[Augustus Caesar]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_AUGUSTUS_CAESAR_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=["More haste, less speed." - Augustus Caesar]=];
FACT_2 = [=["Better a safe commander than a bold." - Augustus Caesar]=];
FACT_3 = [=["That is done quickly enough which is done well enough." - Augustus Caesar]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Death of Julius Caesar]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Antony and Cleopatra]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Octavius Becomes Augustus]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Augustus at Home]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Roman Expansion]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[63 BC - 14 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Augustus Caesar]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Romans]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Born Gaius Octavius, Augustus would become the first (and possibly greatest) Roman Emperor. He ended a century of civil wars and initiated two hundred years of the Pax Romana (Roman Peace) while overseeing a golden age of Roman literature and culture.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Octavius was born in 63 BC. His father (also named Gaius Octavius) was a respectable but undistinguished member of the equestrian order. His mother, however, was a niece of Julius Caesar. Octavius' father died when he was only four years old, and he was brought up in the house of his stepfather Lucius Marcus Phillippus.
 
At the age of fifteen, Octavius put on the toga virilis ("manly robes"), the symbol that he had reached adulthood, and was elected to the College of Pontiffs. In 46 BC he joined Julius Caesar during Caesar's last campaign in Spain. In Spain he made such a fine impression on the great general that Julius Caesar changed his will to make Octavius his heir.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[When Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March in 44 BC, all the wealth that Caesar had spent a lifetime accumulating passed into the hands of the 18-year old Octavius. At the time of Caesar's assassination, Octavius was with some of his soldiers in modern-day Albania. Upon hearing the news he went to Italy and recruited an army from among Caesar's veterans, gaining their loyalty by stressing that he was Caesar's heir. Once in Rome, Octavius allied with Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus to form what is known as the "Second Triumvirate," directed against Caesar's killers Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius. Octavius' and Antony's armies tracked down Brutus and Cassius in Greece, where they defeated the assassins' army at Philippi (42 BC). Brutus and Cassius both committed suicide after their defeat.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Antony married Octavius' sister Octavia to cement their alliance, and the two leaders divided Rome's territory between them. Octavius took the west, while Antony went to the east, where he entered into a torrid affair with Cleopatra, the ruler of Egypt. Octavius saw Antony's actions as an insult to his sister and to his family, and relations between the co-rulers soon soured. While Antony enjoyed the pleasures of Egypt, back in Rome Octavius strengthened his political position and his armies. The two eventually went to war, and in 31 BC Octavius defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium. The lovers were pursued to Egypt, where they both committed suicide.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Octavius was now the undisputed master of Rome. He surrendered his extraordinary powers to the Senate, which was filled with his allies; in return the Senate named him "Augustus" (one who is marked by dignity and greatness) and showered him with honors. More importantly, they also gave him the powers of a Roman consul, tribune, and censor, which had never before been combined into one office. All permanent legal power within Rome officially remained within the Senate - but since Octavius controlled the Senate, this was mostly a legal fiction. Although he had all of the power of an Emperor, Augustus preferred to style himself "Princeps," or "first citizen" (probably to avoid further antagonizing the few remaining republicans in Rome).]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[During his reign Augustus presided over four decades of peace and prosperity, a welcome relief to Rome after almost a century of civil strife. He carried out a great building program in the ancient city, constructing a new Senate house as well as great temples to Apollo and "Divine Julius" (his deceased great-uncle). Later, Augustus would boast - with justification - that he had found Rome a city of brick and left it marble. Under his patronage many of the most famous Roman authors and poets created their great works: Virgil, Ovid, Horace, and Livy all flourished during his reign.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Augustus' generals also enjoyed great success and were quite relieved to be once again turning their military strength against external enemies instead of one another. Rome's borders were extended to the Danube, northern Spain was finally conquered, and Armenia was pacified in the east.
 
Augustus did suffer two significant military defeats during his rule. In 15 BC Gaul's Roman governor, Marcus Lollius was defeated by an alliance of the Sicambri, Tencteri and Usipetes tribes who had crossed the Rhine into Gaul; little permanent damage was done to the Roman position in Gaul, and Suetonius calls this defeat "more humiliating than serious."
 
The second defeat, however, was of an entirely different magnitude. In 9 AD Publius Quintilius Varus, Governor of Germania, led three legions across the Danube and deep into barbarian territory where they were surprised by German Cherusci tribesmen and, after a three-day battle, captured or killed to the last man. Varus himself committed suicide and the victors sent his head as a present to King Marbod of the Marcomanni in Bohemia.
 
 Hearing of the catastrophe, Augustus sent troops into the city to watch for uprisings. He also prolonged the terms of the governors of the provinces to ensure that experienced men would be in charge if the subject people revolted. In addition he dedicated great games to Jupiter if he would improve the Empire's lot. It is clear that Augustus was badly shaken by the defeat. Suetonius says that "for several months in succession he cut neither his beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door, crying, 'Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!'"
 
Fortunately, the natives did not revolt and the Empire survived the catastrophe without long-lasting consequences.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[By Augustus' death in 14 AD, a return to the old system of the Republic was unthinkable, and he was peacefully succeeded by the Emperor Tiberius.
 
During Augustus' long rule Rome flourished and the Empire came to dominate the Mediterranean basin. The policies he put in place kept the Empire running smoothly, so much so that Rome would continue to rule the entire known world for almost two centuries without any major wars or other significant threats to its survival. Few if any leaders in world history could make the same claim.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Princeps]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Augustus_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=7;
WonderCompetitiveness=6;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=8;
Boldness=6;
DiploBalance=7;
WarmongerHate=4;
DenounceWillingness=7;
DoFWillingness=5;
Loyalty=4;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=4;
Meanness=7;
PortraitIndex=17;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_BARBARIAN={
Description=[=[Barbarian]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_BARBARIAN_PEDIA";
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_LEADER_BARBARIAN";
PortraitIndex=-1;};
 
LEADER_BISMARCK={
Description=[=[Bismarck]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_BISMARCK_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Foreign Policy]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Domestic Policy]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1815 - 1898 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Bismarck]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Germans]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Otto von Bismarck, also known as the "Iron Chancellor," is perhaps the most significant figure in German history. During his long political career Bismarck unified Germany and founded the German Empire; Germany was transformed from a weak and loose confederation of states into a powerful united country that would come to dominate continental Europe.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Descended from a noble Prussian family, Bismarck certainly inherited the arrogance of the Prussian Junker class. He was a poor student who excelled at dueling and was quite a historian and linguist. However, he spent much of his time drinking with the other aristocrats in their exclusive fraternity.
 
Unable to accept the discipline required for military service, Bismarck instead entered the Prussian diplomatic corps, where his skill quickly brought him to the attention of the Prussian Kaiser. Appointed to the German Federal Diet (congress), Bismarck worked to increase Prussian status and power within Germany. Eventually he would rise to the rank of Prussian Prime Minister, where after years of long struggle, he succeeded in unifying Germany under Prussian rule. Bismarck would accomplish this through crafty diplomacy, aided by a series of successful wars.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Once Germany was unified, Bismarck's main foreign policy aim was to keep the peace in Europe, mostly by isolating France, Germany's historic enemy. In this he was largely successful. He engineered a war with France in 1870 in order to draw several German states (Bavaria, Baden, and others) into the German empire. In the war, France was quickly defeated.
 
Having achieved his objective of acquiring the German states, Bismarck argued for fairly lenient terms, but the German people and military wanted more, and he was forced to annex the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. Bismarck knew that this would be trouble in the long run - before the war he had told a colleague, "Supposing we did win Alsace, we would have to maintain our conquest and to keep Strasbourg perpetually garrisoned. This would be an impossible position, for in the end the French would find new allies - and we might have a bad time." This, of course, is exactly what happened in World War I, where Germany had a very bad time indeed.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Although an ardent conservative and monarchist, Bismarck was the first European leader to promote a system of social security for workers. He rebuilt the German monetary system, introducing for the first time a single currency. He also helped fabricate the new country's code of civil and commercial law. His benevolence was not universal, however; while emancipating the Jews, Bismarck also enacted laws aimed at restraining Germany's Catholics.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As a diplomat, Bismarck's greatest weakness was his single-minded desire to weaken France. He was largely successful during his lifetime, but in doing so he made France into an implacable enemy, which would have dire consequences in the next century. Domestically, Bismarck's great flaw was his indifference to the lives of the German people. As Germany grew in power and stature, the people's lives improved but little. His social security system did some good, but he enacted that mainly to avoid having to make greater concessions to the German Socialists.
 
Bismarck was a great leader, perhaps the greatest European leader of the 19th Century. His triumphs outweighed his defeats, and he almost single-handedly turned a group of bickering kingdoms into a mighty state. Although his policies did contribute to the disasters in Germany's future, those were more so a result of his successors' inability to adjust to the changing geopolitical climate in Europe.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Chancellor of the German Empire]=];
TITLES_2 = [=["Iron Chancellor"]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Bismark_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=7;
WonderCompetitiveness=6;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=7;
Boldness=4;
DiploBalance=8;
WarmongerHate=6;
DenounceWillingness=8;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=6;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=6;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=4;
PortraitIndex=8;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_CATHERINE={
Description=[=[Catherine]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_CATHERINE_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Foreign Policy]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Domestic Policy]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Arts]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Scandal]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1729 - 1796 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Catherine]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Russians]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Catherine the Great ruled Russia during the latter half of the 18th century. She oversaw a great expansion of the Russian empire, adding tens of thousands of square miles of territory through conquest and shrewd diplomacy. A beautiful and intelligent woman, she beguiled and seduced the best minds of Europe, making her court one of the centers of Enlightenment thinking on the Continent. Although born in Germany, Catherine is one of the greatest rulers in Russian history.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Sophie Friederike Auguste Von Anhalt-Zerbst was born in Szczecin in 1729, a princess of Pomerania, a small kingdom in Prussia. At 16 she was married to Carl Peter Ulrich, the heir to the Russian throne, becoming Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseyevna. Catherine quickly learned Russian and joined the Russian Orthodox Church. Largely self-educated, Catherine immersed herself in the literature of the time. Endowed with both beauty and intelligence, she became strong friends (if not more) with the great thinkers of the day, including the brilliant French philosophers Rousseau and Diderot.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Catherine's marriage was extremely unhappy. Her husband, the Tsar Peter III, was by all accounts a shabby and neurotic person. He was described as mean, cruel, hideous (from smallpox scars) and a drunkard. He was said to detest Russians and loved Prussians, which didn't endear him to the Russian court. Although born a foreigner, Catherine was far more popular with the nobility and, most importantly, with the Russian military.
 
At the age of 33, with the support of the Imperial guard, she overthrew her husband, who was soon killed "in a hunting accident," leaving Catherine the sole ruler of Russia.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[As Empress, Catherine pursued an expansionist policy backed by military muscle. The "First Russo-Turkish War" (1768-1774) - declared by Sultan Mustafa III after a border incident in which a Cossack entered Ottoman territory and allegedly slaughtered the residents of Balta - was a resounding Russian success, gaining for Catherine the Southern Ukraine, Northern Caucasus and the Crimea, expanding Russian access to the Black Sea. The Ottomans tried to take their territory back in the Second Russo-Turkish war, but they failed miserably.
 
In the years following the French Revolution, Catherine became afraid that Enlightenment movements throughout Europe would threaten the monarchies of Europe. Toward the end of the century Poland, a Russian puppet, began to show disturbing signs of edging toward democracy. In 1792 Russian forces defeated Polish loyalists in the Polish "War in Defense of the Constitution," following which Poland was partitioned between Russia, Austria and Prussia.
 
Throughout her reign Catherine maintained cordial relations with the great powers of Europe, Prussia, France and Austria, who in return did not stand in the way of Russian expansion.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[During her reign Catherine undertook a wide range of political reforms, attempting to shape up the notoriously corrupt and incompetent Russian bureaucracy. She tried to model her government and court on Versailles, France. She paid for her reforms by seizing property from the clergy, who owned almost one-third of the land and serfs in Russia. She curried favor with the aristocracy, expanding their already-great power over the Russian peasants.
 
In 1773 a plague broke out in Russia, which was already suffering from ill-effects of the long war with Turkey. Taking advantage of growing public disaffection, Pugachov, a Cossack officer, pretended to be Catherine's dead husband, Tsar Peter III, and attempted to raise a peasant army to overthrow the Empress while the Russian military was locked in battle with the Turks. Fortunately for Catherine, the First Russo-Turkish War ended at just the right time, and a Russian army was able to return from the Front and crush the rebellion before it could reach Moscow. This made Catherine suspicious of the Russian peasants and she implemented even more repressive laws against them.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[A patron of the arts, Catherine commissioned many statues and paintings. Under her rule St. Petersburg was transformed from a primitive and forbidding city into one of the most beautiful and impressive European capitals. Her private art collection formed the basis of the famous Hermitage Museum, one of the world's great art museums.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Despite her many public successes, Catherine is best known for her private excesses. Her affairs are legendary; it has been suggested that she slept with a fairly large fraction of the Russian officers corps, not to mention her many well-publicized dalliances with a horde of well-known European politicians and artists. It is said that once she tired of a lover Catherine would "pension him off," giving him a large gift of cash, peasants, and land somewhere far away from Moscow.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Catherine's reign was notable for imperial expansion. Most important were the securing of the northern shore of the Black Sea, the annexation of the Crimea, and the expansion into the steppes beyond the Urals. This permitted the protection of Russian agricultural settlements in the south and the establishment of trade routes through the Black Sea. Catherine's partitioning of Poland also helped bring Russia closer to the rest of Europe, at least geographically.
 
Catherine implemented many public work projects throughout Russia and its possessions. She also increased internal and foreign trade. On the other hand, she did little to improve the lot of the Russian peasants; in fact, their lives grew distinctly harder during her reign.
 
Catherine died at the age of 67, having lived longer than any other Romanov monarch. Like Queen Elizabeth I of England, she proved that a woman could be smart enough and tough enough to lead a great country.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Tsarina of Russia]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Catherine_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=6;
WonderCompetitiveness=7;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=7;
Boldness=3;
DiploBalance=6;
WarmongerHate=5;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=6;
Neediness=6;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=7;
Meanness=4;
PortraitIndex=18;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_DARIUS={
Description=[=[Darius I]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_DARIUS_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Securing Persia's Borders]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Darius the Ruler]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[War With Greece]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[550 - 486 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Darius I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Persia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The son of a satrap (governor) of Parthia, Darius I forcibly took the throne of Persia upon the death of Cambyses II in 522 BC. An administrative genius, during his reign Darius reorganized the sprawling Persian empire, greatly increasing its wealth and power. He also implemented many great construction works across Persia.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Much of our knowledge of Darius I comes from the early Greek historian Herodotus, as well as from Persian inscriptions commissioned by Darius himself. According to Herodotus, as a youth Darius was suspected by Persian king Cyrus the Great of plotting against him. Darius survived this suspicion, later becoming a general and bodyguard of Cyrus' son and heir, Cambyses II, after Cambyses assumed the throne. Cambyses died in 522 BC while in Egypt. Upon his death Darius returned to Media and killed Cambyses' brother, Bardiya, who Darius claimed was an imposter who had usurped the throne.
 
After killing Bardiya (or the imposter, depending upon whose story you believe) Darius claimed the Persian throne. This did not go over well in the provinces, and Darius faced serious revolts in Babylon, Susiana, Media, Sagartia, and Margiana. Babylon revolted twice, in fact, and Susiana three times. The insurrections were uncoordinated, however, and Darius was able to suppress each separately. According to one of his inscriptions, Darius defeated nine rebel leaders in 19 battles. By 518 or so his throne was secure.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[After establishing his position, Darius initiated a series of wars to expand and secure Persia's borders. In 519 he attacked the Scythians east of the Caspian Sea, and shortly after he conquered the Indus Valley. He later attacked northwest from Asia Minor, conquering Thrace and then Macedonia. He tried to expand his European bridgehead north across the Danube, but he was forced to withdraw by stubborn resistance of the Scythian nomads. Finally, he secured the Aegean islands of Lemnos and Imbros.
 
Persia now held the Greek colonies in Asia Minor, the straits of Bosporus (which gave them control over the Black Sea), Macedonia, which bordered Greece to the north, as well as a number of strategic islands in the Aegean. This inevitably led to conflict with the powerful but divided Greek city-states watching Persian expansion with jealousy and alarm.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[When not battling one of his empire's neighbors, Darius took a series of actions to unify the empire and to improve its administration. He completed the organization of the empire into satrapies (provinces) and set the annual tribute due from each. He improved the Persian road network and standardized coinage, weights and measures, greatly expanding the opportunities for trade throughout the empire. He funded exploration expeditions from India to Egypt, and he completed a canal in Egypt leading from the Nile River to the Red Sea.
 
Darius was the greatest builder in the Achaemenid Persian history. He constructed fortifications, a palace, and administrative buildings at Susa, his administrative capital. In his native Persepolis, Darius began construction of a new palace, as well as a council hall, treasury, and more fortifications (though these would not be completed until after his death).
 
While firmly putting down any attempts at insurrection within Persia, Darius showed a good deal of tolerance to his subject peoples' religious beliefs. He constructed a number of temples in Egypt honoring the Egyptian gods, and he ordered his Egyptian satrap to codify the Egyptian laws in consultation with the Egyptian priestly class. In 519 he allowed the Jews to begin reconstruction of the Temple at Jerusalem. Darius himself is thought to have been a follower of Zoroastrianism, which was eventually made the state religion of Persia.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In 499 BC the Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria supported a revolt of some Greek colonies in Asia Minor against Persia. Darius crushed the rebellion and began plotting a campaign against the meddling Greeks.
 
In 492 BC Darius' son-in-law Mardonius was put in charge of an expedition against Greece, but his fleet was destroyed in a storm off of Mount Athos and he was unable to advance. In 490 another Persian force successfully invaded Greece, destroying Eretria and enslaving its inhabitants before being defeated by Athenian warriors at Marathon. Darius was in the middle of planning yet a third expedition when he died in 486 BC.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[History's view of Darius is generally quite favorable (if you put aside his questionable ascension to power, which was pretty much standard operating procedure throughout much of history). He constructed roads, reorganized the Persian provinces and government, secured the empire's borders, and generally treated his subjects about as well as or better than anyone in that time. Although not primarily known as a warlord, he fought a number of successful campaigns against both internal and external foes. It is quite possible that he could have successfully subjugated Greece if death had not intervened. His son, Xerxes I, certainly wasn't up to the task. All in all, Darius left his empire in better condition than he found it, which is a pretty good epitaph for any leader in any time period.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King Darius the Great]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=4;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
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Neediness=6;
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IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_ELIZABETH={
Description=[=[Elizabeth]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ELIZABETH_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[A quote by Pope Sixtus V:"She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island, and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, By all."]=];
FACT_2 = [=[A poem by Queen Elizabeth:
 
THE DOUBT OF FUTURE FOES
 
The doubt of future foes exiles my present joy,
And wit me warns to shun such snares as threaten mine annoy;
For falsehood now doth flow, and subjects' faith doth ebb,
Which should not be if reason ruled or wisdom weaved the web.
But clouds of joys untried do cloak aspiring minds,
Which turn to rain of late repent by changèd course of winds.
The top of hope supposed, the root of rue shall be,
And fruitless all their grafted guile, as shortly ye shall see.
The dazzled eyes with pride, which great ambition blinds,
Shall be unsealed by worthy wights whose foresight falsehood finds.
The daughter of debate that discord aye doth sow
Shall reap no gain where former rule still peace hath taught to know.
No foreign banished wight shall anchor in this port;
Our realm brooks not seditious sects, let them elsewhere resort.
My rusty sword through rest shall first his edge employ
To poll their tops that seek such change or gape for future joy.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Queen Elizabeth I]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Patron of the Arts]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Foreign Relations]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1533 - 1603 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Elizabeth I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of England]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Elizabeth I was a remarkable woman living in a remarkable age. Beautiful, brilliant, and as tough as nails, she survived and indeed thrived, ruling in an era when most women were little more than chattel.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born to King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, who her father had executed for failing to give him a male heir, Elizabeth's early life was filled with danger. Growing up an unwanted daughter of an insane father who was destroying England's ties to the Catholic Church and engaging in civil war so that he could legally marry another woman (several other women, as it turned out), Elizabeth had to use all of her wits to survive. Elizabeth received an excellent education at the hands of various tutors, including the great scholars of the day. She was an outstanding student, and could speak five languages fluently.
 
When King Henry VIII died, the throne passed to his young son, Edward. At fifteen Elizabeth was implicated in a plot to overthrow him. She came close to being executed, surviving only because she was able to convince her skeptical interrogators that she knew nothing of the plot.
 
When King Edward died in 1553, Elizabeth's older sister Mary assumed the throne. An ardent Catholic, Mary was quite unpopular with a number of Protestant noblemen, who attempted unsuccessfully to overthrow her in 1554. Once again Elizabeth was implicated, but once again she talked her way out of execution. Queen Mary died in 1558, and at last Elizabeth became Queen.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Elizabeth was an extraordinary ruler. She established the Protestant Church as the official Church of England. However, she attempted to stem the persecution of Catholics in the country - at least as much as was possible when the Catholic nobility were actively plotting her demise. She also restored the debased currency of England, a step crucially necessary to restore the nation's flagging finances.
 
Elizabeth used all of the tools available to her to achieve her goals. She carefully crafted an image for herself as the "Virgin Queen," greatly increasing her popular support. She received countless offers of marriage from nobility and indeed from kings across Europe. But she accepted none of them, instead using her unmarried state to control her friends and foes alike; if one faction got too strong, she could drive them back into line by suggesting that she was considering marrying someone from an opposing faction.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Elizabeth was a great patron of the arts, particularly music and literature. She made England a center of culture, where great artists like William Shakespeare flourished. During her reign the first English playhouse was built, followed shortly by others including Shakespeare's Globe. And in 1574 weekday performances were made legal. An admirer of poetry, Elizabeth wrote a number of noteworthy poems herself.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Militarily, Catholic Spain was England's greatest threat. Spain was the great continental power of the day, and its leader, King Philip, had upon more than one occasion expressed the intent of invading England. In 1588 he tried, building a huge armada to conquer the upstart nation. Elizabeth quickly organized the country's navy to fend off the fleet, and by a combination of superior tactics, ship design, and some foul weather at just the right moment, they defeated the Spanish foe. England was not to be seriously threatened with invasion for about 400 years.
 
During Elizabeth's reign England, France, Spain and the Dutch all set up colonies in the New World. Elizabeth employed a large number of privateers to attack foreign ships and colonies, as did most other nations. Spain and its New World wealth remained the privateers' favorite targets.
 
Overall, with the exception of her lucky triumph over the Spanish Armada, Elizabeth was not a successful war leader. She oversaw various half-baked military incursions into Ireland, France and the Netherlands, none of which redounded to her credit.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Elizabeth died in 1603, having ruled 45 years. Although in her later years military and economic reversals had dimmed her luster to the point that many in England were relieved that she finally passed on, history acknowledges that she left her country in a much better state than when she came to power. Her great skills were an unerring survival instinct and flair for self-promotion, personal charisma, and toughness matching that of the strongest rulers in history. No better words can serve to describe her than her own: "I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king."]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Gloriana]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[The Virgin Queen]=];
TITLES_3 = [=[Good Queen Bess]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Elizabeth_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=5;
WonderCompetitiveness=5;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=8;
Boldness=4;
DiploBalance=7;
WarmongerHate=7;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=4;
Loyalty=5;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=5;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=6;
PortraitIndex=6;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_GANDHI={
Description=[=[Gandhi]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_GANDHI_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Gandhi had a set of false teeth, which he carried in a fold of his loin cloth - he only took them out for meals.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Albert Einstein once said of Gandhi:  "Generations to come will scarcely believe that such a one as this walked the earth in flesh and blood."]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[South Africa]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Return to India]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Partition]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1869 - 1948 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Gandhi]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of India]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Mohandas Gandhi was an Indian patriot who led India's nonviolent independence movement against British Imperial rule in the early to mid-twentieth century. He pioneered "satyagraha," or resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a ploy used to great effect against the British Raj.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Mohandas Gandhi was born in an India under British rule. The son of the Prime Minister of the small state of Porbandar, in his youth Gandhi displayed none of the brilliance that would mark him as an adult; in fact the young man was a mediocre student and quite shy. He entered into an arranged marriage at the age of 13, the usual custom of the period. Apparently he did not enjoy the experience, later calling the practice "the cruel custom of child marriage."
 
Upon graduating from high school, Gandhi decided to follow his father into state service. To this end he decided he would go to England to study. His father having just died, Gandhi's mother did not want him to go, allowing him only after he had promised to abstain from wine, women, and meat. His caste looked upon traveling over the ocean as unclean; when he persisted they declared him an "outcast." He learned much about England and the English during his time in that country, knowledge which was to prove invaluable later in his career. In 1891 Gandhi passed the bar and set sail for India. He attempted to set up practice in Bombay, but was unsuccessful and shortly relocated to South Africa.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Gandhi enjoyed more professional success in South Africa, but he was appalled by the racial bigotry and intolerance he found there. He spent the next twenty years of his life in South Africa looking after the interests of all under-classes, not just the Indians. It was here that Gandhi began to refine and teach his philosophy of passive resistance. He was jailed several times for opposition to the so-called "Black Acts," by which all non-whites were required to submit their fingerprints to the government. When the government ruled that only Christian marriages were legal in South Africa, Gandhi organized and led a massive non-violent protest, which eventually caused the government to back down. It was here that Gandhi acquired the title of "Mahatma," which means a person venerated for great knowledge and love of humanity.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[In 1915, Gandhi returned to India. He shocked the world when he expressed his humiliation that he had to speak English in his native land, and he shocked the Indian nobility when he chided them for their ostentatiousness, telling them that they should hold their jewels and wealth in trust for their countrymen.
 
Thus Gandhi began his long campaign to free his country from English rule. He followed two paths - he shamed the oppressors and he demanded sacrifice from his people. For the next thirty years Gandhi was to tirelessly exhort his people to passive resistance, leading strike after strike, march after march, fasting himself to the point of incapacity, enduring innumerable beatings, and months and even years in prison. At one point he made a historic trip to England, where he won over much of the English working and middle classes, to the great irritation of the government. Despite innumerable setbacks and years of endless toil, he persisted. In 1946, exhausted and virtually bankrupt by World War II, the English agreed to vacate India, but in doing so divided the country between Hindu and Muslims, which Gandhi abhorred.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The partition sparked an outbreak of religious violence, in which Muslims were massacred wholesale in India, and the same fate awaited Hindus in Pakistan. The countries were in chaos. In response, Gandhi went on a fast, refusing to eat again until the violence ceased. Astonishingly, his fast worked: the peoples of India and Pakistan were unwilling to see their great hero die, and they sent him letters and representatives promising to stop the killings and begging him to end the fast. He did so, to the relief of millions. Twelve days later, Gandhi was assassinated.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Today Gandhi is considered to be one of the great figures in human history. He is recognized as a courageous and tireless champion for justice and moral behavior, in South Africa fighting just as hard for the rights of other downtrodden people as he did for fellow Indians. He is also acknowledged as a brilliant political leader who organized a successful independence campaign against one of the most powerful empires the world has ever seen. Of him, Martin Luther King said, "Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics."]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Mahatma]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=3;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
Boldness=2;
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WarmongerHate=7;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=8;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=3;
Chattiness=6;
Meanness=3;
PortraitIndex=11;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_HARUN_AL_RASHID={
Description=[=[Harun al-Rashid]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_HARUN_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[In the Sierra game Quest for Glory II, the sultan who adopts the Hero as his son is named Harun al-Rashid.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Harun al-Rashid figures prominently in the collected tales A Thousand Nights and One Night; he is reputed to have written many of them himself.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Reign]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Baghdad Renaissance]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Wealth of Harun and Arabia]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Foreign Relations]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Death of Harun]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[763 - 809 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Harun al-Rashid]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Arabia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Harun al-Rashid (which translates roughly as "Aaron the Rightly Guided") was the fifth Abbasid Caliph, ruling the Arabian Empire from 786 to 809 AD. During his reign the Caliphate stretched from Spain in the west to Anatolia in the north to India in the east, and it was the largest and most powerful political entity in the world. Harun was an able ruler, and his reign was a time of scientific and cultural advancement and prosperity for his subjects.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The son of the third Caliph and al-Khayzuran, a Yemeni slave girl, Harun came to power following the death of his brother, Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi. Al-Hadi died of a stomach ailment under somewhat suspicious circumstances, and some believed that his mother had al-Hadi poisoned because she had much stronger influence with her younger son, Harun. True or not, al-Khayzuran was one of Harun's chief advisors until her death in 789.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[At the start of Harun's reign, the Caliphate's capitol was in Baghdad, a new city founded by an earlier Caliph. The city was a center of arts, science and religion, with many beautiful buildings. There Harun founded the "House of Wisdom," a library and research facility which collected and translated scientific writings from Persian, Indian, Greek, and Roman texts. Under Harun Baghdad would blossom, becoming perhaps the largest and richest city in the world. Later Harun would move his government to the strategically important city of ar-Raqqah, but Baghdad would remain a great city of arts, science and commerce for centuries to come (the city would be conquered and sacked by the Mongols in 1258).]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[A somewhat fantastic description of Harun may be found in "The Thousand and One Nights," in which the Caliph is described as living in a sumptuous palace flowing with gold, silver, and jewels. Although exaggerated, there is a strong element of truth to the tale. During Harun's reign huge amounts of wealth poured into the Empire, and a goodly portion of it made it to the Caliph's coffers. According to ancient historians, Harun's wife insisted that all utensils and plates at her table be made of gold and festooned with jewels.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Politically, Harun attempted to maintain cordial relations with the European powers. He had direct diplomatic relations with Charlemagne, and in these pre-Crusade years Europeans had free access to Jerusalem and the Holy Lands. He also had diplomatic relations with the Imperial Court in China. However, his relations were somewhat less friendly with the Byzantines.
 
Under his father, Harun had led an army through Turkey to the gates of Constantinople, capitol of the Byzantine Empire. After negotiation with the Empress Irene, Harun agreed to spare the city in return for an annual tribute of 70,000 gold coins. When Irene was deposed and the Byzantines reneged on the agreement in 806, Harun led another army north and once again forced the Byzantines to capitulate.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Harun became ill and died in 808 while on his way to deal with a revolt in Iran. He was succeeded by his son, al-Amin. His passing marked the beginning of the slow decline of the Arabian Empire, after his death pieces of it were carved away by external enemies and internal revolt. Although the Empire would continue to exist for some centuries, it would never again reach the brilliant heights it had under Harun al-Rashid.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Although there were wars and internal trouble, most of Rashid's reign was peaceful and prosperous. The Caliphate enjoyed economic and industrial growth, plus an explosion in trade. Harun was a lover of music and poetry, and he gave lavish gifts to artists in his court. Although not necessarily a great leader, Rashid did rule the Arabian Empire competently at the very height of its power and wealth.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Caliph]=];
TITLES_2 = [=["The One Following the Right Path"]=];};
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VictoryCompetitiveness=4;
WonderCompetitiveness=7;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
Boldness=3;
DiploBalance=5;
WarmongerHate=5;
DenounceWillingness=3;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=6;
Neediness=6;
Forgiveness=6;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=4;
PortraitIndex=1;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_HIAWATHA={
Description=[=[Hiawatha]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_HIAWATHA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1550 AD?]=];
NAME = [=[Hiawatha]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Iroquois]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Hiawatha (or "Ayonwentah") is the legendary chief of the Onondaga Indians who, with the equally-legendary Chief Dekanawidah, formed the Iroquois Confederacy. Little is known about Hiawatha the man; according to Iroquois tradition he taught the people agriculture, navigation, medicine, and the arts, using his great magic to conquer all of man's supernatural and natural enemies. Hiawatha is also believed to have been a skilled orator who through his honeyed words persuaded the five tribes - Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas, Senecas, and Mohawks - to form the Five Nations of the Iroquois.
 
What little the West knows about Hiawatha is usually seen through the prism of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's remarkable epic poem, Song of Hiawatha.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[No verdict is possible on such a legendary figure. The only thing that can be said is that however it occurred, the alliance of the Five Nations proved to be long and remarkably sturdy, even in the face of ever-increasing pressure from the advancing Europeans to the east. Whoever built that alliance certainly did an outstanding job.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Chief]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Hiawatha_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=3;
WonderCompetitiveness=4;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
Boldness=2;
DiploBalance=4;
WarmongerHate=6;
DenounceWillingness=4;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=6;
Chattiness=3;
Meanness=3;
PortraitIndex=12;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_MONTEZUMA={
Description=[=[Montezuma]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_MONTEZUMA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[A Modest Lifestyle]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Domestic Policy]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Sumptuary Laws]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Religious Changes]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Foreign Policy]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Death]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c.1397-1469 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Montezuma I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Aztecs]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[A mighty warrior and leader, Montezuma I helped propel the Aztec nation to greatness and glory. He should not be confused with his unfortunate grandson Montezuma II, who watched helplessly as his empire was dismantled by Spanish Conquistadors.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Montezuma (whose name means "he frowns like a lord") came from a royal family. His father Huitzilihuitl was the second Aztec "tlatoani" or emperor, and his mother, Miahuaxihuitl, was the daughter of the ruler of the city of Cuauhnahuac. Following his father's death, Montezuma's uncle Itzcoatl was elected. Montezuma's older brother Tlacaelel was one of Itzcoatl's closest advisors, while Montezuma served as a general in the Aztec army.
 
Following Itzcoatl's death in 1440, Montezuma was elected emperor. Tlacaelel did not seem at all unhappy about being bypassed (perhaps he thought he'd live longer if he didn't get the crown), and by all accounts he served his brother faithfully. Montezuma's coronation was a huge ceremony involving the sacrifice of many prisoners.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Despite the opulence of his political title, it appears that Montezuma himself lived modestly, in a simple palace with "just a few wives." When not engaged in religious duties or matters of state, he spent much of his time in consultation with his friends and advisors.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[During his reign Montezuma and his brother Tlacaelel worked to improve the Aztec city Tenochtitlan. Among other improvements they constructed an aqueduct system which brought a good deal of fresh water into the city. Of course as Tenochtitlan grew, in addition to fresh water it required ever greater amounts of food to sustain its hungry population. Since Central America lacked draft animals, every single morsel of food had to be transported to the city on somebody's back. Montezuma's government employed state inspectors to ensure that every piece of arable land within walking distance was planted and maintained. He also ordered the construction of a dike system to alleviate flooding and to provide more farmland.
 
Montezuma and his brother also constructed many temples in and around the city, including a new temple to Huitzilopochtli, the god of battle. The temple of Huitzilopochtli was consecrated in 1455 with the sacrifice of a large number of Huaxtec prisoners of war.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Probably at the urging of his brother, Tlacaelel, Montezuma instituted Sumptuary Laws which codified and reinforced the already-stratified Aztec class system. A person's station in life determined what he or she could wear and how he or she could speak. The poor were not allowed to wear cotton cloth, sandals or any clothing that extended below the knee. Only the nobility could live in homes of greater than one story. Crimes were punished by slavery, the lowest of all classes, or by being sacrificed.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[During Montezuma's rule, his brother Tlacaelel worked on reforming the Aztec religion. He rewrote the Aztec religious texts, ordering the destruction of many others which did not agree with his interpretations of the Aztec history and religion. Under Tlacaelel the Aztec religion became more militaristic, demanding ever more sacrifices of captured enemy soldiers. The need for prisoners for sacrifice would over time become one of the driving forces behind Aztec foreign policy.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[As ruler Montezuma sought to strengthen the "Triple Alliance" between the Central Mexican city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan. He also expanded the Aztec empire by conquering Panuco, the Totonacs, Coatzocoalcos and the Chalca. Some theorize that he conquered the tribes for their tribute, hoping to ensure a continuous food supply for Tenochtitlan, which despite his best efforts continued to suffer from periodic famine. Another theory is that he did so to feed the Aztec religion's ever-chronic need for prisoners of war to sacrifice. Yet another theory is that he did it because that's what Aztec Emperors did - conquer stuff. The answer is likely to be something of a combination of all three theories.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Montezuma died in 1469. He was succeeded by his 19-year-old cousin, Axayacatl, who would be the father of Montezuma I's namesake, the unfortunate Montezuma II who would lose everything to Spain.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Generally, Montezuma was a successful ruler. He expanded his empire, personally led his armies to victory, and worked hard to improve the lot of his people. He certainly was a bloody man, personally sacrificing thousands of prisoners to his thirsty gods. But his religion said such barbarity was necessary - blood was required to ensure that the sun would rise, the crops would grow, and the Aztec nation would continue to prosper.
 
Could he have cut back on the ritualized murder? Possibly. But the thought might never have occurred to him - or anybody else in the area at the time. It's useful to remember that the more "enlightened" people of Europe were busily burning heretics alive at roughly the same time. And while that doesn't in any way make Montezuma's actions any better, at least it puts them in some kind of context.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Emperor]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Montezuma_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=6;
WonderCompetitiveness=2;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=5;
Boldness=9;
DiploBalance=5;
WarmongerHate=1;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=3;
Loyalty=4;
Neediness=4;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=4;
Meanness=5;
PortraitIndex=2;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_NAPOLEON={
Description=[=[Napoleon]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_NAPOLEON_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Napoleon's rules of law for France - the so-called "Napoleonic Code" - represented a major advancement in legal reform and have influenced the legal systems of countries across the globe. Some historians have argued that these laws have had a greater effect on world history than all of Napoleon's military victories.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Vive l'Empereur!]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Russian Campaign]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Napoleon's Fall]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1769 - 1821 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Napoleon Bonaparte]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of France]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[It is virtually impossible to overstate the military genius of Napoleon Bonaparte.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Napoleon Bonaparte was born on the island of Corsica, where he entered a military academy at the age of ten. In school he displayed a great aptitude for mathematics, history, and geography, as well as a total indifference to literature and the humanities. At fourteen he was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in an artillery regiment. When the French revolution broke out, Napoleon sided with the Revolutionaries and was appointed lieutenant-colonel of artillery, where he quickly made a name for himself as a successful commander.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Early on Napoleon displayed both his military brilliance and his ability to navigate the perilous political landscape of Revolutionary France, where one false step could cost you your head - literally. By 1794 he was a brigadier-general, and by 1795 he was appointed command of the French Army of the Interior. He was 25 years of age. Over the next few years Napoleon led French armies to major victories over various continental foes, including the extremely powerful Austrians.
 
Capitalizing on his success and his growing popularity with the citizens and the army, in 1800 he overthrew the government and appointed himself "First Consul." Five years later he would crown himself "Emperor and Consul for Life," displaying his fine contempt for the democratic roots of the Revolution that brought him to power.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[An exceptional administrator, Napoleon rapidly reorganized the government, repealed the more radical and violent laws of the Revolution, and reopened the churches, cementing his popularity with the people of France. However, France was still at war with most of Europe, and Napoleon once again took to the battlefields, where he won stunning victories against Austria, causing that country and England to make peace.
 
England remained nervous of France's imperial intentions, and war resumed in 1803. Napoleon found himself facing a daunting alliance that included England, Austria, Russia and Sweden. Acting with amazing speed and cunning, Napoleon used his "interior lines" to concentrate his forces against the dispersed enemy. He rapidly marched across Europe, capturing the capital of Austria and then crushing the Russian forces at the battle of Austerlitz. Austria sued for peace once again. For several years Napoleon would defeat every foe that came against him. He crushed the Prussians, the Spanish, and the Austrians yet again. However, Russia and England remained undefeated.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Eventually Napoleon decided that he would never be safe in Europe as long as Russia, aided by the perfidious English, was on his flank. With England secure behind the Channel and its superb navy, he had little choice but to attack Russia, the only foe in the alliance his armies could reach. In 1812 he led half a million men to attack Moscow. The Russian forces retreated before his advance, taking or burning anything that might be of use to the invaders, while in the rear Cossack raiders destroyed Napoleon's supply lines. Bonaparte did reach and capture Moscow, but once again the Russians had removed or burnt anything there that might feed his men, and he was forced to retreat, fighting the Russian troops and the even more deadly Russian winter mile after bitter mile. By the end of the campaign Napoleon had lost 96% of his army.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Upon returning to Paris, Napoleon immediately recruited another army of 350,000, but his image of invulnerability was gone, and all Europe rose against him. Prussia, Russia and Austria allied against him, and England threw more troops into contested Spain. Though Napoleon was to again win famous victories, his enemies continued their relentless attacks. Eventually the allies drove their way into Paris, and Napoleon abdicated. For his trouble he was given rulership of the island of Elba, along with an income of six million francs, to be paid by France.
 
Later he would return to France and try to regain power one last time, but he was finally and irrevocably defeated by an English and Prussian army at Waterloo in Belgium. This time he was confined for life at the island of Sainte-Helene, a thousand miles from the coast of Africa. He died there in 1821.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Napoleon was one of the most brilliant generals of all time. He moved his troops with astounding rapidity, and he always knew exactly where to strike in order to cause the most damage. Domestically he turned out to be a decent, imaginative ruler and France flourished under his control (until his endless wars sapped her strength and will to fight). An Army general to his core, he never was able to create a navy able to seriously challenge England's dominance over the oceans.
 
In the end, he just couldn't beat everybody.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[First Consul of the First French Republic]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[Emperor Napoleon I of the First French Empire]=];};
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IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_ODA_NOBUNAGA={
Description=[=[Oda Nobunaga]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ODA_NOBUNAGA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Nobunaga was a great lover of archery. In fact, he commissioned clothing for himself to be made without sleeves, to better draw his bow in battle.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Nobunaga's hairstyle was often criticized by his enemies, as he chose to wear it in the style of a "lowly ronin (a masterless samurai)" and not in the traditional lordly "chonmage" with shaven pate.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Further Conquests]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Death of Nobunaga]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1534 - 1582 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Oda Nobunaga]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Japan]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Oda Nobunaga was a 16th century Japanese warlord. Both a brilliant general and a cunning politician - as well as an early adopter of new technology - Nobunaga fought and backstabbed his way to domination over nearly half of feudal Japan. His two lieutenants, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, would complete the job after his death, reunifying Japan for the first time in over a century.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Oda Nobunaga was born in 1534 AD, well into the "Sengoku" or Warring States period in Japanese history. During this period feudal Japan was divided into provinces run by powerful "daimyos" (territorial lords), while a weak shogun ruled in the name of a still-weaker Emperor. The Sengoku period saw an almost complete overthrow of the established order, with local lords overthrowing their daimyos, retainers overthrowing their lords, and inferior family branches fighting each other for dominance. It was a remarkably brutal period in Japanese history, and the nobility had to be smart, powerful and lucky to survive.
 
Nobunaga was born the son of a wealthy government official in the small and unimportant Owari province. Following his father's death in 1551 he inherited his father's title, wealth and military vassals. He was all of 17 at the time, and by all accounts was a wild and unruly child. According to legend Nobunaga acted so badly at his father's funeral that one of his friends and retainers committed seppuku (ritual suicide) in humiliation. Shocked and sobered by his retainer's death, Nobunaga began to take his position and obligations seriously.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Over the next ten years, Nobunaga rose to dominate Owari province, systematically co-opting or destroying anyone who stood in his way. The series of alliances, battles, betrayals and murders Nobunaga engaged in to achieve victory is bafflingly complex, rivaling the most intricate plot of a South American "telenovela" (soap opera). Here's how it went:
 
At the time of his father's death, the Oda clan was divided into many factions. Some favored Nobunaga as the legitimate heir, while others favored his younger (and less wild) brother, Nobuyuki. Meanwhile, his late father's brother, Nobutomo, used his position as deputy to the powerless Owari province's "shugo," (military governor) Shiba Yoshimune, to advance his claim to leadership of the Oda clan. But when he learned that the shugo secretly favored Nobunaga's claim, Nobutomo had Shiba Yoshimune murdered.
 
Meanwhile, Nobunaga convinced another of his father's brothers, Oda Nobumitsu, to turn on Nobutomo (who, we must remember, had just murdered Owari shugo Shiba). Nobunaga and his Uncle Nobumitsu attacked and killed Uncle Nobutomo in Kiyosu Castle. By destroying his uncle, Nobunaga gained control over Owari province's new shugo, Shiba Yoshikane (Shiba Yoshimune's heir). He used Shiba Yoshimune to gain alliances with the Imagawa and Kira clans, who also owed allegiance to Shiba.
 
Nobunaga then fielded an army to Mino Province to aid Saito Dosan against his rebellious son, Saito Yoshitatsu, but he was unsuccessful and Dosan fell.
 
In 1556 Nobunaga's brother, Nobuyuki (remember him?) rebelled with the aid of Shibata Katsuie and Hayashi Hidesada. Nobunaga defeated the conspirators at the Battle of Ino. Showing unusual mercy, he pardoned his brother and his allies. His brother repaid him by immediately planning another revolt, but he was betrayed by his onetime ally Shibata Katsuie, who informed Nobunaga of his plans. Nobunaga then murdered his brother.
 
And so on. By 1559 Nobunaga had destroyed all of his rivals and was undisputed master of Owari Province, though he kept Shiba Yoshikane in place as a puppet shugo (at least until he discovered that Yoshikane was secretly plotting against him with the Kira and Imagawa clans, at which point Nobunaga removed him from his position).]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Having secured Owari province, Nobunaga began to expand his power across Japan. In 1560 he led a laughably small army against a far superior force which was on its way to Kyoto to overthrow the weak Ashikaga Shogun, achieving a shocking victory against brutally long odds. 
 
One key to Nobunaga's military success was his early adoption of the new weapons which were beginning to appear in Japan at the time, brought in by European traders. He was one of the first daimyos to organize entire musket units, giving him a great advantage against his more backwards foes. He was also a gifted manager, making full use of the agricultural and mercantile wealth of Owari to support his war efforts.
 
In 1568 Nobunaga marched on Kyoto, putting up his ally Ashikaga Yoshiaki as his puppet Shogun. By 1573 the two men had fallen out, and Nobunaga deposed Ashikaga, at last ending the long Ashikaga Shogunate. 
 
Nobunaga consolidated his hold on Japan by attacking various politically powerful Buddhist sects. The monks put up incredibly stubborn resistance, some holding out for more than a decade. Nobunaga distributed the captured religious property to various samurai and nobility, further earning their loyalty. Nobunaga was friendly with the European Jesuit missionaries who appeared in Japan in ever larger numbers (probably because they had no political power with which to threaten him). He did not convert to Christianity, however.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[By 1582 Nobunaga had established firm control over central Japan and had begun attempting to expand his power westward. However, during a military campaign he was betrayed by a subordinate at Honno-ji temple and was forced to commit seppuku. His murderer survived him by just eleven days before being defeated by Nobunaga's loyal lieutenants, who would go on to complete the unification of Japan he so ably started.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Oda Nobunaga is generally agreed to be one of the three greatest leaders in Japanese history. His two lieutenants, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, are the other two. By 1590 Hideyoshi had completed the conquest of Japan, and following his death Tokugawa Ieyasu would come into power, creating the Tokugawa Shogunate which would rule Japan for centuries to come. Together these three men created the modern state of Japan.
 
Nobunaga was a brutal man in a brutal time. But by helping to unify Japan he brought an end to the brutal wars that had been ravaging his country for more than a century.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Daimyo]=];};
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Neediness=6;
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LEADER_RAMESSES={
Description=[=[Ramesses II]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_RAMESSES_II_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Military Campaigns]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Peace with the Hittites]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Pi-Ramesses]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Public Works]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Biblical Connection]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Death and Burial]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1303 - 1213 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Ramesses II]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Egypt]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Ramesses II is considered to be Egypt's greatest and most powerful pharaoh. Taking the throne in his twenties, Ramesses ruled Egypt for more than 60 years. Ramesses is remembered as a great military leader as well as for the extensive construction programs he instituted. He is also remembered for building a new capital city, Pi-Ramesses. Some historians believe that Ramesses is the pharaoh in the biblical story of Moses.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Egypt having recently emerged from a period of declining power and prestige, Ramesses' father, Seti I, spent a good deal of time subduing rebellious provinces in Asia. The Hittites, based in Asia Minor, were extending their power southward, and the two great civilizations were engaged in a protracted struggle for control of Syria and Palestine. The young Ramesses accompanied his father on some of these campaigns; by the age of 10 he was given the rank of captain - though this was almost certainly ceremonial, it does suggest that his military training began at an extremely young age. Ramesses assumed the throne in his early twenties, following his father's death.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Four years after becoming pharaoh, Ramesses led an army north to retake the rebellious provinces that his father had been unable to conquer. The campaign was apparently successful, and the army advanced as far as Beirut.
 
In the following year Ramesses attacked the Hittite stronghold at Kadesh. The Battle of Kadesh is one of the few battles from that period of which we have records. Believing the citadel to be abandoned, Ramesses approached incautiously and was ambushed by a large Hittite chariot force hiding beyond the fort. Although Ramesses achieved a marginal victory in that battle, his army was so weakened that he had to retreat to Egypt, leaving the fort in Hittite hands. Ramesses continued to battle the Hittites for some twelve more years, attaining tactical victories, but unable to hold the contested land for any time. 
 
In addition to his wars with the Hittites, Ramesses campaigned in Nubia and Libya, extending his rule to the west and south. However these were of much less importance as these enemies posed little threat to the survival of Egypt.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Eventually realizing that further combat was pointless, in the twenty-first year of his reign, Ramesses agreed to a peace treaty with the Hittites. This is the earliest known peace treaty in recorded history. Interestingly, the treaty was written in two versions: the Egyptian version states that the Hittites sued for peace while the Hittite version states that it was the Egyptians who requested an end to hostilities.
 
This treaty appears to have stabilized the borders between the two great powers, and no further combat between Egypt and the Hittites occurred during Ramesses' reign.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Early in his reign Ramesses moved his capital from Thebes north to a city in the Nile Delta, which he renamed "Pi-Ramesses ." The new location was near to his ancestral home, but more importantly it was far closer to the troublesome Northern provinces and the dangerous Hittite border. In a few short years the once-sleepy village was transformed into a major governmental center as well as an arms manufactory. The city was graced with a beautiful palace and many temples, as well as numerous statues and other ornaments.
 
Pi-Ramesses  was abandoned long after Ramesses' reign. For many centuries the site was lost, but archeologists have recently discovered ruins that they believe belong to the ancient city.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[During his reign Ramesses constructed many public works across Egypt. Many of these were temples and monuments, but he also constructed storehouses, government buildings, water works, and so forth. Evidently a tireless self-promoter, Ramesses covered Egypt with statues and carvings of himself, often recarving those of previous pharaohs with his name and image. (Ramesses ordered his masons to deeply engrave his image in the stone so that future pharaohs would have trouble doing the same to him.)]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Many historians believe that Pi-Ramesses is the city "Raamses" mentioned in the Old Testament of the Bible, one of the "Treasure Cities" constructed by the Israelites during their Egyptian Captivity. Some believe that Ramesses is in fact the pharaoh of the Biblical story of the Exodus, the ruler who Moses forced to free his people. However, this is open to debate (particularly since Ramesses II lived a very long life and emphatically did not drown in the Red Sea).]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Ramesses died at the age of 90. He was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, but he was later moved to a secret location. His body was discovered in the late 19th century and is now on display in the Cairo Museum. It is difficult to guess whether the pharaoh would be outraged by the desecration or if he would enjoy the publicity.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Ramesses II ruled Egypt as pharaoh for approximately 66 years, the second longest reign in Egyptian history. He stabilized his empire's borders and concluded a highly successful peace treaty with its most important rival, the Hittites. He clearly cared for his people's welfare and spent much treasure on massive public works. He is regarded by later Egyptians as the greatest pharaoh in history, a conclusion that is difficult to dispute.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Ramesses The Great]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[The Great Ancestor]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=9;
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LEADER_RAMKHAMHAENG={
Description=[=[Ramkhamhaeng]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_RAMKHAMHAENG_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[King Ramkhamhaeng]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Arts and Culture]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Ramkhamhaeng's Death]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1240 - 1298 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Ramkhamhaeng]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Siam]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[In 1278, a prince named "Ramkhamhaeng" inherited the small and unimportant kingdom of Sukhothai. In twenty years, employing a brilliant combination of military genius and shrewd diplomacy, he expanded his country's borders and influence to cover much of Southeast Asia.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Not much is known about Ramkhamhaeng's early life. His parents were King Sri Indraditya and Queen Sueang. He had two sisters and two older brothers, one of whom died early and the other, Ban Mueang, became king on their father's death. Ramkhamhaeng was said to have studied under the poet wise-man Sukathanta.
 
At 19 he served under his father during the latter's attack on the city of Sukhothai, which was held by the Khmer. The success of this attack greatly expanded the king's power, essentially establishing Sukhothai as an independent kingdom. Because of his heroic actions during the battle the prince was given the title "Phra Ram Khamhaeng," or Rama the Bold.
 
Upon the death of his father in 1257, his brother, the new king Ban Mueang, put Ramkhamhaeng in charge of the city of Si Sat Chanalai. Ban Mueang died twenty years later, and Ramkhamhaeng ascended to the throne.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[During his reign Ramkhamhaeng expanded his kingdom's dominance west into Burma, east into Laos, and south down the Malay Peninsula. The king was a shrewd diplomat as well as a warlord; many territories joined his confederation voluntarily. Ramkhamhaeng did not seek to dominate Southeast Asia, rather he promoted trade and diplomatic alliances with surrounding kingdoms.
 
Most of what we know of Ramkhamhaeng's rule comes from a stone inscription he created in 1292 towards the end of his rule. This is the earliest surviving example of Thai language, and it portrays him as a wise and benevolent leader.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Ramkhamhaeng was an ardent patron of Buddhism. He also supported the arts and Thai artistic expression achieved an especially high level during his reign, especially in bronze sculpture and ceramics.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Ramkhamhaeng died in 1298. His extended empire, held together by his personal magnetism and brilliant international diplomacy, did not long survive his death, and the furthest provinces soon broke away. Sukhothai itself survived another century before it fell.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Ramkhamhaeng is viewed today as a great leader and the first to rule over a united Siam (later Thailand). It should be remembered however that almost all that we know about him comes from the stone inscription that he himself created. If he did have any major flaws, would he have carved them into the living rock for all of history to see? (Would any of today's world leaders do so?)
 
Still, there is plenty of independent evidence to show that he successfully created a great empire and his people prospered during his reign. And that's a record that any leader could be proud of.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=["Rama the Bold"]=];};
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Loyalty=6;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=6;
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Meanness=3;
PortraitIndex=19;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_SULEIMAN={
Description=[=[Suleiman]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_SULEIMAN_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Suleiman kept numerous fancy breeds of pigeons at his palace in Istanbul.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Suleiman was fond of wearing "excessively large" turbans, as described by Venetian Bartolomeo Contarini, after his ascension to the throne.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Military Ambitions in Europe]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Military Adventures in Persia]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Domestic Improvement]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Culture, Religion and the Arts]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1494 - 1566 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Suleiman]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the Ottomans]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Suleiman I, known as "The Magnificent," "The Legislator" and "The Grand Turk," was the caliph of Islam and the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, taking the reins of the Turkish kingdom in 1520 and ruling until his death in 1566. During his rule Suleiman greatly expanded the Empire's territory, earning the fear (and grudging admiration) of leaders across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Suleiman was the son and grandson of sultans. At an early age he studied science, literature, theology, and the military arts in Istanbul. At 17 he was appointed governor of Kaffa by his grandfather, and he was made governor of Manisa during the reign of his father, Sultan Selim I. His father died in 1520 when Suleiman was 26, and he ascended to the throne. Although still quite a young man, Suleiman had nearly ten years of leadership experience when he came to power.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[According to some historians, Suleiman deeply admired Alexander the Great and hoped to emulate him and create an empire that encompassed Europe, Asia Minor, Africa, and the Middle East. Upon achieving power, Suleiman began planning a campaign against Europe and the Balkans.
 
In 1521, just a year after achieving power, Suleiman captured Belgrade. In the following year he took the Island of Rhodes from the Knights of St. John. In 1526 he defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohacs, killing the Hungarian king Louis II in combat.
 
Following Louis II's death, the Hungarian throne was taken by Ferdinand I, the Habsburg archduke of Austria. Seeking to weaken Habsburg power in Eastern Europe, Suleiman supported the claim of John Zapolya, lord of Transylvania. In 1529 he laid siege to Vienna. The siege was unsuccessful, however, but it did serve to keep Hungarian power concentrated on Vienna, effectively ceding control of most of Hungary to Suleiman's puppet, John. When John died in 1540 the Austrians moved back into central Hungary. The two forces would continue to battle inconclusively for the next twenty years, until a peace treaty was signed in 1562, four years before Suleiman's death.
 
To support his land campaigns Suleiman also created a great navy on the Mediterranean, the first such in Ottoman history. He put his forces under the command of admiral Khayr al-Din (known in the west as "Barbarossa"), a sometime pirate with a natural genius for naval warfare who defeated the combined Spanish-Venetian fleets in 1538, effectively giving the Ottomans dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean for the next forty years.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Suleiman waged three major campaigns in Persia during his reign. The first campaign (1534 - 1535) won the Ottomans control over a portion of eastern Asia Minor as well as most of Iraq. The second campaign some ten years later (1548 - 1549) won some additional terrain around the strategically important Lake Van on the border of Persia and Asia Minor. The third campaign was inconclusive, as the Ottomans were unable to sustain an offensive deep in Persian territory and thus were unable to hold onto their gains.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As sultan, Suleiman surrounded himself with competent, often brilliant, statesmen and administrators. He built mosques, bridges, roads and fortresses across his territory, and the period is seen as a golden age of Ottoman architecture. He also worked to reform and codify the empire's legal system. "The Lawgiver's" legal system would survive almost unchanged for three centuries. He paid attention especially to the plight of his Christian subjects, who until then had been little more than serfs. Jews also were protected, to such an extent that many emigrated to the Ottoman Empire from Europe, where they were much more harshly treated.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[While his territorial accomplishments were impressive, the Sultan, a skilled poet and fervent Muslim, did not ignore the culture of his homeland. During his rule hundreds of artistic societies flourished across the country. Suleiman commissioned numerous new mosques of a previously unseen grandeur, many designed by master architect Sinan.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Suleiman died in 1566 while (once more) campaigning in Hungary. At the time of his death he was famous across the known world. In Europe he was envied for his unbelievable wealth, his magnificent treasury containing more riches than any other leader had possessed in history. He was admired for his military prowess and respected for his fair treatment of non-Muslim subjects.
 
Muslims respected the Sultan for his belief in the rule of law. The Sultan adopted Islamic sacred law to compliment the traditional law already in place from his predecessors, providing a model for Eastern powers for centuries to come.
 
Almost everyone - Christian and Muslim alike - agreed that he was fully worthy of the title "The Magnificent."]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[The Magnificent]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[The Lawmaker]=];};
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Loyalty=5;
Neediness=3;
Forgiveness=5;
Chattiness=6;
Meanness=3;
PortraitIndex=15;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_WASHINGTON={
Description=[=[Washington]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_WASHINGTON_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Like many Americans today, Washington had a fondness for ice cream - he even had a cooler installed in his house to better enjoy the treat.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Washington was very conscious of style and fashion.  While he commanded the Virginia militia in the 1750's, he redesigned his soldiers' uniforms.]=];
FACT_3 = [=[Washington was the only president in history to have been unanimously elected, receiving all 69 votes of the Electoral College.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[French and Indian War]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Home Life]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Pre-Revolution Activities]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Commander of the Continental Army]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[President of the United States]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Washington's Place in History]=];
LIVED = [=[1732 - 1799 AD]=];
NAME = [=[George Washington]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the United States of America]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[George Washington was one of a group of remarkable men who lived in the American Colonies in the late eighteenth century. Although not as pugnacious as John Adams, as imaginative as Benjamin Franklin or as brilliant as Thomas Jefferson, Washington had the capacity to lead, in war and in peace. He led the Continental Army to victory against extraordinary odds, and by so doing he led his country to independence.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The descendent of English colonists who migrated to Virginia in 1657, George Washington was born into a family of wealth and privilege - or as much wealth and privilege as could be found in the Colonies in the early eighteenth century. As a young man Washington studied mathematics, writing, geography, and probably Latin, but he never attended college. Instead he concentrated upon learning how to raise stock, farm, and manage his family's growing estates. Washington was also trained as a surveyor and spent several years scouting and mapping the lands in and around the colony of Virginia.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[In 1754 war broke out between England (and her colonies) and the French and their allies the Indians. Washington fought in several engagements during this war, showing a great deal of courage and coolness under fire, but of no especial strategic or tactical brilliance. Eventually the war ended with the English victorious, and Washington resigned from the Colonial forces with the honorary rank of Brigadier General.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[After the war Washington married and devoted himself to his growing estates. He apparently greatly enjoyed managing his farms and plantations and was not above shedding his coat and helping with manual labor. He also sat in the House of Burgesses in Williamsburg, the mostly-impotent local governing body of Virginia (real power definitely resided with the Royal Governor of the colony and with King and Parliament back in England).]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Although a loyalist, Washington too chafed under the growing burden of taxation placed on the Colonies by Parliament (largely imposed to help pay off debts from the recent French and Indian War). As tensions grew and England ratcheted up the pressure on the Colonies, Washington's position grew more radical, and by 1768 he declared himself ready to take up arms against England whenever his country called him. By 1774 Washington was a member of the Continental Congress, the first truly national organization of the nascent country. When actual fighting broke out in and around Boston in 1775, Washington was named as commander of the military forces of all of the Colonies, a post he maintained once actual independence was declared in 1776.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[As military commander of the Revolutionary forces, Washington displayed the same strengths and weaknesses he had years before when fighting for England against France. He was personally courageous, almost to the point of foolhardiness. Early in the war he tended to favor overly-complex military actions beyond the capabilities of his volunteer soldiers, resulting in a series of near-catastrophic defeats at the hands of the professional British forces. But almost by force of will alone - through long, discouraging years of privation and defeat - he kept his army alive and in the field, and by so doing kept the revolution alive in the Colonies. Eventually, the sheer tenacity and growing skill of the Colonial Army and its general would win it the grudging admiration of even its fiercest enemies.
 
The entrance of France into the war on the side of the Colonies and increasing Colonial power and success on the battlefield led to growing anti-war sentiment of the British people. In 1781 Washington led his troops on a daring forced march into Virginia, where he (with the aid of a large contingent of French soldiers) besieged an entire British army on the peninsula of Yorktown. The French naval maneuvers having given them temporary command of the sea, the British general was unable to escape his predicament and surrendered his command. Although sporadic fighting continued for some months, the war was essentially over: America had won her independence.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[After the war, Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention, which determined the form of the new nation's government, and later served as its first President. As President, Washington sought to keep the country free from foreign entanglements, resisting close alliances or wars with any. He attempted (with little success) to keep the country free from political party rivalry and strife. Washington served two four-year terms as President, and then retired back to his home in Mount Vernon, Virginia, where he died in 1799.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[George Washington is known for good reason as the "Father of the United States of America." While not the greatest general in world history, nor the greatest statesman, Washington had a great steadiness and courage in the face of adversity, and he was able to get men to willingly die for him. Without Washington, it's unlikely that the United States would have been born.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Commander-in-Chief of Colonial Armies (during American Revolution)]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[President of the United States of America (1789-1797)]=];};
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IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_WU_ZETIAN={
Description=[=[Wu Zetian]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_WU_ZETIAN_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Empress Wu placed great importance on the development of agriculture and commissioned many farming texts to be written.  One of her methods of judging an official's competence was how well he cultivated his land.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Concubine Wu]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Empress Consort Wu]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Dowager Empress Wu]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Emperor Wu]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 625 - 705 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Wu Zetian]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of China]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Like most civilizations, China has been male-dominated throughout much of its history. Until very recently, women were afforded few rights, and direct power was all but totally denied to them. For a woman to attain the rank of Emperor, to become the most powerful person in China, was almost unheard of. Only one person in the entirety of Chinese history was able to do so. That person was Wu Zetian, one of the most remarkable rulers - female or male - the world has ever seen.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[A shockingly beautiful child, at the age of 13 (in approx. 639 AD) Wu became a concubine of Emperor Taizong. She did not have any children with the Emperor, and at his death in 649 she left the palace to become a Buddhist nun, as was common for childless concubines at the time. That should have been the end of her story. However, Fate was to give her another chance at glory.
 
Like much of Chinese politics of the day, this gets extremely complicated. Empress Wang, the wife of the current Emperor Gaozong (son of the late Emperor Taizong), was afraid that Gaozong was becoming too infatuated with Consort Xiao. This was indeed a matter of some concern, as consorts had in the past been known to supplant empresses, who were often killed as a result. To divert her husband's attentions from Consort Xiao, the Empress had Wu - who was still young and beautiful - returned to the palace and reinstated as Consort.
 
This tactic was a complete success - too complete, in fact, for in a few years she had supplanted both Consort Xiao and Empress Wang in Emperor Gaozong's affections. Both ladies were killed, and she attained the rank of Empress. Some historians believe that she killed her own infant daughter and framed the Empress for the murder. While this is not proven, subsequent events have suggested that such an act was well within her scope.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[As Empress Consort, Wu moved quickly to consolidate her power. Forging alliances with certain powerful officials, she had those who opposed her demoted, exiled, or killed. She was an able advisor to the Emperor, and he delegated more authority to her as time passed. By 660 AD, the Emperor began to suffer from a debilitating illness (which some said was caused from slow poisoning by Wu), and he passed much of the day-to-day management of the Empire to Wu, who was then about thirty-five years old. Wu showed herself to be an able administrator, with sharp wit and extensive knowledge of history and literature. She also showed a remarkable ability to seek out and destroy those who plotted against her as well as those who might someday pose a threat. When Emperor Gaozong died in 683, she was inarguably the most powerful person in China.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Following Gaozong's death, Wu's son Zhongzong became Emperor. He immediately began displaying troubling signs of independence, including appointing officials to important posts without consulting with his mother. This threatened to undermine Wu's power base, and she took decisive action. Zhongzong was deposed and exiled, and Wu's youngest son, Ruizong, became Emperor. Taking no chances this time, however, Wu kept the new Emperor in virtual isolation. Having no doubt learned from the unhappy example of his older brother, the titular Emperor kept very quiet and did nothing to offend the Dowager Empress.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In 690 AD, Wu took the throne herself, her son Ruizong reduced in title to Crown Prince. This caused a certain amount of displeasure among traditionalists, which Wu handled in her usually efficient and brutal manner. She expanded the powers of the secret police, who answered directly to her, and hundreds were exiled, imprisoned or murdered. She held this post for some 15 years, until, at the age of 80 and seriously ill, she was deposed. She died later the same year.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[As a leader, Wu was considered to be an able administrator and shrewd judge of character. She promoted and supported able men, and in return she received their firm loyalty. Generals appointed by her conquered Korea, adding that wealthy land to the Empire. She was quick to destroy any she saw as a threat, and the early years of her reign as Emperor were bloody and repressive, even by Chinese standards. As she grew more secure in her throne, however, she reined in the secret police, and even her enemies grudgingly praised her for her competence and decisiveness.
 
In short, her rule was benevolent to those who were no challenge to her, and lethal to those who were. All in all, Wu Zetian remains one of the most fascinating rulers in history, and well worth further study.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Empress Regnant]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=5;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=7;
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WarmongerHate=5;
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DoFWillingness=4;
Loyalty=3;
Neediness=6;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=6;
Meanness=7;
PortraitIndex=4;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_GENGHIS_KHAN={
Description=[=[Genghis Khan]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_GENGHIS_KHAN_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Genghis Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Recent discoveries in genealogical mapping suggest that about 8% of men in Asia (roughly 0.5% worldwide) can trace their ancestry directly back to Genghis Khan.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Birth]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Unification Begins]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Outward Expansion]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Succession and Death]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1162 - 1227 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Genghis Khan]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Mongolia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Genghis Khan is one of the most recognized and worst feared leaders in all of human history.  Hundreds of statues, buildings, and commercial products bear his image, and numerous entertainment works have been created honoring his life.  He became the first to unite the warring, nomadic tribes of northeast Asia and founded the largest contiguous empire known to man.  Perhaps less known are the improvements and advancements he made in infrastructure, trade, and religious tolerance.  More than just a warrior, he was also a capable and shrewd civil leader.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born Borjigin Temujin in 1162 AD, Temujin was raised in a Mongol tribe that inhabited the lands near modern day Ulaanbaatar.  The third oldest son of a tribal chieftain, he is said to be named after a captured Tatar chieftain. Much of Temujin's early life is shrouded in mystery, and the few sources which do exist often conflict and disagree.  No accurate portraits or pictures of him exist today, but many sources describe Temujin as a "glittering" man, sporting long red hair and blue-green eyes.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Like many of the tribesmen in the region Temujin's early life was pretty difficult, despite being born into nobility.  At the age of nine he was betrothed to a neighboring tribe-chieftain's daughter and sent to live with her family.  His father was killed on the way back home, and Temujin's tribe subsequently abandoned him and the remainder of his family.  The family lived destitute until he married his betrothed at the age of 16.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Temujin began his bid for power by offering himself as a vassal to his late father's blood brother, Toghrul, the Khan of the Kerait tribe.  During this time, Temujin's wife was captured by the Merkit tribe, and Toghrul lent the young warlord 20,000 men to face them in battle.  Not only did Temujin recapture his wife, but he also completely defeated the Merkits, bringing them under this control.  He became a Khan in his own right and began conquering more of the neighboring tribes.
 
During his conquests the young Khan fundamentally broke with Mongol tradition - he created a new set of laws and incorporated his captured holdings into his growing empire, rather than destroying and pillaging them.  His law, the Yassa, promised soldiers fair pay and wealth, outlawed thievery and pillaging of any kind, and promised protection and religious freedom for all conquered tribes.  Temujin's political innovations brought him much loyalty and strongly united his growing nation.
 
The rest of his outward expansion and unification of the Mongol tribes is filled with tales of betrayal, intrigue, dashing victories, conspiracies, familial disputes, and more betrayal, including rifts between his former ally Toghrul and eldest son Jochi.  However, despite these setbacks he managed to subdue or unite all the nomadic tribes in the Mongolia area by 1206, the first man to ever do so.  At a joint council of chiefs he was given the name “Genghis Khan”, the eternal and universal ruler of the Mongol peoples.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[After the unification of Mongolia, Genghis soon began a series of successful military campaigns to conquer the surrounding and outlying areas, creating a massive empire under his rule. In 1209, he forced the surrender of the Xia provinces, and shortly thereafter in 1211, he finished the conquest of the Jin Dynasty.
 
Next he turned his attention west toward Persia.  In a deft maneuver containing only two armies of 20,000 men each, Genghis launched a successful attack against the Kara-Khitan Khanate, putting his reach of control right on Persia's doorstep.
 
Rather than conquer the neighboring empire of Khwarezmia, Genghis instead offered a political alliance, sending a 500-man trade caravan to the capital - he hoped to create a powerful trading partner using the Silk Road.  However, the Khwarezmian Shah distrusted the young leader and slaughtered the caravan.  Trying once more, Genghis sent a group of ambassadors to the Shah directly, who answered the gesture by beheading one of them.  Outraged, Genghis assembled some 200,000 men and personally oversaw the bloody fall and abject subjugation of the Khwarezmian Empire in 1220. Immediately following his success he captured many other regions on his way back to Mongolia, including Georgia, Afghanistan, and the remaining Western Xia holdings.
 
His victorious journey complete, Genghis's empire now stretched from the Caspian Sea in the west all the way to the Sea of Japan in the east, twice the size of the Roman Empire.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Now an aged man, the topic of Genghis's succession was heated and highly contested.  His eldest son, Jochi, was suspected of being born of a different man (as a result of his wife's capture), and many refused outright to follow him.  The clash ended however in 1226 when Jochi died mysteriously, some claiming that Genghis himself ordered the boy poisoned. His middle son Ogedei was named heir, as Genghis thought him the most level headed and stable of his remaining children.
 
Shortly after in 1227 Genghis died, the reason for which is still debated. Some claim he fell from his horse during a battle against the Tangut people, others hold that he was struck down by a long illness.  Some even claim that a captured Tangut princess killed him with a pair of pliers.  Regardless of the means or reason, Genghis Khan was buried in an unmarked grave as he wished, its location a closely guarded family secret.  Some folklore claims that a river was diverted over the site to protect it; other stories describe a grove of trees planted atop the grave to hide it.  In 2004, an archaeological dig uncovered what is believed to be the ruins of Genghis' palace. Hope remains that his grave may yet be found.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Depending on whom you ask, Genghis Khan is regarded as a worthy leader and excellent ruler or, conversely as a bloodthirsty killer.  In present-day Mongolia, he is thought of favorably as the father of the nation, and his many political innovations are upheld and heralded.  In formerly conquered lands, such as Iraq and Iran, he is seen almost universally as a genocidal, maniacal tyrant who caused untold destruction and damage.  Whether his tales of greatness or brutality are contested or exaggerated, he is undoubtedly one of the most important and influential leaders in the ancient world, his legacy still remaining strong and visible even today.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Leader of Mongolia]=];};
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VictoryCompetitiveness=8;
WonderCompetitiveness=4;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
Boldness=8;
DiploBalance=4;
WarmongerHate=4;
DenounceWillingness=5;
DoFWillingness=5;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=5;
Forgiveness=3;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=6;
IconAtlas="GENGHIS_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="293C1EE3117644F6AC1F59663826DE74";};
 
LEADER_ISABELLA={
Description=[=[Isabella]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ISABELLA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Isabella Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Isabella was the first woman to be featured on a U.S. postage stamp, commemorated for her involvement with Christopher Columbus, as well as the first woman to appear on a U.S. coin.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Years]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Henry fails at matchmaking]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Ferdinand and the fight for the Throne]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[1492]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[No One Expects the Inquisition]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Later Years]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Legacy in History]=];
LIVED = [=[1451 - 1504 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Isabella]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Spain]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Isabella I was the Queen of Castile and Leon for 30 years, and with her husband Ferdinand, laid the groundwork for the consolidation of Spain.  For her role in the Spanish unification, patronage of Columbus' voyages to America, and ending of the Reconquista (Recapturing) of the Iberian Peninsula, Isabella is regarded as one of the most beloved and important monarchs in Spanish history.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Isabella was born on April 22, 1451 in Ávila to John II of Castile and Isabella of Portugal.  She had an older brother, Henry (her elder by 26 years), and later a younger brother Alfonso, who displaced her in the line of succession.  When her father died in 1454, Henry took the throne of Castile as King Henry IV, and Isabella and her family moved to Arévalo and lived in a destitute castle, where her mother slowly started to lose her sanity. It wasn't until years later, when Henry's wife gave birth, that Henry allowed his siblings to move back to the main court in Segovia.
 
Here Isabella was educated in all manners of queenly disciplines and her life improved considerably, but Henry did put one limiting condition on her - she was forbidden to leave Segovia without his permission.  Henry claimed this was to keep Isabella from the political turmoil brewing in the kingdom over his choice of heir (his new daughter Joanna), but it could have also been to restrict her access to the rebelling noblemen.
 
The nobles, however, had no problem speaking with her younger brother Alfonso, and he instigated the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467, demanding that he be made Henry's heir.  As a compromise, Henry named Alfonso the Prince of Asturias, a title that would be given to the heir apparent of both Castile and Leon, and thought about marrying his daughter Joanna to Alfonso.  But Alfonso didn't have long to enjoy his new role; he soon died, probably a casualty of the plague.  Alfonso had named Isabella his successor in his will, and the title passed to her.
 
Rather than continue the rebellion against her older brother, Isabella met with Henry at Toros de Guisando and negotiated a permanent peace settlement. Henry would officially name Isabella as his heir, but she would not be allowed to marry without his consent.  However, Henry could also not force her to marry against her will.  Both parties pleased with their settlement, Henry began his search for a fitting husband for his younger sister.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[At this time, Isabella was betrothed to Ferdinand, son of John II of Aragon (and had been since the age of three), but Henry broke off this agreement.  Instead, he attempted to wed Isabella to Charles IV of Navarre, another of John's sons, but John refused the offer.
 
Soon after in 1464, Henry attempted to marry Isabella off to King Edward IV of England, but Edward also refused.  Many attempts were then made to wed the girl to Alfonso V of Portugal, but she refused him at the altar due to his old age.
 
The Castilian's personal soap opera continued with Isabella's betrothal to Pedro Giron, the brother of Henry's favorite Don.  Isabella prayed feverishly that the marriage be called off, as Don Pedro was 27years older than she.  Isabella fervently believed that God had answered her plea, as the Don died from a burst appendix on the way to greet his fiancée.
 
Next up in Henry's shrinking line of suitors was Louis XI's brother Charles, Duke of Berry.  At this point Isabella had had enough of Henry's thinly veiled attempts to remove her from the line of succession with a poor political marriage, and she began to negotiate with John II of Aragon in secret to once again secure a marriage to his son Ferdinand.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Although all parties were in favor of the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand (except of course for Henry, who was still trying to woo France and Portugal), there was one small problem - the young couple were second cousins.  By church law, a Papal Bull was required for a wedding of closely related cousins, but the Pope was loathe to grant one from fear of retribution from Castile, Portugal, and France.
 
However, Isabella refused to marry without the dispensation, as she was by this point a very devout woman.  Ferdinand sought the help of Rodrigo Borgia in Rome (later Pope Alexander VI) and presented Isabella with a "Papal Bull" from Pius II.  The probable forgery was good enough for her and she quickly agreed to the marriage.  With the excuse of visiting her brother's tomb in Avila, Isabella managed to escape Henry's sight and Ferdinand slipped into Castile disguised as a merchant.  Isabella's rather Shakespearian journey ended on October 19, 1469 when she wedded Ferdinand in Valladolid.
 
Henry found out about the marriage rather quickly after this, and pleaded with the Pope to dissolve the marriage.  The new Pope, Sixtus IV, didn't have any of his predecessor's qualms about Castilian hostilities and instead gifted the wedded couple a real Papal Bull, thwarting Henry.
 
A few years later in 1474, Henry died and a succession war broke out across Castile.  Portugal supported Henry's daughter, Joanna, to take the throne, but Isabella had the support of Aragon (through Ferdinand) and later France.  The war dragged on for four years, but ultimately Sixtus IV again came to Isabella's rescue. The Pope annulled Joanna's marriage to Alfonso V of Portugal, ironically on the grounds of their close familial relationship.  Joanna was forced to renounce her titles of Princess and Queen of Castile, and the throne passed to Isabella on January 20, 1479.
 
The early years of Isabella's reign mostly involved solidifying her power base and continuing the Reconquista (Recapturing) of the Iberian Peninsula.  However, her reign became memorable, in the momentous year of 1492.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Almost everything Isabella is known for in history took place in this year: the end of the Reconquista, the patronage of Christopher Columbus, and the intensification of the Inquisition.
 
Spanning seven centuries, a lengthy war known as the Reconquista was fought by the Iberian monarchs, who were attempting to regain control of the region and force the Muslims out.  For the last 200 of these years, the Emirate of Granada remained the final stronghold of the Muslim dynasties on the Iberian Peninsula. Isabella and Ferdinand continued the war and led a determined raid into the kingdom starting in 1482.  Isabella often took it upon herself to rally her soldiers by praying in the middle of the battlefield, and even built her stronghold outside the city of Granada in the shape of a cross, believing she was doing God's will.  Eventually Isabella's forces were victorious and she signed the Treaty of Granada, ending the Reconquista after 700 years of fighting.
 
Earlier in her reign, Isabella had been approached by a young explorer by the name of Christopher Columbus, who sought funding for a new expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west.  Her advisors judged his plan impractical and believed that his proposed distance to Asia was much too short to be possible.  However, instead of turning him out as Portugal had done, Isabella gave him a small annual allowance and free lodging in all her cities.  He continued to try and sell his plan to the monarchs, and they continued to decline.
 
Upon returning from Granada, Isabella was again approached by Christopher Columbus.  On the advice of her confessor, Isabella this time firmly turned him down.  As Columbus was leaving Córdoba in despair, Ferdinand quickly convinced Isabella to change her mind.  She sent a royal guard to fetch him and began to draw up plans for funding.  Columbus left on his fateful voyage on August 3, 1492, and landed in America on October 12. Isabella and Ferdinand's patronage of the intrepid explorer began Spain's Golden Age of exploration and colonization.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain (or more succinctly, the Spanish Inquisition) was established in 1478 by Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in Castile and Aragon, and to replace the Medieval Inquisition currently under Papal control.  However, in 1492, it took a turn for the worse.
 
A Dominican friar, Tomás de Torquemada became the first Inquisitor General and pushed the two monarchs to pursue a more active policy of religious unity.  While Isabella was loathe to take harsh measures against the Jews in her kingdom (for purely economic reasons), Torquemada was able to convince Ferdinand and through him, Isabella.  The Alhambra Decree was signed on March 31, 1492, calling for the forced expulsion of the Jews. About 200,000 Jews immediately left Spain while  some others converted, but this latter group fell under strict scrutiny of the Inquisition.
 
The Muslims in the Granada region, who had originally been granted religious freedoms, were pressured to convert.  After many Muslims revolted, a policy was enacted to force conversion or expulsion, much like with the Jews.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Isabella continued to stabilize her growing empire throughout her reign, and worked to link her children with other European nations, hoping to avoid another succession war similar to her own.  She strived to finally unite the Iberian Peninsula under one crown. She married her eldest son to an Austrian Archduchess, establishing a link to the Habsburgs, and her eldest daughter to Manual I of Portugal. However, Isabella's plans were laid to waste when both children died soon after and the crown passed to her third daughter, Joanna the Mad. Joanna married Philip of Burgundy and became the last Trastámaran monarch.   After her, the crown passed to the Habsburgs.
 
Isabella died in 1504 and was entombed in the Royal Chapel of Granada.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Under Isabella, Spain was united, the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula concluded, and the power of the region centralized.  She also laid the groundwork for the most dominant military machine in the next century (The Armada), reformed the Spanish church, and led the Spanish expansions into the new American colonies.  Although many criticize her role in the Inquisition and in the persecution of Jews and Muslims, others are currently campaigning to have the late Queen canonized as a Saint in the Catholic Church.  Regardless of her questionable acts persecuting others' religious beliefs, Isabella remains one of the most influential and significant monarchs of Spain.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Queen of Castile and Leon]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[Queen Consort of Aragon, Majorca, Naples, and Valencia]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=4;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
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DiploBalance=3;
WarmongerHate=6;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=7;
Loyalty=5;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=6;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=4;
PortraitIndex=1;
IconAtlas="ISABELLA_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="B685D5DE7CCA4E7581B42F60754E6330";};
 
LEADER_PACHACUTI={
Description=[=[Pachacuti]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_PACHACUTI_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Pachacuti Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[During the 2000 Presidential elections of Peru, candidate Alejandro Toledo was nicknamed Pachacuti.
 
Pachacuti is sometimes referred to as the Napoleon of the Andes, a testament to his military prowess.
 
Pachacuti was a poet and author of the Sacred Hymns of the Situa.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Ascension to the Throne]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Creation of an Empire]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Judgement of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c.1410 - 1471 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Pachacuti]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Inca]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Pachacuti was the ninth ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco, who during his reign expanded the tiny kingdom into an expansive empire - Tawantinsuyu. Pachacuti's Incan Empire stretched from modern-day Chile to Ecuador, including most of Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina, and laid the foundation for an even larger Incan Empire to come.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Pachacuti was the son of the Inca Virococha, second in line for the throne after his older brother Urco.  The Kingdom of Cusco, at this point, was rather small and continuously threatened by the neighboring Chancas tribe. Not much is known of Pachacuti's early life, that is until he got a chance to impress his father during one of the Chancas' invasions. While his father and brother fled the battlefield, Pachacuti rallied the remaining army and not only won the day, but squashed the Chancas so thoroughly that stories were told of how the very earth itself rose up to fight for him. Pachacuti, "The Earth Shaker", was named the new crown prince and even joint ruler of Cusco.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[In 1438, Pachacuti became the sole ruler of the kingdom when his father died, and he launched an almost immediate series of successful invasions into the neighboring kingdoms.  His new empire stretched from Ecuador to Chile and became one of the most formidable kingdoms in South America.
 
While many kingdoms were gained through conquest, Pachacuti also employed a more devious tactic to acquire new regions. First he would send spies out to areas which interested him, gaining intelligence on wealth and military might.  If intrigued, he would invite the leaders of these lands to submit peacefully, extolling the virtues of living under Incan rule.  Many accepted (not wanting to repeat the fate of the Chancas) and sent their children to live in Cusco, where they were educated under Incan law. They were then indoctrinated and married into the Incan nobility before being sent back to rule their original lands, ensuring the expansion of and continued peace in the empire.
 
To keep his new land in order, he established four provinces, each controlled by a local governor who ran the day to day affairs. He also created a separate branch of power for both the priesthood and army, forming one of the first systems of checks and balances.  Cusco itself was rebuilt to serve as an Imperial Capital City, and each province had its own sector dedicated in the city.  During this time he also constructed the famed Machu Picchu, believed now to be a mountain estate built for his personal use.
 
After his death in 1471, Pachacuti's younger son Tupac became the next emperor of the Incan Empire, the elder Amaru passed over for not being a warrior like his father.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Pachacuti is viewed in Peru as a national hero, and many of the monuments he constructed around the empire still stand.  While he was well known for his political and military abilities, he wasn't the most benevolent ruler.  To ensure the continuation of his empire, he displaced hundreds of thousands of people, relocating them about the empire as he saw fit.  Despite any faults, Pachacuti began the Incans largest era of conquest, expanding their empire until it dominated nearly all of the known, inhabited South America.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Sapa Inca]=];};
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IconAtlas="PACHACUTI_LEADER_ATLAS";
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LEADER_KAMEHAMEHA={
Description=[=[Kamehameha]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_KAMEHAMEHA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Kamehameha Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Many buildings and foundations have been named in Kamehameha's honor, such as the Kamahameha Schools, Kamehameha Day, and the Royal Order of Kamehameha I.
 
Akira Toriyama, the creator of the popular manga Dragonball, named Goku's attack in Kamehameha's honor, after a visit to Hawai'i.
 
Kamehameha is the only royal monarch to ever be featured on a US coin.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life, One of Prophecy]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[First Stop, the Big Island]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[More Prophecis, More Conquering]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Napoleon of the Pacific]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Death of a Legend]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgement of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1758 - 1819 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Kamehameha I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Polynesia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[One of the most respected leaders in Hawaiian history, Kamehameha I was the first man to unify all the Hawaiian Islands, establishing the independent Kingdom of Hawai'i.  His birth and early actions in life fulfilled many ancient Hawaiian prophecies, and he became one of the greatest warriors in recorded Hawaiian history.  Beyond his military prowess, Kamehameha was also a great statesman, and established important wartime edicts which have become the basis for many humanitarian laws around the world.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Ancient legend held that one day a great king would be born who would unite the whole of the Hawaiian Islands, and a flame across the heavens would herald his coming.  In 1758, Hailey's comet streaked across the sky of Hawai'i - many accounts state that Kamehameha was born shortly thereafter.  Known originally as Pai'ea (the "hard-shelled crab"), Kamehameha was born to Chief Keōua Nui of the Big Island.  Keōua was but one of many lesser chiefs on the island, which had been split into multiple districts during a succession war in the previous generation. Alapa'inuiakauaua, a rival chief in the area, had reclaimed much of the island for himself, and was the defacto ruler.
 
At news of Pai'ea's birth Alapa'i became alarmed, for the great king of legend was also known in other records as the "killer of chiefs" - a unified Hawai'i wouldn't need tribal chiefs any longer. Alapa'i ordered the child slain.  Keōua, however, was well aware of his child's ominous birth and hid him away with another noble family.
 
For five years Pai'ea lived in secret, until Alapa'i (for reasons unknown) invited the child to return to the court under his protection.  During this time at the court, Pai'ea learned the kingly disciplines of diplomacy and war and earned his more famous name, Kamehameha, meaning "the lonely one".]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[After Alapa'i's death, Kamehameha became an aide in the new chief's court.  This lasted until 1782, when the kingship moved on to a new ruler and Kamehameha was promoted to an important religious position.  With this new found power, Kamehameha began to build himself a support base among the lesser chiefs of the Kona district of the Big Island.  Eventually garnering the support of five chiefs, Kamehameha challenged the local court.  At the battle of Moku'ohai, Kamehameha's forces defeated the ruling chief and Kamehameha became the new ruler of the Kohala, Kona, and Hamakua districts.
 
From here, Kamehameha successfully conquered the neighboring district of Puna in 1790, but soon had to face an uprising in Ka'u led by rival Keōua Kuahu'ula. Ever a religious man, Kamehameha constructed a large temple in a bid to gain the favor of his gods and the divine blessing to quash the rebellion.  In 1791 the temple was finished, and Kamehamea invited Keōua to meet with him.  Accounts differ on exactly what happened at that fateful meeting on the beach, but in the end Keōua was killed by musket fire and Kamehameha became the King of all the Big Island.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Kamehameha was driven to unite more than just the Big Island - he had his sights on ruling all of the Hawaiian Islands under one banner.  Adding fuel to his wish was another ancient legend, one which he was purported to have fulfilled.  On the Big Island a massive boulder was placed by the gods - the 3,000 pound Naha Stone.  Legend stated that a mighty warrior would emerge one day who could lift it, and he would be known as the great king and unifier of all the islands.  At age 14, Kamehameha was recorded as the only person to accomplish this feat.  Confident from his round of victories and multiple fulfilled prophecies, he began to lay the plans for the rest of the islands.
 
In a happy coincidence for Kamehameha, British and American traders began to arrive on the island and gladly sold him guns and ammunition. With his technologically superior weapons, he quickly moved to take Maui and O'ahu in 1795.  With only 10,000 soldiers he quickly decimated Maui's forces and moved onto O'ahu.  He met with fierce resistance at the cliffs of Pali (mostly from a defected commander), but in the end he defeated the enemy soldiers, driving many over the deadly cliff's edge.
 
Only two islands remained now - the western islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau.   From his capital at Honolulu, he constructed a massive warship and attempted his first invasion of Kaua'i in 1796.  A rebellion on the Big Island, led by his brother, forced him to return and reassign his forces.  Not easily foiled, he tried again to take Kaua'i in 1803, but this time a deadly disease broke out among his men.  Tired of his setbacks, Kamehameha then constructed the largest armada in Hawaiian history, filled with European schooners, massive war canoes, and deadly cannon.  The chief of Kaua'i, Kaumuali'i, viewed the approaching armada with perhaps a twinge of trepidation, and decided he'd have better luck of survival with negotiation.  In 1810 Kuamuali'i became a vassal of Kamehameha, who then became the sole ruling power in all of Hawai'i.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Not just a conquering war hero, Kamehameha immediately went to work on improving life on the islands and solidifying the unification.  He created a single legal system, established taxes, and opened official trade with Europe and the United States.  Kamehameha also created the basis for Hawai'i's eventual state constitution, the Law of the Splintered Paddle (the Mamalahoe Kanawai). This law had its humble beginnings during one of Kamehameha's early military engagements.  During a raid, Kamehameha caught his foot under a rock and was ambushed by two local fishermen, who were quite fearful of the legendary warrior.  Scared that he would kill them, they smacked him in the head with their canoe paddle, cracking it in half. While he was stunned, they ran and left him for dead.  Twelve years later, the two fishermen were found and brought to justice; at least, they thought they were. Instead, Kamehameha apologized for attacking innocents and gave the two men gifts of land, proclaiming that all noncombatants would be protected during war from here out. His Splintered Paddle law has since influenced many later humanitarian laws of war around the world.
 
During his reign, he also managed to keep Hawai'i an independent nation while all other Polynesian islands were swallowed by hungry colonial powers.  This legacy of independence earned him the nickname, the "Napoleon of the Pacific".]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[On May 8, 1819 Kamehameha died a respected king, legendary warrior, and father of seven children.  In the sacred custom of the Hawaiian religion, his body was hidden by his closest friends so that none may know of its location and steal his power, or mana, for personal use.  The site of his burial still remains a mystery to this day.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Kamehameha remains one of the most important people in Hawaiian history and one of its most respected leaders.  He abolished the practice of human sacrifice, protected the innocents during war, and established one of the few independent nations in all of Polynesia.  Whether his birth was divinely inspired or not, none can argue that he fulfilled the role of the great king foretold by ancient prophecy centuries ago.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King of the Hawaiian Islands]=];};
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IconAtlas="KAMEHAMEHA_LEADER_ATLAS";
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LEADER_HARALD={
Description=[=[Harald Bluetooth]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_HARALD_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Harald Bluetooth Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The origins of Harald's assumed name, Bluetooth, are still debated to this day. The most popular theory is that he may have had one or more dead teeth, which turned black.  The other, that his affinity for eating blueberries caused his teeth to turn blue, is the stuff of internet lore.
 
Created by Swedish telecommunications firm Ericsson in 1994, the Bluetooth wireless standard was named after Harald Bluetooth. The Bluetooth logo designed by Ericsson is actually a combination of the runes Hagall and Bjarkan, forming the initials of Harald Bluetooth.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Uniting Denmark]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Construction Projects]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Conversion to Christianity]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgement of History]=];
LIVED = [=[~920 AD -  986]=];
NAME = [=[Harald Bluetooth]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Denmark]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson was King of Denmark for nearly 30 years beginning in approximately 958 AD. During his reign, Bluetooth united the outlying tribes of Denmark and defended his people from the incursions of Norway and Germany, while overseeing the completion of vast construction projects that strengthened the defenses of his nation. Bluetooth is equally known for casting off the Norse pagan traditions of his forbearers, becoming a devout Christian who strove to peacefully convert the people of Denmark during his rule.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Although the precise date of Bluetooth's birth is unknown, based on records of his accomplishments while serving as king, it's assumed he was born sometime around 920 AD. The son of King Gorm the Old and Queen Thyra Dannebod, Bluetooth was a born and raised Viking in the truest sense. Throughout his early years, Bluetooth and his brother Canute (also known as Knud) set sail to pillage and plunder, returning to their father with the spoils of war. It is believed that Canute, the first born and favored son of Gorm, was killed in England while raiding near Ireland. Canute's death left Bluetooth as the sole heir to the throne of Denmark.  With the death of Gorm in 958 AD, Bluetooth took up the throne and proved to be a capable leader both on and off the battlefield.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Shortly after the death of his father, Bluetooth consolidated his power and quickly moved to unite the remaining discordant tribes of Denmark under one rule. Although his father Gorm is considered the first true King of Denmark, during his rule, the kingdom did not encompass the entire region, and independent tribes remained. Under Bluetooth, the entirety of Denmark, as well as parts of Norway and Sweden, fell under his rule. For a time, Bluetooth would even claim the title of King of Norway, although the extent of his authority there remains questionable.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Bluetooth commissioned a number of important construction projects throughout Denmark during his reign. In this time, "Runestones" were a common form of monument used to honor the dead and acknowledge their deeds, and Bluetooth saw fit to honor his parents in this way. Commissioning a second Jelling Stone - runestones found in the town of Jelling, Denmark-  to memorialize his parents, Bluetooth created what is today considered the most well- known example of runic inscriptions in Denmark. Featuring an easily distinguished image of Christ on the cross, the Jelling Stone erected by Bluetooth is often referred to as the "Baptism Certificate of Denmark," signifying the end of the polytheistic traditions followed by much of the Danish population.
 
Aside from the Jelling Stones, Bluetooth was also responsible for the development of a series of six Viking ring fortresses, known as the "Trelleborg." After losing control of several outlying territories to various Germanic forces, Bluetooth ordered the construction of these forts in strategic locations across Denmark in response. Capable of housing up to 500 Danish warriors, these strongholds succeeded in warding off further losses and secured the interior of Denmark from future incursions.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Bluetooth's conversion to Christianity in approximately 960 AD is a point of contention among many modern historians, mainly due to variations in the story of how his conversion came to pass. The two most notable accounts of the event come to us from contemporary historians Widukind of Corvey and Adam of Bremen. Widukind wrote that Bluetooth was converted by a cleric known simply as "Poppa," who was either a guest of the court or a missionary who found his way to Denmark. Adam of Bremen (whose account was written some 100 years later) believed that Bluetooth had been converted forcibly by Otto I of Germany following a defeat in battle.
 
Regardless of how his conversion came to be, what we can say with certainty is that Harald became a devoted follower of Christianity, not only ensuring that Christian imagery was included on the Jelling Stone commemorating his parents, but also going so far as to remove his father's body from its traditional Viking burial mound and having it reburied under the church constructed by Bluetooth, where the Jelling Stones still stand today.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[King Harald Bluetooth is generally viewed today as a just and wise king, having ruled Denmark for 30 some- odd years. He maintained the sovereignty of his country against the influences of several neighboring empires (despite some setbacks) while at the same time shaping the culture of his people for centuries to come. In the end, Bluetooth's own son, Sweyn, would rebel against him, forcing him to flee Denmark. After Bluetooth's death in 986 AD, Sweyn Forkbeard would take the throne and shape a notable legacy of his own.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King of Denmark]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[King of Norway]=];};
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MinorCivCompetitiveness=5;
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Chattiness=4;
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IconAtlas="HARALD_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="B3030D39C0D84BC791B17AD1CAF585AB";};
 
LEADER_SEJONG={
Description=[=[Sejong]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_SEJONG_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Sejong Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Republic of Korea Navy employs a class of guided missile destroyers known as "King Sejong the Great", developed under the "Korean Destroyer eXperimental (KDX)" program.
 
The likeness of King Sejong the Great appears in Korean currency on the 10,000 Won note.
 
A Korean television drama produced in 2008, entitled "Daewang Sejong," chronicled the life of Sejong the Great during his reign.
 
Designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2009, King Sejong's tomb, known as Yeongneung, is located in Gyeonggi-do in present-day South Korea.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Language, Literature, and Science]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Magnanimous Leader]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Law and the Criminal Justice System]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Military Advancements]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1397 - 1450 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Sejong the Great]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Korea]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Sejong Daewang, known to history as "Sejong the Great," was the fourth king of the Choson Dynasty of Korea, ruling from 1418 until his death in 1450. Considered by many to be the greatest king in Korean history, Sejong is known for his remarkable appreciation and respect for human life, adopting numerous civic and social policies to improve the well-being of his people. Sejong also encouraged advances in science and technology and is credited with the creation of the Korean written language, Hunminjeongeum, known today as "Hangul."]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born on May 7th, 1397, Sejong was the third son of King Taejong of the Choson Dynasty. Said to have been an exceptional student and avid reader at an early age, Sejong was named Crown Prince at age 16. At age 21, Sejong ascended to the throne, and his impact on Korean life and the kingdom's political structure would be immediate.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Sejong is perhaps most famously known for his introduction of the Korean written language, Hangul.  The "Chiphyonjon," or "Hall of Worthies," established in 1420, was a collective of noted scholars selected by the king himself. Initially created as an institute of research, the Chiphyonjon would eventually be tasked with the creation of a Korean alphabet to aid the common people in their understanding of the Korean language.  Until this time, Korea had relied on the Chinese "Hanja" script, incorporated into the Korean dialect, for all written works. However, this script was not widely understood by the masses, and Sejong sought to change this trend of illiteracy.
 
Originally known as "Hunminjeongeum," literally meaning "The Correct Sounds for the Instruction of the People," this native Korean script would usher in a new era of literacy and understanding for the common citizens of Korea. First published in 1446, it would be several years before the new script found wide acceptance. To this day, October 9th, the original date of publication, is celebrated as "Hangul Day" throughout South Korea.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Sejong's legacy is one of great benevolence, led by his strong belief that all people were worthy of his respect, not only the subjects within his kingdom, but even the so-called "barbarian tribes" scattered throughout Asia. The standard by which he measured his own success as a leader was the happiness and prosperity of his people, their welfare being his highest priority. As king, Sejong would provide surplus food supplies to the poor and elderly, and frequently abolished taxes on farmers and occasionally entire provinces that had experienced hardships due to weather or poor crop yields. Sejong was also known for inviting the elderly to banquets in their honor, regardless of the rank or social status of those attending.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Sejong mandated a number of improvements to the Korean justice system in order to provide fair trials and reasonable punishments for the convicted. Sejong believed it was unjust to hold citizens accountable for violating the law without ensuring they were provided a means to understand the laws they had broken. Despite the reluctance of his ministers, Sejong ordered the entirety of the Korean legal code be put on public display, for all to see.
 
Sejong also opposed the death penalty, and informed judges that it was not to be used unless absolutely necessary. His implementation of "The Law of Three Appeals" allowed the accused up to three appeals to the king, ensuring they were provided with an opportunity to speak on their own behalf.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Under Sejong, Korea began the development of various early gunpowder weapons, most famously the "Hwach'a," or "Fire Vehicle." Specifically designed as an anti-infantry weapon, the Hwach'a was a wheeled platform capable of launching dozens of gunpowder-propelled arrows across the battlefield. Although limited in use during Sejong's time, the Hwach'a would become a crucial defensive weapon throughout the Korean peninsula for centuries to come. During the Battle of Haengju in 1593, three thousand Korean soldiers repelled an invading Japanese force of over 30,000 by successfully utilizing the Hwach'a, inflicting over 10,000 casualities.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[In old age, Sejong is said to have continued his involvement in daily routines and government affairs, despite going blind and developing diabetes, which would be the eventual cause of his death on May 18, 1450. Sejong is remembered in history for his wise, noble, and compassionate leadership that spurred amazing advances in science and technology, and led to a revolution in the cultural development of the Korean people for centuries to come.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King of the Choson Dynasty]=];};
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DoFWillingness=7;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=6;
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IconAtlas="SEJONG_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="112C22B2530842B6B734171CCAB3037B";};
 
LEADER_NEBUCHADNEZZAR={
Description=[=[Nebuchadnezzar II]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_NEBUCHADNEZZAR_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Nebuchadnezzar II Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Nebuchadnezzar's name translates roughly as "Oh god Nabu, preserve my firstborn son" in the Akkadian language.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Years]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Upon Assuming Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Diplomacy]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Domestic Policies]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 634 - 562 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Nebuchadnezzar II]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Babylon]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Nebuchadnezzar II was king of Babylon for some 43 years (605-562 BC). He is best known for his military conquests and his restoration of the city of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar II also figures prominently in the Bible for the conquest of Judah and the forced relocation of many Israelites to Babylon.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Nebuchadnezzar (which is sometimes spelled "Nebuchadrezzar") was the oldest son of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Chaldean empire, who had done much to make Babylon into an imperial power. He served under his father in several military campaigns, and in 606 BC he commanded an army which destroyed an Egyptian army at Carchemish, securing for Babylon the control of Syria.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Upon his father's death in 605, Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon and assumed the throne. He resumed campaigning shortly thereafter, when he conquered a number of smaller states including Judah. He continued his conquests until 600, when, possibly over-extended, he lost badly to an Egyptian army. Taking advantage of Babylon's disarray, Judah and several other subject states revolted.
 
It took Nebuchadnezzar some two years to regroup and rebuild his armies, but by 598 he was on the march again, and in 597 he occupied Jerusalem, deposing the Judaian king Jehoiachin and transporting him and other prominent citizens to captivity in Babylon (most likely as hostages against further Jewish rebellions). He continued his expansionist military campaigns for the rest of his reign, clashing more or less successfully with the other powers in the Eastern Mediterranean, Asia Minor and the Middle East.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Not just a warlord, Nebuchadnezzar was also active diplomatically, sending and receiving ambassadors from nearby kingdoms. He is known to have sent an ambassador to mediate in a conflict between the Medes and the Lydians in Asia Minor.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[When not campaigning, Nebuchadnezzar spent much of his energy in rebuilding Babylon and improving its fortifications. He is known to have rebuilt many temples, paved roads, cut canals, and constructed a moat and wall around the city. He is also credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which according to legend he built to please his wife who was pining for the hills of her home in Media.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Despite his capture of Judah and relocation of the Israelites, Nebuchadnezzar appears in a mostly favorable light in the Bible. He is credited for protecting Jewish prophets and citizens from persecution; the prophet Jeremiah apparently believed that Nebuchadnezzar was God's appointed instrument of vengeance against evil-doers.
Nebuchadnezzar II died in Babylon in 562 BC. He is remembered as a successful military leader who increased the size of his empire and who strengthened and improved the capital city of Babylon, and who treated his subject people well. By all measures he earned his title of "Nebuchadnezzar the Great."]=];
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IconAtlas="NEB_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="7459BA32576444AE8E9501AD0E0EFD48";};
 
LEADER_ATTILA={
Description=[=[Attila]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ATTILA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Among the many theories and debates on the actual cause of Attila's death, the traditional lore tells the story of Attila getting drunk on the night of his wedding, and dying of a nosebleed in his sleep. Opposing theories include death by an esophageal hemorrhage or possibly murder at the hands of his new bride or assassins hired by his enemies.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Attila had at least 7 wives during his lifetime, his last wife being Hildico, a Germanic princess. His death occurred on the night of their wedding.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[The Legend of Attila]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early Life and Campaigns]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Movement Against Rome]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Story of Honoria]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[March on Italy]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 406 AD - c. 453 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Attila]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Ruler of the Hunnic Empire]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Legendary warlord and greatest leader of the Hunnic Empire, Attila the Hun is remembered by history as the mastermind behind the unrelenting terror of Europe that were the Huns. Known to the Romans as "The Scourge of God," Attila united the tribal Huns and embarked on a series of fearsome military campaigns during the 5th century AD, continually antagonizing the Romans (among others) until his abrupt death in 453.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Much of our knowledge of Attila comes from the histories of his many enemies, with most accounts being particularly unfavorable, no doubt contributing to his bloodthirsty reputation. The Huns under Attila often obliterated the cities they sacked, not only pillaging anything of value, but doing such irreconcilable damage to the settlements that they became uninhabitable. The Huns purportedly massacred the populations of these cities, subjecting any survivors to a future of slavery.
 
The Sword of Attila, known as the "Sword of Mars" to the Romans, was the legendary weapon wielded by Attila that contributed to his renown as an invincible slayer of men. It was said that no man could look Attila directly in the eyes without flinching, his unflappable gaze proving too strong for even the most commanding of his rivals. These legends spread among the people in the absence of a carefully recorded history, which wouldn't become available until later in the 5th century.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Little is known of the early life of Attila before the death of his uncle Rua, who had led a loose confederation of Hunnic tribes north of the Danube River on various short-lived military campaigns. Attila and his brother Bleda took control of the Huns, sharing a dual kingship following Rua's death in 434.  Following in the footsteps of their uncle, the two kings initially launched attacks against the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) in hopes of generating a steady income of tribute. Unfortunately for both sides, the Romans often failed to keep their word, delivering little tribute and thus incurring swift and brutal reprisals from the Hunnic raiders. The saving grace for the Byzantines may have been Attila's western ambitions, where the Hunnic army occupied itself with fresh conflicts.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The mysterious death of his brother Bleda in 445, some say by Attila's own hand, left Attila as the sole leader of an increasingly unified Hunnic force. In 447, Attila once again led his army into battle against the legions of the Eastern Roman Empire at the Battle of Utus, successfully defeating the Roman force, leaving little remaining opposition.  However, Attila's army suffered substantial casualties during the battle, which prevented him from seizing the Eastern Roman capital, Constantinople. Instead, Attila struck northward towards the Balkans (also Eastern Roman territory), sacking city after uncontested city, plundering everything his men could carry.
 
After sweeping through the Eastern Roman Empire, Attila set his sights to the west. Moving swiftly across Europe, he launched successful attacks against the Visigoths throughout Gaul in 451-452. As the Hunnic horde marched onwards, many of the various tribal people they encountered joined Attila's force, some by choice, others compelled by intimidation. Regardless, the Huns were bolstered by these new recruits, and continued to pillage their way through the region until encountering a united Visigoth-Roman force on the fields of Gaul. At The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, Attila was turned back by the Roman-led force, the only major defeat in his lifetime, providing Rome and her allies a temporary reprieve.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[It is said that the sister of Roman Emperor Valentinian III, Honoria, who had secretly plotted to murder her timid brother and seize his throne, was exiled from Rome and sent to a convent in Constantinople. During this exile, Valentinian promised his sister's hand in marriage to an unknown Roman senator. Upon learning of her betrothal, Honoria attempted to contact Attila and gain his assistance in escaping the marriage. For reasons unknown, she sent Attila her engagement ring, which Attila interpreted as a marriage proposal. Claiming half of the Western Roman Empire as his dowry, Attila moved his force to invade Italy, despite Valentinian's insistence that the proposal was invalid.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[After years of clashes with the Romans, Attila finally marched on their homeland of Italy in 452. After sacking a number of cities in the northern reaches, Attila received numerous envoys from Valentinian, including Pope Leo I, all of whom pleaded with Attila to leave Italy without pursuing Rome further. For reasons that are unclear, Attila obliged (most likely due to lack of supplies). Shortly thereafter in 453, Attila died mysteriously. Some scarce evidence suggests that it may have been a simple nosebleed that toppled the mighty Hun on the night of his wedding, while other equally questionable accounts suggest he may have been assassinated.
 
The Roman historian Jordanes wrote that Attila's men cut their hair and slashed themselves with swords to honor Attila in death, stating "The greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentations and with no tears, but with the blood of men."]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Attila the Hun's enduring legacy as a notorious warlord and bloodthirsty conqueror will be recorded in the annals of history for all time. A resourceful and committed leader, Attila pushed his armies to the limit, but had the foresight never to drive them to the point of exhaustion or mutiny, a claim bolstered by the fact that he only lost one major battle in some twenty-odd years leading the Huns. Treading fearlessly into the territory of the Romans, Attila challenged their authority at every opportunity and succeeded in bringing great wealth and notoriety to his people.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King, General]=];};
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LEADER_BOUDICCA={
Description=[=[Boudicca]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_BOUDICCA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[Unknown - c. 61 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Boudicca]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the Celts]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Boudicca, legendary warrior queen of the Celtic Iceni tribe, is noted in history for decimating a number of Roman settlements while leading an uprising of Celtic tribes against the might of the Roman army occupying England in the 1st century AD.  Although historical records from this period are limited, mainly relying on the reports of Roman historians Tacitus and Cassius Dio, the story of Boudicca's uprising is generally accepted to have gone something like this: 
 
Boudicca's husband, King Prasutagus of Iceni, had long been an ally to the Romans and maintained a sovereign rule over his people during the Roman conquest of Britain. Upon his death, he is said to have named Boudicca and their two daughters as joint-heirs, in the hopes of maintaining the rights and nobility of his family line. With little regard for their old friends, the Romans swiftly moved to annex the Iceni territory, and it can be said with certainty that the Romans' brutality in the matter was unwavering. Boudicca was publicly flogged.
 
The outrage spurred by the Romans' disrespect and brutishness towards the Iceni led Boudicca and her people to organize a rebellion with the assistance of neighboring tribes, particularly the Trinovantes. Boudicca gathered a huge force, estimated at 70,000 or more, and marched to the Roman colony of Camulodunum. The Romans, unprepared for such a vast assault, were caught off guard and found no mercy at the hands of the rebellion. The city of Camulodunum was besieged and destroyed, and the rebel army proceeded next to the city of Londinium, destroying everything of value to the Romans in their wake. Verulamium was the 3rd and final city crushed during Boudicca's uprising, burned to the ground and it's Romans citizens massacred. In all, Boudicca's army is said to have killed over 80,000 Romans and pro-Roman Britons.
 
Meeting at an unknown site in the English Midlands in 61 AD, the Roman Army and its collected legions finally faced the rebellious tribal force head-on.  Unfortunately for Boudicca, the Romans' extensive training and tactics would be the undoing of the uprising. Women and children, accompanying the rebel supply wagons, are said to have come to observe the battle and provide support. The presence of these observers on the field, however, would leave the rebels with little room to maneuver. The uprising was crushed, and some 70,000 to 80,000 rebels were killed in the ensuing battle and its aftermath. It is believed (although no means of confirmation exists) that Boudicca died by her own hand sometime shortly after the battle, the most common theory being that she consumed poison to avoid capture.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[While difficult to judge a legendary figure such as Boudicca, we can say for certain that the uprising she led against the Romans was rooted in a just cause, striking back at the occupation and the insufferable brutality the Romans inflicted upon the Celtic people.  Although the rebels under Boudicca's leadership slaughtered Roman soldiers and citizens alike, history does not judge her actions as unscrupulous, having also seen the ways of the unmerciful Romans. While there are few details of Boudicca's life before the rebellion, her legacy as a noble warrior, who died to defend the freedoms of her people, will live on in history for ages to come.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Queen of the Iceni]=];};
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LEADER_DIDO={
Description=[=[Dido]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_DIDO_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Dido has been the subject of more than a dozen plays and operas, as her story became particularly popular in the 17th and 18th centuries.  One of the earliest pieces, the 16th century play "Dido, Queen of Carthage" written by Christopher Marlowe, was later the basis for the 17th century opera entitled "Dido and Aeneas" by Henry Purcell.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 800 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Dido]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Carthage]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The story of Dido, Queen of Carthage, is, as most legends are, filled with intrigue and deception. Retold through the words of Roman historians and later the esteemed poet Virgil in his epic the Aeneid, Dido's tale begins with her life as the daughter of King Mattan of Tyre.  The Kingdom of Tyre was part of the ancient Phoenician civilization, geographically located in what is today modern Lebanon. Dido, who was often referred to as "Elissa" in the ancient historical records, was heir to the throne of Tyre following her father's death, sometime around 800 BC. Named joint-ruler with her brother, Pygmalion, Dido's rule was not widely accepted by the people. Despite her father's intention for her to share the throne with her brother, Pygmalion was recognized as King of Tyre, and Dido was left with little authority.
 
Not long after, Dido was married to a priest named Acerbas, who, by some accounts may have been her uncle. Acerbas is said to have been possessed of considerable wealth, which he concealed by burying his treasures underground. King Pygmalion, knowing of this wealth, had Acerbas murdered in hopes of claiming the gold that would rightfully go to his sister. Although accounts vary, Dido eventually became aware of her husband's death at the hands of her brother. The ghost of Acerbas himself is said to have appeared before her one night and warned her to flee the kingdom, while at the same time revealing the location of his hidden gold. It was the careful formation of her plan to escape Pygmalion's grasp that provided history's first glimpse of the clever nature for which Dido was best known.
 
In order to keep from arousing her brother's suspicions, Dido told Pygmalion she wished to travel the world, with the intention of sending tribute and gifts back to Tyre. Agreeing to her trip, Pygmalion provided Dido with a small fleet of ships and various servants to help her prepare for the journey. After quietly loading the ships with bags of gold from Acerbas' hoard, Dido set her plan in motion. In order to deceive Pygmalion, Dido ordered the servants to load bags filled with sand on to the upper decks, to be used as decoys. After setting sail, Dido declared the gold to be an offering to the spirit of her dead husband, and had the bags of sand thrown overboard into the sea. Pygmalion, thinking the gold was lost forever, made no attempt to pursue Dido or her party.
 
Now searching for a new home, Dido and her party first stopped on the island of Cyprus, where a group of local stragglers joined her crew. Eventually they made landfall along the coast of northern Africa, and began negotiating a price with the local chieftain for a small piece of land on which to found their new settlement. As the agreement went, Dido could have as much land as she could encompass with a single ox hide, with the local leader believing he was getting quite a deal. The quick-witted Dido conceived of another angle on the proposal; by cutting the ox hide into thin strips, then into even smaller fibers, she created a length of rope long enough to encircle a wide area including a prominent hill nearby. Thus, the city of Carthage was founded, and Dido's legacy as a crafty and capable leader was sealed.
 
Dido ruled Carthage as its first queen, and, as the legend continues, was eventually the object of several suitors, including the Trojan prince Aeneas. In Virgil's account, Aeneas was brought to Carthage through the manipulative workings of the Greek gods. Dido and Aeneas became lovers, and when Aeneas left Dido to continue on his journey, Dido was so distraught that she committed suicide.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[It is difficult to judge a legendary figure such as Dido, for her achievement in the founding of mighty Carthage still remains steeped in myth and mystery. Despite the lore surrounding her life, Dido's reputation as a cunning leader lives on in history and her tale continues to garner interest to this day.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Queen of Carthage]=];};
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LEADER_GUSTAVUS_ADOLPHUS={
Description=[=[Gustavus Adolphus]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_GUSTAVUS_ADOLPHUS_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Gustavus Adolphus Day is celebrated on November 6th of each year in Sweden, Estonia and Finland.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Adolphus's charge, "Gott Mit Uns!" was also used by a number of armies and empires throughout history, including the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, and the Third Reich of Germany.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Conflicts of his Father]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early Reign]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Political Reforms]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Military Innovations]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[On the Battlefield]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1594 AD - 1632 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Gustavus Adolphus]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Sweden]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Revered Swedish king and military commander Gustavus Adolphus, known most famously as "The Lion of the North," ascended to the throne at the age of 17 and quickly established his reputation as both a skilled military strategist and an innovator in the art of warfare. Inheriting a complex web of domestic and foreign conflicts from his father, the usurper King Charles IX, Adolphus wasted no time in forming alliances with the once hostile nobility, crushing the enemies of Sweden, and leading his nation to the upper echelon of power in Europe during the 17th century.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Much of the turmoil awaiting Adolphus upon his succession was the direct result of his father's brief reign as king. At the time of Adolphus's birth, his father was Duke Charles, serving as regent over Sweden in place of his nephew, King Sigismund of Poland.  While both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Sigismund was also the rightful king of Sweden, son of the prior Swedish king, John III. However, by this point in history Sweden was a majority Protestant state, with Charles being a vocal Protestant himself, while Sigismund was a devout Catholic. Fearing the potential for Sweden's forcible return to Catholicism, a personal union between Sweden and Poland was formed instead. Sharing the same king - but independent of law and culture - this union allowed Duke Charles to lead as regent over Sweden while Sigismund remained in Poland, separating the opposing religious factions.
 
As regent, Charles was seen as a protector of Protestant beliefs, and he used the increasing religious tension to his own advantage. Exerting his own authority over the regional governors in Sweden still loyal to the king, Charles incited a civil war with the followers of Sigismund. After a number of brief conflicts, the situation culminated at the Battle of Stangebro in 1598, when the invading army of Sigismund was soundly defeated.  Captured and returned to Poland, Sigismund was left with little support in Sweden. In 1600, the Riksdag, Sweden's parliamentary council, acknowledged that Sigismund had abdicated the throne and named Charles as King of Sweden.
 
The events leading up to Charles's coronation would have a lasting impact on the future reign of Adolphus. Not only was the personal union between Poland and Sweden broken, but Sigismund maintained his claim to the throne of Sweden, and refused to end his pursuit of the lost crown. As a result, a near constant state of war between the two nations followed for the next 50 years.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[While Charles is credited with protecting the Protestant beliefs of the Swedish people, his right to kingship was dubious at best. After leading Sweden for only seven years, Charles died in 1611, leaving his son to bear the burden of his tumultuous reign. Adolphus, who had already served with his father in the military during the prior years, was crowned king at age 17. Immediately after his ascension, he sought to quell the concerns of the Swedish nobility, whose involvement and authority in governing via the Riksdag had been reduced under Charles. According to the regulations of the parliament, Adolphus was too young to become king at 17. However, a compromise was reached, Adolphus became king, and in return he granted the nobility seats on his Privy Council, a collective of the king's closest advisors.
 
Adolphus was faced with conflicts from three distinct rivals, with growing tension from Denmark and Russia coinciding with the ongoing feud involving Sigismund and Poland. With the potential for wars on three fronts, Adolphus quickly moved to ease some of Sweden's military engagements. The ongoing conflict with Poland and Sigismund was tenuously settled with a truce in 1611, a peace that was renewed each year while both sides dealt with turmoil elsewhere.
 
The Kalmar Conflict was brought about by Sweden's attempts to claim the region of Finnmark in Norway, allowing Swedish traders to circumvent the Danish tax levied on those who passed through the strait connecting the Baltic and North Seas. Relying heavily on these taxes, and fearful of the Swedes developing an alternative trade route, the Danes declared war on Sweden in 1611. The Swedish effort was initially led by Charles, who died soon after and left Adolphus with little means to win the war. After two years of conflict, and the loss of several key Swedish fortresses, the war was finally settled in 1613 with the Peace of Knared. Although Sweden paid a hefty price to regain its lost fortresses, they managed to gain an exemption from any future tax when passing through the sound.
 
The Ingrian War with Russia arose in 1610 from attempts by Charles to gain the throne of Russia for his other son, Charles Philip. Charles's death shortly after the start of the war left Adolphus to settle the conflict. Battles waged throughout Russia for seven years, with gains and losses for both sides countering any real progress. The war was concluded in 1617 with the signing of the Treaty of Stolbovo, whereupon Sweden gained several provinces, but also returned some of the territory acquired in conquest. Sweden also acknowledged Michael Romanov as the rightful Tsar of Russia as part of the agreement.
 
These early conflicts provided Adolphus with an opportunity to hone his skills as both king and commander. Learning the ways of diplomacy and warfare at an early age provided Adolphus with valuable experience, preparing him for the greater battles looming in his future.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Per the agreement reached upon his succession, Adolphus granted increased authority to the Riksdag council, elevating its status from that of a ceremonial body to a governing council that could convene at its own behest and make decisions impacting national policy. As a result, Adolphus formed a close working relationship with Axel Oxenstierna, a noble who he named High Chancellor of the Privy Council. Through Oxenstierna's careful guidance, many of Adolphus's most notable domestic policies were formed. Among their most notable achievements, in 1617, the establishment of four clearly defined "estates" within the Riksdag - consisting of the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, and the peasantry - ensured that every member of Swedish society was given a stake and a voice on the national stage.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Among the many names bestowed upon Gustavus Adolphus by his peers and historians alike, his reputation as "The Father of Modern Warfare" comes from the pioneering military tactics and weaponry developed during his reign. Numerous innovations still in use by modern armies were conceived of by Adolphus, including mobile light artillery, varied formations with mixed troop types, and aggressive offensive tactics that countered the formal defensive strategies employed during his time. Adolphus is notably credited as one of the earliest to equip his men with paper firearm cartridges, combining pre-measured amounts of gunpowder with the projectile in a paper cone. By eliminating the need to measure and pour gunpowder while in the field, Adolphus increased both the reliability and speed of his men's weapons.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The heart of Adolphus's legacy was his ability to command on the battlefield, and he was something of a natural, learning the ways of war during his early teenage years while his father was still king. Adolphus was injured several times in battle, including a gunshot wound that left a musket ball entrenched near his neck. Never one to back down from his duties, Adolphus soldiered on with the wound, fighting in a number of battles while wearing only a flexible leather cuirass to ease the pain caused to him by wearing heavy iron armor.
 
Of the numerous battles fought by Sweden under his watchful eye, his most notable came during the Thirty Years War. Primarily a conflict between the Protestant states and the Catholic forces serving the Holy Roman Empire, the Thirty Years' War was a highly destructive conflict that left an indelible mark on Europe. Although a number of factors led to the outbreak of fighting in 1618, Sweden remained neutral until 1630, when Adolphus saw fit to aid the German Protestants and defend Sweden from the expanding ambitions of the Holy Roman Emperor. Led by Adolphus and his charge "Gott Mit Uns!" meaning "God is with us!" the armies of Sweden enjoyed a number of early successes, crushing the Catholic forces and stalling their advance.
 
Perhaps his most famous confrontation, known as the Battle of Breitenfeld, was fought in 1631 in Saxony (present-day Germany). With effective use of mobile artillery, and a series of astutely timed maneuvers led by the Finnish light cavalry, the "Hakkapeliittas," Adolphus and his army crushed the Imperial forces, capturing the enemy artillery positions and using their own weapons against them. A complete and utter triumph for the united Protestant forces, the victory at Breitenfeld cemented Adolphus's reputation as an able leader and dangerous foe to the Holy Roman Empire.
 
Shortly thereafter at the Battle of Lech in Bavaria in 1632, Adolphus led an army of 40,000 Swedish troops against a smaller contingent of Catholic forces led by Count Johan Tzerclaes. Under the cover of mobile artillery support, Adolphus sent his Hakkapeliitta across the river Lech using temporary bridges. Once across, the elite cavalry units dug in and created a defensive position allowing the remainder of the army to cross. Adolphus quickly led a charge against the Catholic forces and Tzerclaes was wounded, later dying of his injuries.
 
Adolphus's final battle would come at Lutzen, Germany, late in 1632, when he was separated from his men while leading a charge through dense smoke, and was killed by gunfire. Bewildered by the loss of their great king, the Swedish ranks were soon in chaos, yet somehow still managed to force the Imperial army's retreat. Although Sweden suffered several defeats following Adolphus's death, by the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War, Sweden had emerged as one of the strongest nations in Europe, due in no small part to Gustavus Adolphus's brilliant leadership.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Nearly 200 years after Adolphus's death, esteemed French commander Napoleon Bonaparte sung his praises as one of the greatest military commanders in history. Consistently leading his forces to victory on the battlefield, Adolphus shaped the future of warfare through his previously unheard-of tactical innovations and strategy. Although his father left a legacy of conflict for Adolphus to resolve, he rose to the occasion and elevated the Kingdom of Sweden to the height of military and political power.]=];
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LEADER_MARIA={
Description=[=[Maria Theresa]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_MARIA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Maria Theresa was actually born Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina, and during her lifetime she held nearly two-dozen titles designating her rule, serving as Queen, Archduchess, Princess, and Lady of the Mark to the lands of the Habsburg Empire.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Reign]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Holy Roman Empress]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Seven Years War]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[State Reforms]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Maternal Instincts]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
I_HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
I_HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
I_HEADING_3 = [=[Accession]=];
I_HEADING_4 = [=[Madness]=];
I_HEADING_5 = [=[Escape to Brazil]=];
I_HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
I_LIVED = [=[1734 - 1816 AD]=];
I_NAME = [=[Maria I]=];
I_SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Portugal]=];
I_TEXT_1 = [=[In a dynasty characterized by tragedy and madness for centuries, Maria I is undoubtedly the best known to the world, and perhaps the best beloved by the Portuguese people. As Queen of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, she was known as Maria the Pious while ruling in Portugal, or Maria the Mad after fleeing to Brazil in 1807 from Napoleon's invasion. Incapacitated by her growing madness, Maria I died in Rio de Janeiro in 1816.]=];
I_TEXT_2 = [=[Maria, raised and educated at court with her 3 younger sisters, devoted her greatest attention to religion and theology. Enthralled by the ritual and clarity of faith, Maria spent long hours in prayer and devotions. Accounts by court visitors note that she was graceful although tall, with sharp features but a warm smile. However, as early as her teens, she suffered from bouts of melancholy and nervous agitation, which occasionally confined her to her bed.
 
As Maria grew to adulthood, she wed Pedro III, the younger brother of her father. Despite their age difference - Maria was 25 and Pedro 42 at the time of their wedding - the marriage was stable and happy. Both were very pious, attending mass several times a day together. Pedro had his palace at Queluz torn down and constructed a new one in the style of Versailles, which Maria admired; the couple took up residence there in 1764 AD. Maria would over the years give birth to seven children, although only three survived to adulthood.]=];
I_TEXT_3 = [=[In 1776 AD, the king Jose I suffered a stroke, dying in February 1777. Following the earthquake and tidal wave that had devastated Lisbon and Portugal's coast in 1755, and an assassination attempt in 1778, Jose had increasingly left the governing of the nation in the ruthless hands of his secretary of state, the Marquess of Pombal, who's methods of reform were brutal and came at the cost of civil liberties and personal freedoms. Maria's first act upon coming to the throne was to dismiss him from the government, primarily because of his unstinting anti-Jesuit policies.
 
The next few years saw Portugal gradually embroiled in the affairs of Europe. In the face of the French Revolution an alliance with Great Britain was forged. In July 1782, Portugal joined the League of Armed Neutrality hoping to remain outside the spreading conflict of the Napoleonic Wars. Maria and her consort spent these years as patrons of the arts, especially interested in promoting religious works and in construction projects.]=];
I_TEXT_4 = [=[The queen had long suffered from religious mania and melancholia, but her mental state was first acknowledged in early 1786 AD when she had to be carried back to her apartments in a fit of delirium after a religious ceremony. Her state worsened when later that year her husband died after a short illness, followed two years later by her eldest son, and her only surviving daughter Mariana. That same year, the queen's long-time confessor also passed away. The cumulative effect of these events was to topple Maria I into complete madness.
 
In 1792, the council of ministers concluded that their queen was insane, and requested that her only surviving son, Joao, "assume the direction of public affairs." In 1799, he would take on the mantle of Prince Regent of Portugal as his mother was unfit to rule. Maria I was confined to the palace, occasionally roaming the corridors wailing "Ai Jesus" and calling for her dead husband and children.]=];
I_TEXT_5 = [=[In 1807 AD, the government's refusal to join Napoleon's blockade against Great Britain culminated in a French-Spanish invasion. Unable to resist defeat, Joao, at the urging of the British government, decided to flee with the entire royal family and his ministers to the Portuguese Viceroyalty of Brazil. Although Wellington would liberate Portugal in the Peninsula War, the royal family remained in Brazil for some years afterward.
 
Maria herself spent most of her remaining life in the Carmo Convent in Rio de Janeiro. During the eight years there, she suffered increasingly from physical ailments, including dysentery and tropical fevers; arthritis and oedema confined her to a wheelchair, and eventually to her bed. When her son or family members came to visit, she would repeatedly scream, "I want to die!" At last, at the age of 81, her tragic life ended.]=];
I_TEXT_6 = [=[Despite her madness, Maria I is a greatly admired figure in both Portugal and Brazil, due to the changes and events that took place during her reign. In Portugal, she is now regarded as a strong female figure in its long history. Her place in the culture of that land is best displayed in the Queluz National Palace, a baroque masterpiece that she helped conceive. In Brazil, she is thought to be one of the key figures in the eventual independence of that nation. While her personal life may have been lamentable, her historical legacy is not.]=];
I_TITLES_1 = [=[Queen-Regent of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves]=];
LIVED = [=[1717 AD - 1780 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Maria Theresa]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Austria]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[During the 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire and the powerful Habsburg Monarchy of Austria were led by the ever-persistent Maria Theresa, who defied the European powers opposed to her reign and bravely served the subjects of her kingdom. In nearly 650 years of Habsburg rule, Maria Theresa was the first and only female to ever lead the empire, and she proved to be among the most successful rulers in their history.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Maria Theresa's rise to the Habsburg throne was fraught with controversy and turmoil from the onset. Her father, King Charles VI, had no sons, and as such had no rightful heir to the throne according to the existing laws of succession. In an effort to maintain his royal line and ensure that Theresa would rule as queen, Charles issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, declaring his intention to pass the crown on to his daughter. Although the edict was recognized for a time, following Charles's death in 1740 and Theresa's coronation, forces led by France and Prussia challenged her right to the throne and initiated the War of Austrian Succession. Backed by Great Britain, Theresa was adamant in her resistance to surrendering the throne or Austrian territory to her rivals. Unfortunately, her father had left the empire in an unstable position, with a depleted treasury making it impossible to bolster her undersized, poorly equipped military. After nearly eight years of fighting, during which time Austria suffered several crushing defeats and was forced to cede the mineral-rich territory of Silesia to Prussia, the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle finally ended the war. Although Theresa was now secure in her rule of the Habsburg dominion, Austria's rivalry with Prussia was only in its infancy, with a greater fight still to come.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Traditionally, the ruler of the Austrian Habsburg domain was also the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, a designation bestowed by the Pope. However, as was the case with her ascension to the Habsburg throne, laws of the time dictated that a woman could not be elected Holy Roman Empress. To circumvent this regulation, Maria Theresa named her husband, Francis Steven, as co-ruler of her lands in Austria and Hungary, allowing him to be named Holy Roman Emperor and she his empress consort. Although this relationship as a consort would normally imply a lesser position of authority, Francis Steven bowed to the wisdom and guidance of Maria Theresa, who handled all matters of rule personally.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Renewed hostilities between Austria and Prussia led to the outbreak of the Seven Years War in 1756, with shifting alliances weighing heavily on the outcome. In an event known as the Diplomatic Revolution, Great Britain now allied with Prussia, while France shifted its allegiance to Austria. This reverse of alliances came about as national priorities shifted, with Britain viewing the powerful Kingdom of Prussia as the stronger ally against its traditional rival in France. The territory of Silesia was once again the primary focus of the conflict, with Maria Theresa desperately trying to regain the valuable region lost during the war for succession. Despite their best efforts, Austria again failed to reclaim Silesia, with the Treaty of Hubertusburg in 1763 marking the end of the war and reaffirming Prussian control of the territory.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Austria's coffers had long been depleted by the time Maria Theresa was crowned, her father having focused much of his energy on securing the Pragmatic Sanction rather than internal affairs of the state. As such, one of Maria's first objectives was to increase Austria's revenue stream through taxation and balanced expenditures. Taxing both the nobility and members of the clergy, who had been previously been exempt from taxation, Maria's efforts quickly improved the faltering economy of Austria.
 
With economic security in place, Maria directed her Supreme Chancellor, Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz, to enlarge and modernize the army of Austria. Creating a standing army of over 100,000 men, Haugwitz developed training standards and codified military regulations to increase the professionalism of Austria's armed forces.
 
Maria is also known for strict educational reforms, enacted by force, requiring all children between the ages of six and twelve to attend school, regardless of gender or upbringing.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[After struggling with the conflicts surrounding her own ascension to the throne, Maria Theresa notably gave birth to 16 children in just under 20 years. Making a clear effort to secure her family lineage through a suitable male heir, Theresa's fourth child, Joseph, would eventually become the future king and Holy Roman Emperor. Perhaps the most famous of her children, Marie Antonia, later known as Marie Antoinette, went on to become Queen of France in 1774 and was executed for treason during the French Revolution.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Maria Theresa is viewed today as a wise, contemplative leader, whose conservative policies and careful judgment improved the welfare of the Austrian people as well as those within the Habsburg dominion. Although she inherited the throne during a tumultuous period, with little personal experience in governing, she managed to secure her crown and assertively rule the Habsburg monarchy for 40 years.]=];
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LEADER_PACAL={
Description=[=[Pacal]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_PACAL_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[The name Pacal means "Shield," or "Sun Shield," in Mayan.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rejuvenation of Palenque]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[603 AD - 683 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Pacal]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the Maya]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Commonly known as "Pacal the Great," the Mayan king K'inich Janaab' Pakal is perhaps the most renowned of all Mayan rulers. Ascending to the throne at the tender age of 12 and ruling for nearly 70 years thereafter, Pacal inherited the city-state of Palenque during a time of great turmoil. Although the historical details surrounding his reign are often hazy, Pacal is best known for reinvigorating the ravaged city, which had been sacked repeatedly during the rule of his predecessors. Leading a vast construction effort, Pacal oversaw the creation of immense and remarkably detailed structures throughout his domain. Most famously, Pacal's burial tomb, known as the Temple of Inscriptions, features an intricately carved history of the king's life presented in Mayan glyphs. With an astonishing number of well preserved inscriptions, the temple has given contemporary archaeologists crucial insight into the once lost history and culture of this great Mayan city.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Pacal's mother, Lady Zac-Kuk, was one of few women to ever rule independently over a Mayan city-state. Typically the crown was only passed on to the son of a king, but in the absence of a suitable male heir, leadership was bestowed upon Lady Zac-Kuk, who asserted her right to the throne as the granddaughter of a past queen. Ruling for 3 years until Pacal came of age, this unusual deviation in the traditionally patriarchal society led directly to the later efforts of Pacal to legitimize his reign and the rule of his family line.
 
When Pacal did take the throne in 615, the city of Palenque was in a tumultuous position, having been the target of frequent incursions from the neighboring kingdom of Calakmul in the preceding years. Making a clear statement to Palenque's rivals early in his reign, Pacal sent his own raiding parties against the Calakmul, capturing several of their leaders and sacrificing them in retribution for the attacks.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[With the intention of both returning Palenque to its former glory, and also establishing the legitimacy of his rule, Pacal initiated the construction of grand monuments throughout the city, with reliefs extolling the virtues of his family line. A number of impressive structures were built, including the Temple of the Count and the large central complex known simply as "The Palace," featuring a peculiar four-story tower unlike any seen throughout the Mayan realm. Yet, of the many edifices assembled during his reign, none surpassed the Temple of Inscriptions. Built to serve as Pacal's burial tomb, construction began on the stepped pyramid during the final years of his life and continued under his successor, Chan Bahlum II.
 
Featuring intricate carvings and hieroglyphic text, the temple is best known for housing Pacal's ornate sarcophagus. First discovered by Mexican archeologists in 1952, the walls of Pacal's tomb in the lower level of the temple contain the longest set of Mayan glyphs ever found. Although still the subject of interpretation today, the glyphs appear to chronicle the events of Pacal's life leading up to his death and the ascension of his heir.
 
The sarcophagus itself features an elaborately detailed stone lid with glyphs representing the planets and several constellations. These celestial elements in particular have contributed to controversial theories regarding the involvement of extraterrestrials in the Mayan culture, similar to theories surrounding the ancient Egyptian pyramids. While most esteemed researchers believe the sarcophagus depicts Pacal's journey to the underworld, other sources interpret this imagery as Pacal at the controls of a spaceship preparing for launch. Inside the sarcophagus, archaeologists discovered the skeletal remains of Pacal, wearing a finely crafted jade mosaic in the form of a mask.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Pacal the Great is considered by historians to be one of the most revered leaders in Mayan history, based on the remarkable monuments and sculptural creations found throughout Palenque. In his time as king, nearly 1000 structures were assembled in the city, requiring stones that weighed up to 15 tons. Although his past is still being uncovered today, we can say with certainty that his efforts to restore the kingdom of Palenque led to the assembly of some of the greatest monuments and art ever created by the Maya.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King]=];};
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LEADER_THEODORA={
Description=[=[Theodora]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_THEODORA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Both Theodora and Justinian are recognized today as saints in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Although Theodora was a member of the Monophysites, her work to reconcile relations between the two competing ideologies coupled with her other virtuous aspirations solidified her place as one worthy of saintly recognition.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Theodora and Justinian are represented in a series of famous mosaic panels at the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy.]=];
FACT_3 = [=[The former settlement of Olbia, Libya, was at one time known as "Theodorias," named after the Empress Theodora.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Ascension to the Throne]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Political Influence]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Religion]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Nika Revolt]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 497 AD - 548 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Theodora]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Empress of the Byzantine Empire]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Theodora, wife of Justinian I and Empress of the Byzantine Empire, ruled one of history's preeminent empires during the 1st millennium AD. Known today as the most influential woman of the Byzantine Empire, Emperor Justinian named Theodora co-ruler of the empire, trusting in her wise counsel to guide his reign. Rising from humble beginnings, Theodora would become known throughout the empire - and history - as a tactful, trusted advisor to her emperor. She would be so crucial to the progress of the empire that some think it was Theodora, not Emperor Justinian, who truly guided the people of Byzantium during her lifetime.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Most of our knowledge of Theodora comes from the writings of noted Byzantine historian Procopius of Caesarea, who extensively documented the life and times of the Byzantine Empire during Theodora's reign in the 6th century. Theodora's early life as we know it was a colorful one, her father having been a bear-keeper at the Hippodrome, her mother an acrobat. Said to have had exceptional intelligence and wit, Theodora supported herself independently as an actress for some time before catching the eye of Justinian, then heir to the throne of his uncle, Justin I.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[As mistress to Justinian, Theodora's beauty and intelligence made such an impression that he elevated her to the rank of patrician, where she joined the aristocratic families of the empire. Although Byzantine law prevented members of the government from marrying entertainers such as Theodora, Justinian's devotion to her was apparently enough that he had the law repealed. In 525, Justinian and Theodora were married, and shortly after his ascension to the throne as Emperor in 527, Theodora became "Augusta," or Empress of the Byzantine Empire.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Theodora was no ordinary consort to the Emperor; Justinian ensured that she was named co-ruler, an important distinction that provided her with a much greater role in political affairs. During her reign, she was influential in the institution of numerous progressive (even by modern standards) policies. Theodora is credited with pressing Justinian to increase the rights of women within the empire, not only expanding their right to property ownership, but also reforming divorce laws that previously favored men.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Theodora was what is known as a "Monophysite Christian," meaning she believed that Jesus Christ was an entirely divine being, unlike the more prevalent Orthodox belief that Jesus had a dual nature (divine yet with an earthly body). This ideology was highly controversial at the time, and considered divisive and heretical by many members of the Orthodox Church. Despite Justinian's Orthodox beliefs, Theodora maintained her own independence as a Monophysite, and even sheltered the Monophysite leaders who were often oppressed by the Orthodox majority. Theodora is also known to have founded a Monophysite monastery in the city of Sycae near Constantinople.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The fortitude of Theodora and Justinian would be tested during the Nika Revolt, an uprising led by two opposing political factions (the Greens and the Blues), who attempted to install a rival Emperor to usurp Justinian's power. As the story goes, Justinian's natural instinct was to flee the city, but Theodora encouraged him to stand fast. Imploring Justinian to remain in the city, Theodora argued that it was better to die as an Emperor than as a fugitive. Believing in the wisdom of Theodora's words, Justinian remained in Constantinople and ordered his most loyal general, Flavius Belisarius, to attack the rebels. Herding the dissidents into the Hippodrome, Belisarius and his men annihilated them, brutally killing thousands, and quashing the rebellion.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Empress Theodora left an indelible mark on history as one of the most powerful women of her era. It's clear that her influence affected many of the decisions put forth by her husband and, many historians agree, had it not been for Theodora's wise counsel during the Nika Revolt, Justinian's rule as Emperor would likely have ended, and the integrity of the empire itself would have been at risk.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Empress]=];};
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LEADER_SELASSIE={
Description=[=[Haile Selassie]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_SELASSIE_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Haile Selassie was the first person of African descent to ever appear on the cover of Time magazine, when he was featured shortly after his coronation in 1930. He was also named "Time Man of the Year" in 1935.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Of the many rumors surrounding Selassie's death, a consistently reoccurring report states that his bones were discovered buried in the Imperial palace underneath a lavatory.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life and Politics]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Emperor to Exile]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Return to Power]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Decades of Rule]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Imprisonment and Death]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Rastafarian God]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1892 - 1975 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Haile Selassie]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Ethiopia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Known as the "Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah," "King of Kings," and "Elect of God," Haile Selassie ruled Ethiopia as emperor for nearly 40 years in the 20th century. Born as Lij Tafari Makonnen in 1892, the man who came to be known as Haile Selassie spent his life serving the interests of Ethiopia and bringing his nation to the forefront of African politics. Best known for reforming the ancient feudal practices of Ethiopia through his attempts at modernizing the nation, Haile Selassie worked tirelessly to gain international recognition for Ethiopia on the world stage. His legacy in global politics has been surpassed only by his role as the messiah of the Rastafari religion, among whose followers he is venerated as the god who will lead the Rastas back to their homeland of Ethiopia.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[As the son of a provincial governor, Haile Selassie spent his formative years under the tutelage of several mentors selected by his father, including an influential monk named Abba Samuel. As his education continued, Selassie was seen fit to rule as governor of several minor provinces, and by age 17, had already established himself as a rising political star. During his time as governor, Selassie emerged as a progressive thinker among his peers, introducing policies that reduced the feudal control of the nobles by increasing the authority of the central government.
 
In 1916, Haile Selassie was named Regent Plenipotentiary, serving under Empress Zewdito, placing him in the position of heir apparent to the throne. With both conservative and progressive supporters alike, Selassie was the ideal regent. However, over the course of his appointment, Selassie's support among the progressives throughout Ethiopia continued to grow, much to the chagrin of the conservative Empress. Although Empress Zewdito was the nominal leader of Ethiopia, as regent, Selassie handled much of the government's administration himself. During this period, Selassie is credited with ensuring Ethiopia's membership in the League of Nations, an inclusion that came about as a result of his efforts to abolish slavery in Ethiopia.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[As Haile Selassie's influence and popular support continued to climb, the Empress was forced to confront the would-be ruler. In 1928, Empress Zewdito attempted to remove Selassie from office by accusing him of treason, but her efforts found little backing. Selassie's popularity at this point was widespread, and he garnered a great deal of support from within the military, leaving Zewdito with little means to assert her claims. As a result of the confrontation, Zewdito was forced to name Haile Selassie King of Ethiopia, a title beneath her own, but still acknowledging his increasing authority within the nation. Less than two years later, the Empress died of unexplained causes, leaving the throne of Ethiopia vacant for Selassie to claim as his own. It was following his coronation as emperor in 1930 that he first came to use the name Haile Selassie, which meant "Power of the Trinity" in the Amharic language used in Ethiopia. Soon after taking the throne, Selassie was instrumental in the creation of the first written constitution of Ethiopia, a task he would later mention in his autobiography as having planned since his time as regent.
 
In 1935, the Italian regime led by Benito Mussolini declared war on Ethiopia, invading in the fall. This conflict came to be known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War (the first having occurred in the late 1800s). After brief fighting between the Italian and Ethiopian forces, including several battles led by Selassie himself, Italy succeeded in occupying and eventually annexing the African nation.
 
With Italy's successful campaign against Ethiopia, Haile Selassie was forced into exile, but not before pleading the case for Ethiopia's defense at the League of Nations. Despite his galvanizing speech that railed against the Fascist movement of Italy, his plea fell on deaf ears, and Selassie was left to bide his time. He would spend the next five years residing in England, where he continued to speak out against the Italian occupation and attempted to garner support from the international community for a movement to reclaim his country.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[With the outbreak of World War II, in 1939, efforts were finally undertaken to liberate Ethiopia from the Italian regime, spearheaded by the British during the East African Campaign. Joined by selected units of the Ethiopian military, this liberation army came to be known as the Gideon Force and was instrumental in the fight to retake the Ethiopian homeland. By 1942, the Italians had surrendered and were forced to acknowledge the renewed sovereignty of Ethiopia, with Haile Selassie returning to the capital city of Addis Ababa. Having found little solidarity in the League of Nations, Selassie became a major proponent of the United Nations, with its increased provisions for international security, and secured Ethiopia's position as a founding member in 1948.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Over the following years, Selassie continued his quest to modernize Ethiopia through reform while also improving his nation's foreign affairs and international recognition. In the 1960s Selassie led the Organization of African Unity, predecessor to the modern African Union. With the goal of creating solidarity between the independent states of the African continent, Selassie believed that a unified voice would strengthen the people of Africa. Although Selassie tried to establish the organization as more than just an ideological entity, the organization was left with little authority or actual power without the backing of a military force.
 
While working with the international community, Selassie was also focused on improving the welfare of his people at home. Although his efforts to break the nobility's hold on land ownership were met with limited success, the initiative sparked a movement that carried on past his reign. Reforms were also made to provide greater access to educational facilities, while economic programs ensured a just system of taxation. Despite the goodwill generated by these domestic programs, Selassie's efforts to increase his own authority through modifications to the constitution resulted in an increasingly visible dissident movement.
 
Late in the 1960s, Marxist ideologies took root in Ethiopia, and as the people suffered through a famine and drought in the early 1970s, Selassie's popularity dwindled. An economic crisis that led to soaring inflation would be the final straw, as Selassie tenuously maintained his position until 1974, when he was deposed and arrested by a Marxist military group known as The Derg.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[While living under house arrest, Haile Selassie died mysteriously in 1975, with conflicting reports as to the exact cause. While the official account from the military stated that he died as a result of illness, many still believe that he was assassinated by his captors. It wasn't until some 25 years later, in November of 2000, that Haile Selassie was finally given a proper funeral befitting his status.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[The Rastafarian Movement came about through the words of Jamaican activist Marcus Garvey, whose philosophical views created the foundations for the religion as it is known today. Garvey's words "Look to Africa for the crowning of a Black King, he shall be the Redeemer" were seen as a prophecy fulfilled by the coronation of Haile Selassie in 1930. Although Selassie was himself an Orthodox Christian, he never confirmed nor denied his position as the Rastafarian messiah, and he visited Jamaica in 1966 to be met by tens of thousands of Rastafarian believers.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Haile Selassie is widely viewed today as both an eloquent statesmen and a passionate leader who faced a number of difficulties during his reign, yet continually sought only to improve his people's welfare and his nation's stability. Selassie's views on international cooperation and diplomacy were influential not only in the future of Ethiopia, and Africa as a whole, but also throughout the international community.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Emperor of Ethiopia]=];};
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LEADER_WILLIAM={
Description=[=[William]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_WILLIAM_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Of the many ideas regarding William's nickname, "William the Silent," there exist two primary theories. One belief is that the moniker came from his utmost discretion when discussing matters of the state when he first served Emperor Charles V. The other, that his overall calm demeanor kept him quiet, but astute, in his duties, is equally plausible based on our knowledge of his legacy.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[A later descendant of William, William III, went on to become King of England after the Dutch invasion of England during the Glorious Revolution, when King James II of England was deposed.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Noble Upbringing]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Roots of Rebellion]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Uprising Begins]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Outbreak of War]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Roots of Independence]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Assassination Attempts]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1533 AD - 1584 AD]=];
NAME = [=[William of Orange]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the Netherlands]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Widely considered both founder and liberator of the Netherlands, William, Prince of Orange, also known as "William the Silent," led a successful rebellion in the mid-16th century against the Spanish Habsburg Dynasty who held dominion over the Dutch Low Countries. Once the loyal servant of King Philip II of Spain, William eventually became the most prominent leader of the rebellion, as his growing distaste for the continued Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants came to a head. Rallying his fellow noblemen to the cause, William became an outlaw in the eyes of the Spanish monarch and led the Dutch forces in a number of successful battles against the king before falling to an assassin's bullet in 1584.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born to Count William of Nassau in 1533, William inherited the title of Prince of Orange at age 11 when his cousin Rene, then prince, died without an heir to his title and land holdings. During this period the Netherlands were controlled by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who ruled as leader of the Habsburg Monarchy, while also serving as king of Spain. While receiving all of the education and training expected of a nobleman, William later became a favored member of the Emperor's court. The emperor's connection to the Spanish crown would play an important role in William's future efforts to wrest control of the Netherlands from Spain.
 
Promoted through the ranks of the military, by his early twenties, William was already a commander in the Imperial army, while also holding various diplomatic posts as an advisor to the Emperor. However, William's favor with the Emperor came at the price of his faith, as his Lutheran upbringing was abandoned in favor of Roman Catholicism to facilitate his rise to power.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[In 1555, Charles relinquished the crown of Spain to his son, Philip II. Philip was known for his ruthless disregard for the lives of the Protestants under his rule, showing little empathy for their beliefs and expanding the powers of the Inquisition against the Reformation. In serving his new king, William began to understand the true intentions of Philip, who had no qualms about wiping out the Protestants by whatever means necessary. Although William adopted Catholicism as part of his education, he was raised a Lutheran, and still firmly believed in the right of the people to follow their own beliefs. As the story goes, William overheard a conversation between Philip and King Henry II of France while on a hunting expedition, discussing the future extermination of the Protestants in both of their kingdoms. This event is said to have sparked William's decision to oppose Philip and Spanish control of the Netherlands.
 
In attempting to subdue the established Protestants in the Netherlands and drive them into exile or worse, Philip devised a system of "placards." These placards served as edicts making the practice of Lutheran and Calvinist beliefs an offense punishable by torture and death. So extreme was the persecution that many Dutch Catholics joined the Protestants in opposing Philip's policies.
 
William began to openly criticize the king in public, making his opinions on the matter clear, and encouraging others to stand up to repressive policies of Philip. In 1566, the Compromise of Nobles, a collective of noblemen from the Netherlands, petitioned the Spanish regent Margaret of Parma to end the persecution of Protestants within the Netherlands. Despite their efforts for a peaceful resolution, Philip rejected the forwarded petition, and in response, iconoclasm spread throughout the Dutch territory, leading to the destruction of Catholic icons across the country by Protestant rebels.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[As iconoclasm spread along with increasingly public displays of forbidden Protestant worship, Philip sent the Duke of Alba, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, known as the "Iron Duke," to the Netherlands to quash the uprising and deal with the rebels. Upon his arrival, the duke established the Council of Troubles, later known among the Protestants as "The Council of Blood," to oversee the trial and punishment of the rebels and their leadership. Many of those summoned to the council went into hiding, including William himself, but some 1000 or more Protestants are said to have been tried and executed at the hands of the Iron Duke.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[While funding the uprising from his home in Nassau, William and the rebels established several armies to attack the Spanish on multiple fronts. The group of Protestant exiles and Dutch noblemen resisting the Spanish came to be known as the "Geuzen," or "Beggars," with the most prominent force being the "Watergeuzen" - the Sea Beggars. William used his wealth to fund the Sea Beggars and equip their vessels, which they used to raid coastal cities throughout the Netherlands, acting as privateers.
 
William's brother, Louis of Nassau, led an army of mercenaries and French Huguenots (French Protestants) against a Spanish force under the command of Jean de Ligne, himself a Dutch nobleman still loyal to Philip. Meeting at the Battle of Heiligerlee in the northern Dutch province of Groningen in 1568, Louis routed the Spanish army and Jean de Ligne was killed. Unfortunately, William and Louis' second brother, Adolph, was also killed while leading the Dutch cavalry. This historic battle is considered by historians to mark the onset of the Eighty Years' War, as the great conflict for Dutch independence came to be known.
 
At the Battle of Jemmingen shortly thereafter, Louis's army was crushed by the Spanish forces while attempting to seize the city of Groningen itself, forcing his retreat. William himself took up the charge and led an army of Dutch forces to several victories, inspiring the Dutch people as more and more cities throughout the Netherlands were wrested from Spanish control. Despite the Dutch gains, capturing and controlling much of the northern territory over the next decade, the Spanish continued to maintain a firm grasp on the southern Netherlands.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[In 1573, the Union of Utrecht was signed in the northern Dutch city bearing the document's name, uniting the Northern provinces in opposition of Spain. Although not yet fully independent, the union clearly marked a turning point in rejecting Spanish governance of the region. While Spain still controlled the southern territories, in 1581, the Act of Abjuration finally served as a formal declaration of the Low Countries' independence from Philip's rule. Unfortunately for William, he would not live to see the Netherlands free from the grasp of Spain in its entirety.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[With an ample hefty bounty placed on his head by King Philip, the first attempt on William's life soon followed, when the Spaniard Juan de Jauregui fired a shot at William in 1582, wounding him in the neck. Although William was gravely injured, he managed to survive his injuries, but his slow recovery limited his involvement in the rebellion. Less than two years later, William was again attacked by an assassin, this time by a French Roman Catholic named Balthasar Gerard. Attacking William at his home, Balthasar fired three shots, the fatal blow striking William in the chest.
 
In the coming days, Balthasar was tried and sentenced to death. His punishment was torture, which took place over the span of an entire week. Balthasar's only relief came when he was eventually beheaded.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[William is revered today as both the founder of the Dutch independence movement and the sovereign nation as it stands today. Inspiring the people of the Netherlands to rise up against Spanish rule and the abuses suffered by the Dutch Protestants, William gave his life in pursuit of an enlightened view point that deemed it only fair that all men be allowed to follow their beliefs.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Prince of Orange]=];};
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LEADER_AHMAD_ALMANSUR={
Description=[=[Ahmad al-Mansur]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_AHMAD_ALMANSUR_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[The grave of Ahmad al-Mansur is located in the so-called Saadian Tombs in Marrakesh, where some 60 members of the Saadi dynasty are interned. The Tombs, built of cedar and marble, were discovered in 1917 by archeologists and are today a major attraction for tourists to the city.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Reign]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgement of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1549 - 1603 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Ahmad al-Mansur]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Morocco]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[As one of the most influential leaders in the history of North Africa, Ahmad al-Mansur had a pivotal impact on the future of Morocco. Serving as the sixth Sultan of the Saadi Dynasty during the 16th Century AD, Ahmad al-Mansur was known as a cunning diplomat who leveraged Morocco's strategic location to position his kingdom as a major player on the world's stage during the Renaissance.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[As the fifth and youngest son of Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh, Ahmad al-Mansur's path to the throne of Morocco was not assured. His oldest brother, Abdallah al-Ghalib was the designated heir, and he ascended the throne in 1557 AD following their father's death. Unfortunately for al-Mansur, his older brother believed eliminating his siblings was the simplest means of securing his throne, and so al-Mansur and his brother Abd al-Malik fled the country, living within the Ottoman Empire for nearly two decades.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Following the death of Sultan Adballah al-Ghalib in 1574, his son Abu Adallah Mohammed ascended the throne despite the rightful heir being Abd al-Malik. Raising an army with the assistance of the Ottomans (where al-Mansur and his brother had remained in exile), Abd al-Malik invaded Morocco and successfully deposed the usurper Abu Adallah Mohammed. Unfortunately for the two warring claimants to the Moroccan throne, they both died at the Battle of Ksar-el-Kabir in 1578, leaving Ahmad al-Mansur to ascend as Sultan.
 
Morocco's armies dealt severe losses to the opposing force, which included the armies of Portugal who had sided with the usurper king. In taking thousands of Portuguese prisoners, al-Mansur was able to deftly negotiate a steep ransom for their safe return - leaving Morocco's coffers replenished with Portuguese gold.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Once firmly established on the throne, al-Mansur enjoyed newfound prestige as the leader of an emboldened Morocco flush with wealth. He immediately began efforts to reform the administrative system of his nation, implementing new forms of taxation.  He also looked to expand the reach of his empire through campaigns against neighboring Songhai, which he hoped would provide new sources of income for the kingdom. Despite victories and sacking multiple Songhai cities, the problems of administering such a distant land across the Sahara proved too much even al-Mansur.
 
Unfortunately, the expenses involved in Al-Mansur's various projects - military and territorial expansion, outlays for new construction, and grand displays of cultural and artistic expression - led to the eventual depletion of Morocco's vast treasury. As the purse strings tightened, al-Mansur was forced to restrict his great ambitions for the kingdom. Morocco was also faced with a difficult task in maintaining control over the distant territories it conquered, and many of these areas eventually fell out of Moroccan control.
 
With Ahmad al-Mansur's passing in 1603 - being struck down by the plague - Morocco's power and influence began to wane. By 1620 the Songhai cities had been lost. Moroccan trade routes were usurped by others, and fiscal troubles plagued the sultanate. In the end, many of the advances garnered by al-Mansur's exceptional administrative and diplomatic skills were lost by his successors.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Ahmad al-Mansur is widely viewed today as one of history's greatest diplomats, excelling in the art of balancing friend and foe, Christian and Muslim. Al-Mansur's carefully crafted diplomatic schemes are credited with allowing Morocco's continued independence despite the scheming of many neighboring kingdoms as well as the powerful Ottoman Empire. His reign was marked by religious tolerance, scientific learning, and an artistic flowering in North Africa not known for many decades before or after.]=];
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LEADER_ASHURBANIPAL={
Description=[=[Ashurbanipal]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ASHURBANIPAL_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[A massive bronze statue of Ashurbanipal was constructed in 1988 and sits across from the San Francisco City Hall in San Francisco, California.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Reign]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Library]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[685 BC - c. 627 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Ashurbanipal]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Assyria]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria for over 40 years during the mid-6th Century BC, is most famously noted in history for his seemingly unquenchable thirst for knowledge, which he sustained through both careful negotiation and ruthless conquest. Whether through direct conflict or simply the threat of violence against those who refused him, Ashurbanipal sought to gather the texts and histories of a wide range of cultures and civilizations surrounding his empire. In forming the great archive of cuneiform manuscripts and stone tablets that bears his name, Ashurbanipal established one of the most remarkable libraries of ancient material found anywhere in the world.  Aside from his scholarly pursuits, Ashurbanipal was also known to be a fearsome warrior, who deftly managed both the military and administrative tasks required of him. As an intimidating force with both the intellect and might to lead the formidable Neo-Assyrian Empire, Ashurbanipal's legacy as one of Assyria's greatest kings has endured for more than two millennium.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Although historical records from the period are intermittent, it's known that Ashurbanipal was born early in the 6th Century BC, towards the end of a nearly 1500-year period of Assyrian supremacy in the surrounding region. His father, Esarhaddon, was crown prince at the time of Ashurbanipal's birth, and saw to it that his son received training and education as both a soldier and a scholar. Raised in a small palace known as bit reduti ("House of Succession") in Nineveh, Ashurbanipal was given the palace when Esarhaddon named him crown prince in 672 BC following the death of Ashurbanipal's elder brother. His training there ranged from kingly pursuits such as horsemanship, chariotry, archery, craftsmanship and royal decorum to the likes of divination, mathematics and engineering. Although still debated, it has been speculated that Ashurbanipal may have been the first Assyrian king capable of both reading and writing, allowing him to understand a variety of ancient scripts and languages. At a young age he began handling administrative duties within the royal court of Assyria, managing a number of construction projects and appointing local prefects in his father's stead. Following his father's death in 669 BC, Ashurbanipal ascended to the throne and prepared himself to deal with a number of conflicts on the horizon.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[As is often the case with any change in rule, as king, Ashurbanipal was forced to deal with some of the troubling issues left behind by his father. Assyria was enbroiled in a war with neighboring Egypt, and Ashurbanipal was forced to take decisive action to secure his grip on the empire's distant territories. Swiftly deploying his forces, Ashurbanipal met with repeated successes in Egypt and - after further incursions by the Assyrian army - Ashurbanipal assured firm control over many of the contested regions, including Judah, Israel, Cyprus, and much of Asia Minor.
 
A skilled administrator, Ashurbanipal dedicated much of his time to managing the needs of his people at home, despite devoting long days to coordinating the efforts of his military. By carefully selecting able and reliable regents and local rulers for the far-flung reaches of the Assyrian empire, Ashurbanipal was able to focus his own efforts elsewhere. His upbringing and education are credited with his skill in governance; the empire enjoyed relative stability and ongoing economic prosperity despite the conflicts of the region.
 
Taking great pride in his education and academic pursuits, Ashurbanipal was a patron of both the arts and sciences, and throughout his reign he brought both to the empire with unbridled enthusiasm. To fill his Royal Library at Nineveh, Ashurbanipal sent scribes across the empire to collect and copy texts of nearly any available subject. As with many ancient kings, Ashurbanipal also commissioned artists and sculptors to create depictions of the events occurring throughout the empire, along with numerous reliefs depicting his own personal accomplishments and talents.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, found in the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh, was home to Ashurbanipal's extensive collection of historical texts and clay tablets. Incorporating materials from a wide range of subjects - including folk tales, religious rites, medical and scientific works, and histories - the library is among the most extensive ever uncovered by modern archeologists. The Royal Library contained, among other literary treasures, the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian "Epic of Creation," and the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. English archaeologist and historian Sir Austen Henry Layard was the first to locate the library ruins in 1849, with most of the material he recovered being shipped to the British Museum, where it remains in their collection to this day. In total, over 30,000 tablets and other materials have been catalogued by the museum as part of the "Ashurbanipal Library Project."]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Following Ashurbanipal's death around 627 BC, the Assyrian Empire entered a period of decline, as numerous parties vied for power. Unrest in the urban centers and within the ranks of the military was worsened by the conflict between his brother Sinsharishkun, the general Sinshumulishir and the eventual king of Babylonia Nabopossar. This turmoil only served to strengthen the legacy of Ashurbanipal, as his people had enjoyed relative stability and prospered during his reign. In establishing the Royal Library, Ashurbanipal set the first standard for state-supported scholarship and provided modern scholars and historians with an unequaled cache of artifacts that has greatly contributed to our knowledge and understanding of the peoples and the kingdoms of his era.]=];
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LEADER_CASIMIR={
Description=[=[Casimir III]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_CASIMIR_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Polish nationalists claim that Casimir the Great was the "peasants' king." A Polish proverb states that Casimir III found Poland built of wood and left her built in stone.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Reign]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Domestic Affairs]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Foreign Successes]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1310 - 1370 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Casimir III]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Poland]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[King Casimir III, the only Polish king to earn the subsequent title of "the Great," reigned during the 14th Century AD and established himself as a decisive and able ruler, relying on his skill in diplomacy and sensible decision-making to greatly improve the well-being of his people and security of his kingdom. Although Casimir's predecessor, his father King Wladyslaw I, was respected for having reunited the divided realm, Casimir inherited a kingdom rife with challenges. In rebuilding a depleted economy, strengthening the military, codifying the law, and expanding the borders of Poland, Casimir left his country much better than he found it - and sealed his legacy as one of Poland's greatest kings. By the time of his death, Casimir III had assured the prestige and respect of Poland throughout medieval Europe.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Although the second son of Wladyslaw, Casimir was schooled in all things necessary for kingship in medieval Europe. Upon the death of Casimir's elder brother in 1312 AD, he was made heir and placed in the care of Jaroslaw, later to be archbishop of Gniezno and one of Casimir's most important advisors. When his father died 21 years later, in Krakow Casimir was crowned lord of both Great Poland and Little Poland, sanctifying the unification of Poland Wladyslaw had begun.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Not long after ascending to the throne, Casimir was forced to deal with a number of political issues, not the least the unrest of the Polish nobility. In order to strengthen Poland's military, which relied heavily on the cooperation of the Polish nobles, Casimir was forced to relinquish a number of heretofore royal privileges to the nobles themselves. The Polish aristocracy now held a clear division between themselves and the common people, and their authority in matters dealing with those of lower standing, especially the growing merchant classes, was greatly strengthened. Although Casimir was forced into a position of comprise, his actions ensured that the feudal armies of Poland could be replenished and would recognize the crown's authority.
 
Casimir made great strides in efforts to improve the internal state of Poland, and counterbalance the new power of the nobles, through a number of initiatives. He standardized and stabilized the currency. Casimir ordered the construction of a number of new castles, churches, and even entire towns - providing new opportunities for trade and economic prosperity. Towns long since abandoned, and even areas said to have been devoid of any form of settlement were revitalized. In March 1347 Casimir introduced legal reforms and moved to establish a unified code, the Liber juris Teutonici, for the realm to protect the rights of the fledgling middle class. In enacting a form of the Magdeburg Rights - a German concept allowing for towns to exercise a certain degree of autonomy - he provided local merchants and craftsmen with a more stable regulation of trade, encouraging them to settle in cities across the nation. A special court was established in Krakow to arbitrate in all disputes and administer the laws uniformly. Hoping to educate a new generation of capable lawyers and administers, Casimir the Great founded the Academy of Krakow, now the Jagiellonian University, in 1364 AD.
 
Although historians have wondered what spurred Casimir's disposition towards the Jews of Poland, it is clear that he made every effort to afford them the same rights and protection all his subjects enjoyed. In 1334, Casimir reaffirmed the charters of 1264 protecting the rights of the Polish Jews, including laws prohibiting attempts at forced conversions to Christianity that had been largely ignored under previous rulers since. Casimir also secured their rights as merchants and traders, and welcomed Jewish integration into a unified Poland with a diverse population. The desecration of Jewish cemeteries and synagogues was declared a crime and vigorously enforced.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Upon his ascension to the throne, Casimir's rule was tenuous, and disputed on all sides by foreign powers. The king of Bohemia himself claimed the Polish crown. The German Teutonic Knights had occupied the Polish territories of Kujawy and Dobrzyn in Pomerania. An undeclared, inconclusive war with Lithuania to the north threatened stability and trade in the bordering provinces. Polish claims to territories in the Ukraine were ignored by neighboring nations. To make matters worse, Poland had no allies of any importance.
 
Relying on his skill in diplomacy, Casimir deftly negotiated new alliances and secured additional territory for Poland. The marriage of his sister Elisabeth to the king of Hungary brought him a dependable ally; to cement this alliance Casimir dropped his claims to Silesia. The Hungarian alliance allowed Casimir to forcefully occupy the former Polish duchies of Halic and Vladimir in "Red Russia" in 1340 and 1349 AD. Meanwhile, through negotiation, a pact was forged with Bohemia and its king dropped all claims to the Polish throne. This, in turn, led to a negotiated withdrawal of the Teutonic Knights from East Pomerania. Finally, Casimir agreed to pay tribute to the Golden Horde to avoid their frequent raids into Poland. As a result of Poland's growing power and its cordial relations with the Mongols, several Masovian princes in Russia declared themselves Casimir's vassels in 1351 and 1353.
 
Casimir wedded princesses from Lithuania, Germany, and Silesia - each helping secure peaceful relations with their homelands. Although he had four wives and several mistresses, Casimir had five daughters but no legitimate male heir. While Casimir was to arrange dynastic marriages for several of his daughters which further strengthened Poland's position, the lack of a son threatened unrest and war should he die. To provide a clear line of succession, in his last years Casimir named his nephew, Louis of Hungary, son of Elisabeth, as his heir. Louis was proclaimed king of Poland upon Casimir's death in 1370.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[It can be said that Casimir is viewed in history as an ideal medieval king - noble, prudent, diplomatic and capable of delegating authority when necessary. Although some of the territories were lost over the next century, by his death Casimir III had increased Poland's land to approximately 90,000 square miles (233,000 sq. km) from 50,000 in 1333 AD. Casimir showed great concern for the welfare of his people and his choices as king clearly reflect his efforts to improve the standing of Poland. By forming dependable alliances, aggressively pursuing domestic reforms, and avoiding needless conflicts, Casimir the Great truly earned his given title.]=];
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LEADER_ENRICO_DANDOLO={
Description=[=[Enrico Dandolo]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ENRICO_DANDOLO_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[After the fall of Constantinople in 1204, the barons offered Enrico Dandolo the imperial crown of the Byzantine Empire, but he refused so as not to violate the constitution of Venice.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Reign]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Fourth Crusade]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgement of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1107 - 1205 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Enrico Dandolo]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Venice]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Enrico Dandolo, the 42nd Doge of Venice, was famous for his piety and longevity, while equally infamous for his pivotal role in the Fourth Crusade which led to the sack of Constantinople and the collapse of the Byzantine Empire. What made this all the more remarkable was the fact that Enrico was blind. Born to a powerful family, Enrico Dandolo served the Republic as a diplomat for much of his life. Elected Doge in June 1192 AD at an advanced age, he nevertheless took up the post with vigor. In the following years he reformed the Venetian currency, as well as its legal system, and sought stronger ties with the Western powers. In 1202, the knights of the Fourth Crusade were stranded in Italy without funds to pay for ships. Dandolo "took the Cross" and made Venice the major financial backer for the crusade. This ultimately led to the attack on Constantinople in 1204, where the Doge was present and took an active part. He died shortly thereafter, and was buried in the Hagia Sophia.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born into one of the most powerful and influential families in Venice, young Enrico was groomed for a life of service to the Republic. His father Vitale was a famed jurist and member of the ducal court, a close advisor to the Doge Michiel. After a series of administrative posts, in 1171 AD at the age of 64 Enrico Dandolo entered the Venetian diplomatic service. In March of that year, the Byzantine emperor Comnenus had seized the property of thousands of Venetians living in his realm. Dandolo accompanied Doge Michiel on a disastrous military mission to Constantinople; upon returning to Venice, an irate mob killed Michiel, but Enrico escaped blame and was subsequently appointed ambassador to seek a diplomatic settlement with Byzantium. On his second mission, legend has it that so vigorous was Dandolo's protection of Venetian interests that the Byzantine emperor had him blinded. However, historical records show that Enrico Dandolo lost his sight gradually between 1174 and 1178, likely as the result of a severe blow to the head.
 
Returning without a treaty - one would not be signed between Venice and Byzantium until 1186 - Dandolo was dispatched as ambassador to the Kingdom of Sicily in 1171 AD and to Ferrara in 1191. His diplomatic abilities were rewarded with close cooperation with both to challenge and limit Byzantine influence in the western Mediterranean. In recognition of his services, in 1178 Dandolo was made one of the forty individuals commissioned to elect doges. When Doge Orio Mastropiero retired to a monastery, Enrico Dandolo was himself elected Doge of Venice in June 1192.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Although elderly and blind, Enrico Dandolo proved a vigorous and able leader for Venice. In one of his first official actions, he reaffirmed the "ducal promise," codifying the duties and rights of the dogeship. In the next few months, drawing on his education in the law, he revised the Venetian penal code and published the first collection of civil statutes for the Republic. In 1194 AD he turned his attention to currency reform, making the silver Venetian grosso the primary coinage for trade throughout the Mediterranean.
 
Dandolo was just as vigorous in his diplomatic dealings. Drawing on his previous experiences, he put an end to commercial disputes with Verona, concluding treaties with that city-state and with Treviso in 1192 AD. The Doge followed these triumphs with treaties with the Patriarch of Aquileia (1200), the King of Armenia (1201), the Holy Roman Emperor (1201) and rival Byzantium itself (1199). He also led Venice in successful military conflicts with Zara when that city tried to unite with Hungary, and with Pisa when that economic challenger attempted to establish outposts in Istria, which Dandolo claimed to be in Venice's zone of influence.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Pope Innocent III came to the papacy in 1198 AD, preaching a new crusade to liberate the Holy Land. Largely ignored by European royalty, the call was taken up by Count Thibaut of Champagne and Count Boniface of Montferrat. Being short of funds, in 1201 the crusaders sent envoys to the maritime city-states to acquire transport to Egypt, where the crusaders planned to strike at the heart of the Ayyubid lands and from there free Palestine. Doge Dandolo agreed to supply transport for 33,000 troops - an ambitious number - in exchange for a hefty payment; the Pope ratified the contract. To fulfill their end, the Venetians built 50 warships and 450 transports. When, however, the crusaders proved unable to pay the agreed sum, rather than lose the investment, Dandolo waived the fee and joined the Fourth Crusade as one of its leaders. As compensation, the Doge demanded that the crusading force help Venice retake the town of Zara, then in revolt.
 
After the fall of Zara, Dandolo supported the diversion of the crusade from Egypt to Constantinople. There the Catholic leaders sought to place Alexis Angelus on the Byzantine throne, thereby gaining Byzantine support for their invasion of the Holy Land. This eventually led to the brief siege, capture and sack of Constantinople. In spite of his age, Dandolo took an active role in the planning and the operation, leading his Venetians against the sea walls of the great city, which fell to the crusaders in April 1204. Subsequently, Dandolo played the most central part in formulating the treaty partitioning the empire between the Byzantines and the crusaders (who sought to form a Catholic "Latin" empire), with Venice having significant rights in each.
 
Doge Dandolo joined the disastrous crusaders' invasion of pagan Bulgaria, but returned to the city and died of health complications in May 1205. He was buried in the Hagia Sophia, although the exact location of his tomb in the great church is unknown.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Enrico Dandolo is today considered one of the greatest Venetian Doges. He took control of a mercantile power in decline, riven by corruption and inefficiency, challenged by great and small powers across the region. Trade had declined, and its military was moribund. By his death, he had ended all outside threats to Venice's influence, and made it the dominant power in Mediterranean trade again. Historians have referred to Dandolo as the "founder of the Venetian colonial empire." Venice itself would be prosperous, stable and secure for the next century.]=];
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LEADER_GAJAH_MADA={
Description=[=[Gajah Mada]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_GAJAH_MADA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Gajah Mada's rise to prime minister and his famous oath are described in the Nagarakretagama, a lengthy epic eulogy to King Hayam Wuruk which dates to the late 1300s.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Prime Minister of Majapahit]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Conquests]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1290 AD - 1364 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Gajah Mada]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Indonesia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Gajah Mada (loosely translated as the "Elephant General"), hero to the people of Indonesia and symbol of national pride and patriotism, served as Prime Minister of the Majapahit Empire of Indonesia for the better part of the 14th Century AD. Although little information exists as to his early life and upbringing, it is known that he was born a commoner, rising to power based solely on his intellect and cunning - along with a renowned ferocity in battle. Serving as a royal bodyguard, Gajah Mada was instrumental in quashing a rebellion against his king, and was rewarded with a path to joining the ruling elite. Eventually rising to the position of Prime Minister, Gajah Mada led the Majapahit Empire to great success in conquering many of the neighboring island kingdoms, becoming the first to unite much of the territory that encompasses modern Indonesia.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The earliest records of Gajah Mada's life begin in adulthood, when he is said to have served as commander of an elite guard unit entrusted with protecting the royal family of the Majapahit Emperor, Jayanagara (1309-1328 AD). During this period, a rogue Majapahit political officer known as Rakrian Kuti lead a rebellion against King Jayanagara. Learning of the plot, Gajah Mada safely escorted the king out of the capital city, which fell to Kuti's forces, and into hiding in the nearby city of Badander. Once the king was secure, legend has it that Gajah Mada spread rumors of the king's death to disrupt the rebellion, while organizing a group to retake the capital and reinstate the rightful king. Gajah Mada found that many of the military caste were dismayed by the king's supposed death and that Kuti was unpopular among the people. In the ensuing counter-insurrection, the upstart Kuti was killed, and Gajah Mada was rewarded for his efforts with his first leadership position within the ruling party.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Some years later, according to legend, Gajah Mada's loyalty waned when the king took Mada's wife as a concubine. In the tale, Gajah Mada convince the court physician, a one-time supporter of Kuti, to kill the king when he fell ill; upon the king's death, Gajah Mada promptly had the physician arrested and executed. Whatever the truth in the tale, following the death of Jayanagara, his step-sister Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi ascended the throne with ambitions to expand the reach of her empire. Fortunately for Gajah Mada, his role in this expansion was considered integral by the new queen, and he was named mahapatih, Prime Minister, in 1329 AD. With sweeping powers and new authority, Gajah Mada set his sights on the far-flung reaches of the archipelago, vowing great things for the empire that entrusted him with its future. His famous oath, known as the Sumpha Palapa - often the subject of varying interpretations - declared in the most basic terms "I will not indulge in the fruits or spice, the earthly pleasures, until all of the known islands are conquered for the Majapahit."]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Following Gajah Mada's return in 1331 AD from suppressing a rebellion in Sadeng (eastern Java), it wasn't long before he launched his campaigns to conquer the neighboring islands of the Indonesian archipelago, beginning with Bali and Lombok in 1343. One by one he captured kingdoms and cities, states and provinces, all for the glory of his people. These included the Buddhist kingdom of Sriwijaya in Palembang and small kingdoms in West Sumatra, where Gajah Mada installed a Majapahit prince as a vassal ruler. The Elephant General then conquered Samudra Pasai in Sumatra, the first Muslim sultanate in Indonesia. Following this victory, in the span of two years Majapahit forces overran another half-dozen independent cities and kingdoms, including Temesek (now known as Singapore) across the straits.
 
Tribhuwana abdicated the Majapahit throne in 1350 AD in favor of her son Hayam Wuruk, considered the greatest of the kings of the Majapahit. During his reign the empire reached its greatest extent, encompassing the whole of the Indonesian archipelago. Trade and the arts flourished under the king. The new king was content to leave the affairs of the nation to his prime minister, while he himself patronized the arts and sciences. With the tacit support of the king, Gajah Mada proceeded to add two dozen kingdoms to the empire, some as far away as modern-day Malaysia and the southern Philippines.
 
Having conquered more than a dozen islands within the archipelago by 1357, Gajah Mada found himself in a difficult position, with one of the last remaining independent kingdoms being the Sunda in West Java. Although plans had been laid for the princess of the Sunda to marry the Hayam Wuruk, forming an alliance, Gajah Mada sought to press the Sunda further. By denying that the Sunda princess would become Queen Consort of Majapahit and instead be only a concubine, Gajah Mada enraged Sunda sensibilities. In meeting the wedding party at the town of Bubat, the negoiations degenerated into open hostility, and a skirmish ensued. Gajah Mada and his forces massacred the entire Sunda royal family and its bodyguard.
 
The incident marred the legacy of Gajah Mada as his actions were seen as reckless and heavy-handed. Majapahit ministers and courtiers condemned him as bloodthirsty and brutal. The king stripped Gajah Mada of his titles, authority and honors. The once most-powerful man in the empire would spend the rest of his days in relative solitude at his remaining estate in East Java. Gajah Mada would die in relative obscurity in 1363 AD.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In modern Indonesia, Gajah Mada is viewed as a hero - a symbol of Indonesian patriotism and national pride. Gajah Mada is seen as an inspirational figure, one who exemplifies the potential greatness of all Indonesians. He would serve as a mythic propaganda symbol during the resistance to Japanese occupation and the ensuing revolt for independence from Dutch rule in the late 1940s. His legacy as the first to unite the many islands of the Indonesian archipelago into one nation will stand throughout history - as will his renowned dedication and unwavering loyalty to his king and the Majapahit people.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Prime Minister and General of Majapahit Empire]=];};
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LEADER_MARIA_I={
Description=[=[Maria I]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_MARIA_I_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Accession]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Madness]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Escape to Brazil]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1734 - 1816 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Maria I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Portugal]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[In a dynasty characterized by tragedy and madness for centuries, Maria I is undoubtedly the best known to the world, and perhaps the best beloved by the Portuguese people. As Queen of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, she was known as Maria the Pious while ruling in Portugal, or Maria the Mad after fleeing to Brazil in 1807 from Napoleon's invasion. Incapacitated by her growing madness, Maria I died in Rio de Janeiro in 1816.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Maria, raised and educated at court with her 3 younger sisters, devoted her greatest attention to religion and theology. Enthralled by the ritual and clarity of faith, Maria spent long hours in prayer and devotions. Accounts by court visitors note that she was graceful although tall, with sharp features but a warm smile. However, as early as her teens, she suffered from bouts of melancholy and nervous agitation, which occasionally confined her to her bed.
 
As Maria grew to adulthood, she wed Pedro III, the younger brother of her father. Despite their age difference - Maria was 25 and Pedro 42 at the time of their wedding - the marriage was stable and happy. Both were very pious, attending mass several times a day together. Pedro had his palace at Queluz torn down and constructed a new one in the style of Versailles, which Maria admired; the couple took up residence there in 1764 AD. Maria would over the years give birth to seven children, although only three survived to adulthood.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[In 1776 AD, the king Jose I suffered a stroke, dying in February 1777. Following the earthquake and tidal wave that had devastated Lisbon and Portugal's coast in 1755, and an assassination attempt in 1778, Jose had increasingly left the governing of the nation in the ruthless hands of his secretary of state, the Marquess of Pombal, who's methods of reform were brutal and came at the cost of civil liberties and personal freedoms. Maria's first act upon coming to the throne was to dismiss him from the government, primarily because of his unstinting anti-Jesuit policies.
 
The next few years saw Portugal gradually embroiled in the affairs of Europe. In the face of the French Revolution an alliance with Great Britain was forged. In July 1782, Portugal joined the League of Armed Neutrality hoping to remain outside the spreading conflict of the Napoleonic Wars. Maria and her consort spent these years as patrons of the arts, especially interested in promoting religious works and in construction projects.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[The queen had long suffered from religious mania and melancholia, but her mental state was first acknowledged in early 1786 AD when she had to be carried back to her apartments in a fit of delirium after a religious ceremony. Her state worsened when later that year her husband died after a short illness, followed two years later by her eldest son, and her only surviving daughter Mariana. That same year, the queen's long-time confessor also passed away. The cumulative effect of these events was to topple Maria I into complete madness.
 
In 1792, the council of ministers concluded that their queen was insane, and requested that her only surviving son, Joao, "assume the direction of public affairs." In 1799, he would take on the mantle of Prince Regent of Portugal as his mother was unfit to rule. Maria I was confined to the palace, occasionally roaming the corridors wailing "Ai Jesus" and calling for her dead husband and children.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In 1807 AD, the government's refusal to join Napoleon's blockade against Great Britain culminated in a French-Spanish invasion. Unable to resist defeat, Joao, at the urging of the British government, decided to flee with the entire royal family and his ministers to the Portuguese Viceroyalty of Brazil. Although Wellington would liberate Portugal in the Peninsula War, the royal family remained in Brazil for some years afterward.
 
Maria herself spent most of her remaining life in the Carmo Convent in Rio de Janeiro. During the eight years there, she suffered increasingly from physical ailments, including dysentery and tropical fevers; arthritis and oedema confined her to a wheelchair, and eventually to her bed. When her son or family members came to visit, she would repeatedly scream, "I want to die!" At last, at the age of 81, her tragic life ended.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Despite her madness, Maria I is a greatly admired figure in both Portugal and Brazil, due to the changes and events that took place during her reign. In Portugal, she is now regarded as a strong female figure in its long history. Her place in the culture of that land is best displayed in the Queluz National Palace, a baroque masterpiece that she helped conceive. In Brazil, she is thought to be one of the key figures in the eventual independence of that nation. While her personal life may have been lamentable, her historical legacy is not.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Queen-Regent of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves]=];};
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LEADER_PEDRO={
Description=[=[Pedro II]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_PEDRO_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Pedro II's full given birth name was Pedro de Alcantara Joao Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bebiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocadio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga, of the house of Braganza, the royal line of Portuguese rulers.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Youth]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Reign]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Overthrow]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1825 - 1891 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Pedro II]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Brazil]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The first Brazilian monarch to be born in Brazil, during his long reign Pedro II brought stability and progress to his homeland, as well as making it the preeminent power in South America. A calm and serious man, Pedro II jealously guarded his nation's sovereignty, challenging the mighty British Empire and fledgling United States when those countries sought to meddle in the region. He led Brazil in three wars, gaining new territory and prestige, while continuing to focus his attention primarily upon making Brazil a modern state. He encouraged coffee production rather than sugar, and actively supported and sponsored road, railroad, telegraph and undersea cable construction.
 
Although popular with his people, the Emperor was overthrown in November, 1889 by a group of military leaders wanting to form a republic headed by a dictator. Ever a patriot, when he departed into exile, Pedro II expressed his "ardent wishes for the greatness and prosperity of Brazil."]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born in December 1825 AD in Rio de Janeiro to Pedro I and his Austrian wife Maria Leopoldina, Pedro would be the second and last emperor of Brazil, his reign spanning five decades. Pedro was raised and classically educated by a succession of governesses and guardians. With a grueling regime of daily studies, great care was taken to foster ethical values and a personality quite different from the impulsive and irresponsible character of his father. Being the only male child of Pedro I to survive infancy, he was acclaimed Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil on the day of his father's abdication in 1831, although he did not assume his throne until he came of age at 14 in July 1840.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[During his reign, Pedro II would preside over 36 different cabinets, most of which had broad public support. Either directly or through his government, Pedro sponsored the construction of Brazil's first paved road, the "Unido e Industria" linking Rio de Janeiro to Juiz de Fora; the first steam railroad running from Santos to Sao Paulo; the first telephone service in 1877; participation in the laying of the first Brazil-Europe submarine telegraph cable; and the issuing of Brazil's first postal stamp.
 
Foreign relations were not as positive, as several nations became concerned by Brazil's economic growth and political clout. Two minor incidents led to the British issuing an order to the Royal Navy to seize Brazilian merchant ships as indemnity. Pedro responded by mobilizing his military, causing the British to softened their stance and propose a peaceful settlement in 1863. Almost immediately thereafter a year-long undeclared war with Uruguay - ended with the Brazilian occupation of the towns of Salto and Paisandu - demanded Pedro's attention. No sooner was this conflict settled than Paraguay invaded, which resulted in an unconditional Brazilian victory. A conflict with the Catholic Church (1872-1875) was resolved through negotiation, but left Pedro bereft of the clergy's support.
 
Nonetheless, the diplomatic victory over Great Britain and the military victories over Uruguay and Paraguay had made Pedro II more popular than ever among the people. He now sought to leverage this popularity into his most enduring legacy - emancipation for the slaves in Brazil. The emperor viewed slavery as the last great obstacle to taking Brazil into the "modern age." Starting in 1871, Pedro oversaw a series of laws that resulted in some 700 thousand slaves freed, but no provision had been made to compensate the owners. The latter issue, which eroded support for the monarchy among the wealthy and gentry classes, proved Pedro's ultimate undoing.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Secure in his people's affections, Pedro proceeded to indulge his life-long desire to travel. Distracted by these long absences, Pedro found himself increasingly removed from those segments of Brazilian society that he had fostered, named the emerging urban middle class and a new generation of liberal-minded students. Too, he no longer had the unwavering support of the clergy, the upper classes and the military. 
 
Although still beloved by the commoners, in November 1889 a non-violent military coup forced him to abdicate in favor of a republic. Aged and ailing, Dom Pedro was forced into exile in Europe, where he died two years later in Paris. France accorded him a royal funeral; in 1925 his remains were returned to Brazil, where he was interred in the cathedral in Petropolis he helped found.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Inheriting an empire on the brink of disintegration, Pedro turned Brazil into an emerging power in a changing world, the "other great power of the Americas." The nation came to be distinguished from its neighbors in South America due to its political stability, freedom of speech, respect for civil rights, vibrant economy and rich culture. Perhaps his greatest accomplishment was the peaceful abolition of slavery in Brazil, despite opposition from powerful political and economic interests. A savant in his own right, Pedro II was a vigorous sponsor of education, the arts and the sciences in Brazil. Overthrown while still highly regarded by his people and at the height of his popularity, he is honored by many Brazilians as a hero, as a national symbol, as the "Father of the People" personified.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Emperor of Brazil]=];};
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LEADER_POCATELLO={
Description=[=[Pocatello]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_POCATELLO_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[The spring where Chief Pocatello was buried now lies under the American Falls Reservoir, created when the Snake River was dammed in 1978. According to reports, the spring can sometimes be seen when the water level of the reservoir is low during drought or drainage.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Defiance]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Reservation]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1815 - 1884 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Pocatello]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the Shoshone]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Chief Pocatello, leader of the Bannock-Shoshone tribe, spent his life attempting to find some means of coexistence with the white settlers encroaching on the Shoshone territory throughout the 19th century. Although the Shoshone under Pocatello did attack settlers and wagon trains, such acts were largely retaliation for depredations and attacks by the whites. Pocatello's band of warriors were blamed for increasing attacks on whites along the California Trail, the Salt Lake Road, and the Oregon Trail.
 
In the autumn of 1862 Colonel Conner and the Third California Infantry of the U.S. Army arrived from Fort Douglas with orders to "chastise" the natives. Pocatello learned of the approach and led his tribe northward, thus escaping the infamous Bear River Massacre. Pursued by the U.S. Army for five years, Pocatello would sign the 1868 Fort Bridger Treaty by which his tribe was relocated to a reservation on the Snake River. He died there, despairing for the future of his people.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born in the Grouse Creek region of what is present-day northwest Utah in the United States, little is known of Pocatello's childhood or early manhood. His given name was Tonaioza, meaning "Buffalo Robe"; likely the name Pocatello was given by white trappers, although why and when is unknown. Pocatello grew to manhood during the fur trapping era of the 1820s and 1830s.
 
As he grew, his reputation as a warrior and a sage grew also. At the time that Brigham Young led the first Mormon settles into Utah in 1847 AD, Pocatello had been elevated to chief among the Shoshone. Young followed a policy of appeasement and conciliation with Pocatello, who expressed his concerns over the destruction of game and grass lands by the emigrant farmers. Pocatello became increasingly concerned by the migration and movement of whites into and through Shoshone lands, especially in the wake of the discovery of gold in California and Montana.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Raids on wagon trains and isolated farms, as well as the theft of horses and cattle, increased dramatically in the late 1850s. Whether due to rogue natives, white outlaws or restless young Shoshone, Pocatello was soon being blamed for every attack. Over the next few years, white settlers and natives engaged in a number of clashes and murders. The intermittent hostilities culminated in August 1862 when Pocatello himself led an attack on a wagon train moving through the City of Rocks in south-central Idaho. A few days later, Shoshone war bands attacked two other wagon trains near the Snake River.
 
Concerned about the security of overland routes to the west coast as the Civil War progressed, the Lincoln administration ordered Colonel Patrick Connor and his Third California Volunteer Infantry Regiment into Utah to quell the unrest, where they established Camp Douglas three miles east of Salt Lake City. Additional raids by Chief Bear Hunter of the Great Basin Shoshone spurred Connor, along with the Second Regiment California Volunteers Cavalry, to move against the winter encampment in Cache Valley where several Shoshone tribes, including Pocatello's, had gathered. Aware of the approaching white troops, as other chiefs prepared their warriors to fight, Pocatello decided to lead his away. In the process, he avoided the Bear River Massacre, which resulted in approximately 500 Shoshone men, women and children killed.
 
The U.S. Army continued with the pacification program, roaming the area seeking to arrest the remaining Shoshone chiefs, especially Pocatello. Avoiding capture for nearly five years, eventually Pocatello's band was forced to surrender due to illness and starvation. At the Fort Bridger Treaty Council of 1868, Pocatello agreed to forfeit two-thirds of his Shoshone hunting grounds, to permit transit of their lands by whites, and to relocate to the Fort Hall Indian Reservation on the Snake River; for their part, the U.S. government pledged to supply $5000 worth of food and supplies annually.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[As was far too common, the U.S. Indian Bureau failed to keep its promises; food supplies usually arrived spoiled, the promised cash annuities were rarely paid, and the land was unsuitable for farming. In the years following their confinement, the natives suffered severely from disease and hunger. In 1875, after a particularly poor growing season, Pocatello led his tribe off the reservation to a Mormon missionary farm near Corinne, Utah, helping to plant and maintain wheat, corn, potatoes and garden vegetables, all of which thrived. Pocatello hoped that mass conversion of his people to Mormonism would avoid starvation. White settlers in the area, however, were less obliging and called for their return to the reservation, through force if necessary. When the U.S. Army threatened hostilities, Pocatello led his tribe back to the reservation.
 
Feeling betrayed yet again, Pocatello and most of the Shoshone rejected Christianity. The old chief, now in his 60s, grew increasingly discontented and withdrew from reservation affairs. Pocatello's health declined precipitously, and he died in 1884. At the request of his tribe, Pocatello was interred dressed in full war attire in a deep spring near the Snake River, along with his best clothing, knives, guns and 18 of his horses.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As many Native American leaders did, Pocatello struggled to come to terms with the influx of whites. On the one hand, he sought to co-exist with them; on the other, he was determined to protect his people's rights and freedom. Despite being fearless and cunning, in the end all Pocatello could do was bow to the inevitable, leading his surviving people onto a reservation. Although unsuccessful in his efforts to keep his people free to roam their tribal homeland, he is greatly respected by the Shoshone for preserving their cultural heritage. His legacy is reflected in the number of geographic and man-made (not the least of which is Pocatello, Idaho) features named for him - ironically, mostly by whites.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Chief of the Shoshone]=];};
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LEADER_SHAKA={
Description=[=[Shaka]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_SHAKA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Originally produced in apartheid South Africa, the 1986 ten-episode mini-series Shaka Zulu later aired in syndication in Europe and the United States; its popularity sparked a world-wide interest in the life and accomplishments of the first Zulu king.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Reign]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Assassination]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1787 - 1828 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Shaka]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the Zulu Kingdom]=];
TEXT_1 = [=["Strike an enemy once and for all. Let him cease to exist as a tribe, or he will live to fly at your throat again." According to the diary of H.F. Flynn, Shaka voiced this edict to his ally Dingiswayo concerning a defeated enemy; even if apocryphal, these words certainly summarize Shaka's philosophy. Bastard son of a tribal chieftain, Shaka kaSenzangahona would oust his half-brother in 1816 AD to claim leadership of the Zulus. He is credited with unifying the Nguni tribes into the Zulu Kingdom. Although called a military genius for his reforms and innovations, he has also been condemned for the brutality of his reign. Whatever the judgment, Shaka laid the foundation for an imposing Zulu state. Upon his assassination in 1828, the Zulu were poised to challenge even the Europeans for control of southern Africa.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Although Shaka's life is shrouded in legend and lies, we do know he was the illegitimate son of Senzangahona, chief of the insignificant Zulu tribe, which numbered less than 1500 people. Shaka's mother, Nandi, was the daughter of a deceased chieftain of the Langeni. Despite his attempts to deny paternity, Senzangahona would eventually marry Nandi, installing her as his third wife. But the relationship was troubled, and the Zulu chiefain would exile Nandi and Shaka. The two wandered until 1803 AD, when they found haven with the Mtetwa and their chief Dingiswayo.
 
Under Dingiswayo's patronage, Shaka grew into a tall, imposing young warrior, imbued with courage and daring. At the age of 23, Shaka was given command of a regiment in Dingiswayo's army. His deeds and stature brought him a rapid rise in the army, and Shaka became one of the chieftain's foremost commanders. Shaka rearmed his units, discarding the light throwing spear the Mtetwa favored for a broad-bladed stabbing spear (the famed assagai) and a large, cowhide covered shield.
 
On the death of Shaka's father around 1816 AD, Dingiswayo lent his protege the military support necessary to oust and assassinate his half-brother Sigujana and establish himself chieftain of the Zulu. The coup was relatively bloodless, and the Zulu accepted Shaka without reservation. Shaka pledged himself a vassal of the Mtetwa. As the chieftain's favorite, Shaka was granted unusual latitude in expanding his holdings through conquering and assimilating neighboring tribes. By 1817, Shaka could command a force of 2000 warriors, and had assured his position as the first among Dingiswayo's vassals.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[According to legend, in Dingiswayo's last battle against Zwide of the Ndwandwe, Shaka purposely delayed the arrival of his forces until Dingiswayo had been defeated and killed, keeping his own forces intact. Stepping into the power vacuum, Shaka began conquering and assimilating small neighboring tribes with brutal efficiency. Within a few years the Qwabe, Hlubi and Mkhize were added to the Zulu empire; through diplomacy and patronage, Shaka brought the Sithole and Thuli under his command. By 1824, Shaka had an army of 20,000 warriors, trained in his manner of tactics and strategy.
 
Concerned by the growing Zulu power, Zwide moved against Shaka. The first Ndwandwe invasion was defeated at Gqokoli Hill by superior tactics and Shaka's defensive strategy. In 1819 AD, Zwide sent a second expedition into the Zulu lands. Retreating steadily, Shaka lured the massed enemy deep into his own territory, until, at the Mhlathuze River, Shaka flung his regiments at the exhausted Ndwandwe and their allies. The outcome was a decisive defeat for the invaders in a two-day running battle, and the Ndwandwe, Jere, Maseko and Msene tribes were virtually annihilated.
 
By the time the first white traders reached the southeastern African coast in 1824, Shaka was in control of an empire which spanned the entire coast and reached far inland. Shaka accorded the white traders favored treatment, ceded them land, and allowed the building of a trading post at Port Natal. Alert to the trade advantages, curious about their technology and culture, Shaka insured there were no serious conflicts between the Zulu and the Europeans.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[By 1828, Shaka was an undisputed despot; but his frequent cruelties and unstable behavior was eroding the loyalties of his people. With the death of his mother in October 1827, Shaka dispatched his royal regiments to force the surrounding tribal chieftains to grieve. Taking advantage of the absence of his loyal troops, in September 1828 his personal bodyguard Mbopha and his half-brothers Dingane and Mhlangana stabbed Shaka to death near the Ikanda at Dukuza. Shaka's body was dumped into an empty grain pit, which was then filled with rocks and mud; the exact site has never been conclusively identified.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[By the time of his death, Shaka ruled a vast territory in southeastern Africa, was absolute ruler over 250,000 subjects, and could field an army of 40,000 experienced warriors. In the process of amassing his empire, it is estimated that 2 million people had died. Although the kingdom lasted less than 80 years, Shaka nevertheless cast a large shadow over Africa's history. Today, Shaka is revered as the leader who gave birth to the Zulu spirit that allowed them to persevere under apartheid and to the nationalism that shaped modern South Africa.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Chieftain of the Zulus]=];};
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PortraitIndex=8;
IconAtlas="EXPANSION2_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="6DA0763641234018B6436575B4EC336B";};
 
}
return data

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