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--[Field]                              [Type]
--Type                                 String
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MINOR_CIV_BRATISLAVA={
Description=[=[Bratislava]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The economic and cultural center of Slovakia, Bratislava is home to several renowned universities, museums, theaters, art galleries and other Slavic cultural institutions. Lying at the confluence of the Danube and Morava rivers, the first known settlement on the site of the city was in the Neolithic Era around 5000 BC. Later inhabited and fortified by the Celts, the area fell under Roman control in the 1st Century AD. Besides the amenities of Roman civilization - roads, theaters, public baths, libraries and the like - they introduced grapevines to the area around the fortress, and began a tradition of fine winemaking that has survived.
 
Renamed Pressburg, the strategic city became part of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 10th Century; there the first Slavic university, the Istropolitana Acadenmy, was founded in 1467. Under the Hapsburgs, it was home to archbishops, nobility, merchants, artisans, and kings. Bratislava flourished in the 1700s, especially during the reign of Maria Theresa, who made it the largest and most important town in the region. The city figured prominently in the classical movement of the period: Wolfgang Mozart gave a concert in 1762; Joseph Haydn performed in 1784; Beethoven was a guest while composing in 1796; Liszt and Bartok lived there for short periods. The world's first technical university opened as the Banska Akademia in 1762. Meanwhile, initiatives were launched to promote and preserve the Slavic language and literature in new libraries; the first Slovak language newspaper, the Presspurske Nowiny, began publishing in 1783.
 
Following the First World War and dissolution of Austria-Hungary, Bratislava was made the capital of Slovakia in the first Czechoslovakian Republic, and remained the capital when Slovakia emerged as an independent nation following the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1993. Bratislava has since been declared "the soul, if not the heart, of Slavic culture."]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Bratislava]=];
Adjective=[=[Bratislavan]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BUDAPEST={
Description=[=[Budapest]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Budapest is the capital of Hungary. Known historically as "the Queen of the Danube," Budapest is the political and cultural center of the country and an important economic and industrial hub in Central Europe.  While inhabited from the Neolithic Period (c.9500 BC), the first recorded settlement in the region of modern-day Budapest was the Celtic city of Ak-Ink, later occupied by the Romans and renamed to Aquincum in the 2nd century AD. Its strategic position along the Danube River made Aquincum a desirable holding for both Rome and its enemies alike.
 
At the end of the 9th century AD, a group of Hungarians led by Árpád (the second Grand Prince of the Magyars) settled in the area around Aquincum and officially founded the Kingdom of Hungary a hundred years later. While the city grew and prospered, little was done to reinforce or extend the early Roman fortifications, and a Tatar invasion in the 13th century showed the Hungarians that it can be very difficult indeed to hold a city on the open plains. After the defeat, King Béla IV of Hungary constructed reinforced stone walls around the city and even moved his own palace to the protected, hilled town of Buda, located on the outskirts of Aquincum. In 1361 Aquincum/Buda became the capital of Hungary.
 
The Italian Renaissance greatly influenced the cultural role of Buda, when King Matthias Corvinus built his library there in the 15th century, housing one of Europe's greatest collections of historical, philosophical, and scientific works. Only the Vatican's library rivaled it for holdings and size. This explosive period of cultural growth slammed to a halt when the Turks pillaged the city in 1526, besieged and captured it in 1541, and occupied it for the next 140 years.  In 1686 the city was successfully retaken by Charles V and incorporated into the Habsburg Empire. Unfortunately, the city was largely destroyed during the subsequent battle.
 
The nineteenth century was dominated by the Hungarians' struggle for independence from the Habsburgs until the Reconciliation of 1867, which created the new dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary and placed Buda as the capital for both these monarchies.  In 1873 Buda, Pest, and Óbuda (ancient Buda) were officially merged into the modern city of Budapest, starting a golden age of economic and cultural growth.
 
Budapest's happy times ended with World War I and the collapse of the Austria-Hungarian Empire. During World War II the city sustained heavy damage from British and American air raids and was besieged during the Battle of Budapest in 1945. Major damage was afflicted upon the city from the attacking Soviet troops, and tens of thousands of civilians were killed. The communist government of the country did little to rebuild the city after the war's end, and systematically gutted and destroyed many of the surviving historic buildings in the city.
 
In 1956 a peaceful student demonstration in Budapest led to the start of the Hungarian Revolution when State Security Police fired upon the crowd. The government was overthrown, but the USSR sent a regiment of tanks to Budapest and crushed the revolt and restored the Communist Party to power. The last Soviet troops left Budapest in 1991 as Hungary began the transition to a free society. For the rest of the century, work was done to repair much of the wartime damage and to preserve and rebuild the remaining historic locations. Despite these beginnings of growth and construction, the city has begun recently experiencing a sharp decrease in population as its inhabitants flee to the neighboring Pest county.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Budapest]=];
Adjective=[=[Budapest]=];
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MINOR_CIV_GENEVA={
Description=[=[Geneva]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The original site of the city lay upon a hill overlooking a lake, settled sometime during the Paleolithic Period and later by a tribe of Ligurian and pre-Celtic peoples. Around 500 BC Geneva became a fortified town inhabited by the Celts before it was taken by the Romans in 121 BC. Ownership of the city continued to flip between the warring neighboring states, before landing in the hands of the German Emperor in 1033 AD. By this time Geneva had become an important ecclesiastical seat, with the bishop of the city a direct vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor as a territorially vested prince.
 
Control of Geneva was contested between the nearby Savoy dukes and the Catholic bishop for the next five centuries. When the last ruling bishop fled the city in 1533, the citizens of Geneva made a risky move in an attempt to rid themselves of both the Catholic rule and the Savoyards - the city allied itself with the Protestant state of Bern and declared themselves a Protestant sovereignty in 1536. While this did give power back to the people of Geneva, it also alienated the city from the surrounding Catholic Swiss population for generations.  The Protestant reformationist John Calvin came to reside in the city shortly thereafter in 1536 and stayed for the next thirty years until his death, becoming a new spiritual leader in the absence of the bishop. The city remained a stronghold of the Protestant faith for many years to come, although a large section of the historic section reverted back to Catholicism by the early 17th century.
 
Geneva was briefly annexed by France during the French Revolution, but in 1814 it was admitted into the Swiss Confederation at the Congress of Vienna, its jurisdiction expanded to cover the fifteen neighboring Savoyard parishes. The Congress expressly provided that these Catholic Savoyard parishes would be protected from religious persecution and, in return, guaranteed the city's own neutrality. Tensions continued to run high between the Catholics and Protestants until 1907 when Geneva passed a law mandating the official separation of Church and State - no religious body has received aid from a state or municipal power since.
 
After World War I Geneva became the seat of the League of Nations in 1919, giving it the status of "the international city". Its new reputation continued after World War II when the European headquarters of the United Nations was seated in the city, bringing along with it numerous other international bodies and organizations. Tourism and business have thrived in the city since.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Geneva]=];
Adjective=[=[Geneva]=];
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MINOR_CIV_RIGA={
Description=[=[Riga]=];
Civilopedia=[=[In the 12th Century AD German traders and missionaries built the town of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava around an existing settlement. By 1158 German merchants had established posts there to trade with the Balts and Finns; the first Catholic monastery was completed in 1190. In 1201 the newly proclaimed bishop of Livonia, Albert, arrived with 23 ships and 1500 armed crusaders - later organized into a branch of the Teutonic Knights - to establish his bishopric, forcibly converting the locals to Christianity. In 1282 Riga joined the Hanseatic League, insuring its commercial and political stability for three centuries.
 
When Riga's leaders publically accepted the Reformation in 1522 and the power of the archbishops collapsed, the city quickly became embroiled in the religious wars. Forty years later it was captured by Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, who had intervened in the Thirty Years War. Riga remained Swedish until 1710, when the plague-stricken port surrendered to Russian forces under Peter the Great during the Great Northern War. Riga became Tsarist Russia's largest industrialized port city until the end of World War I, when the Russian Revolution left its Baltic holdings to declare their independence in November 1918. Riga became Latvia's capital.
 
Through the inter-war years, Riga prospered. But Latvia's freedom was tenuous, and Riga was occupied first by the Soviet Union in June 1940 and a year later by the Nazi invaders. The Red Army's recapture of the city in 1944 was followed by an influx of Soviet workers, bureaucrats and troops to turn Riga into the most important industrial-military complex in the western USSR. The port was expanded and modernized to provide a trade outlet to the West. In January 1991, with Latvia's independence, Riga returned its former commercial concerns, making it once more a financial powerhouse in the Baltic.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Riga]=];
Adjective=[=[Rigan]=];
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MINOR_CIV_GENOA={
Description=[=[Genoa]=];
Civilopedia=[=[While no exact date is known for the founding of Genoa, the city's history goes back to ancient times as a settlement founded by the Ligurian people. An excavated cemetery from the 6th century BC shows that the city was once occupied by the Greeks, but it was almost certain to have been established long before this. Under the Romans it was a flourishing trade junction, military port, and market town but it was quickly invaded and pillaged by the Ostrogoths after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. For the next several centuries, Genoa remained a small, obscure fishing center, but it used this time to build up a fleet of merchant ships which would come to dominate the trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea.
 
In the 10th century AD Genoa gained independence from the local feudatories as one of the city-state "Maritime Republics", having its own lord who reported directly to the Holy Roman Emperor. Most of the actual power in the city was wielded not by this Bishop-President, but by consuls elected by the popular assembly. Genoa's shipbuilding and banking industries helped the young republic to flourish, and Genoa began to expand its borders and establish colonies throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa.
 
Genoa's prosperity was brought to an end when a Genoese trading post at Caffa imported the Black Death into Europe in 1347. Genoa's economy collapsed and its population fell as the plague took its toll. Drastically weakened, the city fought a series of unsuccessful wars over the next seventy years, losing all of its colony states in the process and falling under the rule of the Visconti of Milan.
 
The city had a lucky break when its famous son, Christopher Columbus, returned from his discovery of the Americas and donated one-tenth of his income to the local banking institutions. This helped create the alliance which made Genoa a satellite of the wealthy Spanish Empire, a move which led to its economic recovery.  Soon the noble families of the city-state had re-amassed their fortunes and the growing city began to attract famed artists and architects. This golden age for Genoa lasted through the 1500's and into the early 1600's, when a return of the plague wiped out half of the citizens of the city in 1656. Genoa's further and steady decline was assured once the world economy began to shift away from the Mediterranean over to the New World when new trade routes were established in the 1700's. Modernization and the world wars of the early 20th century did little to help the city recover.
 
While Genoa now has the fifth highest economy in Italy and is part of the nation's "industrial triangle", it has never recovered the importance and fame which once gave it the title La Superba, the glorious one of Italy.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Genoa]=];
Adjective=[=[Genoese]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_FLORENCE={
Description=[=[Florence]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Florence (in Italian, "Firenze") is one of the most interesting and beautiful cities in Europe. It lies on the River Arno in northern Italy, in the heart of the beautiful Tuscany region. Florence was founded in 59 BC by Julius Caesar as a settlement for former Roman soldiers, at the strategic location where the Via Cassia (the main route north from Rome) crosses the Arno. It was laid out in a checkerboard pattern, in the style of a military encampment. Its position allowed Florence to prosper from the trade between Rome and the north, and by 300 AD the city was made the capital of the province of Tuscia (Tuscany). For the next several hundred years the city was under attack from both Ostrogoths and Byzantines, and ownership changed hands repeatedly until 774 AD, when Charlemagne took and held the city, fending off further foreign attack.
 
Florence regained its wealth and prominence during the subsequent centuries, growing to become one of the wealthiest and most powerful city-states anywhere in Europe. In 1252 the Republic of Florence introduced its own currency, the gold florin. Florins were accepted across much of the Mediterranean and into Europe, and Florentine merchants and bankers rapidly spread across the known world.
 
During the Renaissance Florence was controlled by several extremely wealthy and ruthless families, including the Medici. When not engaged in deadly power struggles with each other the Florentine nobility were great patrons of the arts, Lorenzo de Medici alone commissioning works by Michelangelo, Botticelli, and Leonardo da Vinci, to name just three of the brilliant men he supported. By the mid-fifteenth century the Medici were made the hereditary Grand Dukes of Tuscany, ruling the province and Florence for several centuries. In 1737 Florence became part of the territories of Austria, in 1859 it was transferred to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, and in 1861 it became part of the newly-united Kingdom of Italy.
 
Modern Florence is a thriving tourist center of some 500,000 citizens, a city that relishes its Roman, Medieval and Renaissance histories. It remains one of the most beautiful and evocative places in Europe, and indeed in the entire world.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Florence]=];
Adjective=[=[Florentine]=];
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MINOR_CIV_RAGUSA={
Description=[=[Ragusa]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The modern Croatian city of Dubrovnik was at one time a powerful city-state known as the Republic of Ragusa. Established in the 7th century, the city of Ragusa is believed to have originally been founded on a small island nestled in the Adriatic Sea, not far off the southern coast of modern Croatia. These founders, a group of Roman refugees, established the settlement after fleeing the destruction of their home city of Epidaurus. Over time, the city would expand into the surrounding region thanks to assistance from the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires as well as the kings of Croatia and Hungary. The development of the city, particularly into key areas such as the Harbor of Gruz (a crucial port even today) would draw the ire of Venice, whose dominance of maritime trade had previously been unrivaled.
 
Beginning in 1205 when Venice invaded what was then known as Dalmatia (a region of Eastern Croatia), Ragusa was forced into a position of suzerainty, providing extensive tribute to Venice while also serving as the Venetian naval base in the Adriatic Sea. Despite the pressures of Venetian influence, Ragusa's own development as a center of trade on the Adriatic would continue. Venice's meddling, however, took its toll on the populace and growing resentment amongst the Ragusan people towards Venice during this period would mark the beginning of a longstanding economic rivalry between the two city-states.  After Venice yielded its claims to Dalmatia in 1358, Ragusa finally had an opportunity to gain real autonomy. The Republic of Ragusa was established soon after, the city's aristocracy quick to consolidate power amongst themselves. The nobility managed nearly all aspects of Ragusan politics, leaving the citizens and plebeians with almost no voice at all. This government would operate autonomously, under the sovereignty of the Hungarian king, for the next 100 years. 
 
In 1458, a treaty signed with the Ottoman Empire would solidify Ragusa's position as a powerful trade center for the remainder of its time as a republic. Under the protection of the Ottomans, the city thrived. Reduced customs fees, access to the Black Sea (previously restricted to Ottoman merchants), and Ottoman backing in trade disputes would all provide valuable advantages bolstering Ragusa's position as the dominant Adriatic port. 
 
At its peak, Ragusa had a population approaching 30,000 people, and served as a crucial link between the ports of Italy and the destinations of the East. However, as goods from India, China and beyond became more readily available, Ragusa's commercial influence dwindled. A massive earthquake would strike the city in 1667, destroying nearly 75% of the structures and killing over 5,000 residents. A shell of its former self, in 1806 the city was finally surrendered to the army of Napoleon and by 1808 the Republic of Ragusa was no more. 
 
Today, the city of Dubrovnik is a popular tourist destination on the Adriatic Sea with a population of over 40,000.  Dubrovnik also remains a commercial seaport, one of the few remaining remnants of its storied past.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Ragusa]=];
Adjective=[=[Ragusan]=];
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MINOR_CIV_SYDNEY={
Description=[=[Sydney]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Sydney, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, was not only the first British colony established on the continent, but also the first European settlement of any kind. Founded by Admiral Arthur Phillip in 1788 as a penal colony, Sydney's early development would be led initially by convicts, and later continued by retired soldiers and settlers arriving from Britain. Over time, Sydney would grow to become the largest and perhaps most famous city in Australia, with a population of over 4 million people today.
 
Scouted by James Cook in 1770, the original landing site, known famously as "Botany Bay", was deemed unsuitable for the location of a permanent settlement. The nearby Sydney Cove named for "Lord Sydney" Thomas Townshend, would prove to be the ideal location. This area is thought to have been inhabited by Australian Aborigines for several thousand years prior to the arrival of British colonists, and numerous tribes were found in the region upon their arrival. Despite the efforts of Admiral Phillip to regulate the interaction between colonists and the local tribesmen, thousands of Aborigines would die from smallpox and measles spread by colonial expeditions.
 
During its later history, Sydney experienced a massive population boom throughout the 19th century as gold was discovered in neighboring areas, particularly Bathurst. Greatly expanding its industrial development during this period, by the 1920s, Sydney's population would reach over 1 million and the city would continue expanding to meet its growing infrastructure needs.
 
In the present day, Sydney is known for its financial development, serving as the economic hub for all of Australia. Home to numerous major banks and financial institutions, the Australian Securities Exchange is also located in Sydney. Since the early 1800s, the date of Sydney's founding, January 26th, has been celebrated as Australia's national day, commemorating not only the city's history, but also its importance to Australia in the present day.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Sydney]=];
Adjective=[=[Sydney]=];
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MINOR_CIV_QUEBEC_CITY={
Description=[=[Quebec City]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Quebec City, founded in 1608 by the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, was once the location of a small Iroquois village known as Stadaconé. Taking its name from the Algonquin word "Kebec," meaning "where the river becomes narrow," the settlement of Quebec City would grow to become the center of French colonial efforts in North America throughout the 17th century.
 
During its early development, Quebec City served not only as a valuable trade outpost, but also as a home to various Christian missionaries and an increasing number of permanent settlers. The fur and lumber industries provided the French with valuable resources that strengthened early efforts to expand their reach in North America. Briefly passing under British rule from 1629 until 1632, the city would otherwise be controlled by the French for over 150 years, despite several sieges. In 1663, Quebec City was officially named the capital of New France, having already served as the capital of French Canada since its founding.
 
The French would finally lose control of the colony in 1759 to the British during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Britain would remain in control of Quebec City until the formation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Following the Constitution Act of Canada, Quebec City would become the capital of the Canadian Province of Quebec.
 
Today, Quebec City is home to over 500,000 residents, and continues to thrive with a rich cultural heritage. Named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985, Quebec City still maintains much of the historic architecture from its colonial roots. Of particular interest are the famous Château Frontenac hotel, and the Roman Catholic churches of Notre-Dame de Québec and Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, both originally constructed in the 17th century.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Quebec City]=];
Adjective=[=[Quebec City]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BUCHAREST={
Description=[=[Bucharest]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Lying along the banks of the Dâmbovita River, Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania.  Archeological excavations have shown that people have lived in the Bucharest area from as early as 9,000 BC, but the city of Bucharest was not mentioned until 1459 AD in a document signed by Vlad III, the Impaler.  Vlad III built the first fortress and his summer residence at Bucharest at this time in an attempt to hold back the encroaching Ottoman forces, but to little avail. In the early 17th century the city was burned down by the Ottomans, who then captured and rebuilt it.
 
Bucharest developed rapidly under the Ottomans and became the main economic center and capital of the seized Walachia region in 1659. Over the next two hundred years, Bucharest was almost destroyed by natural disasters many times, (stubbornly rebuilt after every occurrence), ravaged by the Bubonic plague, and was occupied repeatedly by both the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, ultimately residing under the Russians.
 
Walachia remained under Russian rule until a series of civic unrests in Bucharest helped to unify the Walachia and Moldavia regions, forming the state of Romania in 1859; Bucharest was named its capital in 1862. As the capital of the new kingdom, the city's population increased dramatically and large-scale architectural projects were begun.  The extravagance shown by Bucharest's residences at this time earned it the nickname "The Paris of the East".
 
While escaping relatively unscathed during the First World War, Bucharest suffered substantial damage during World War II, primarily from heavy Allied bombings.  After the wars, much of the old historic district of the city was torn down to make way for high-rise apartment buildings commissioned by the Communist government, and a massive earthquake in 1977 destroyed many of the remaining historic neighborhoods.  
 
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 ended Communist rule in Romania when many disillusioned and dissatisfied protesters gathered in Bucharest. While at a speech being delivered by President Nicolae Ceausescu, the protesters turned to rioting and fighting, overrunning the ineffective and desperate attempt by the police to contain them. Since the fall of communism, Bucharest has enjoyed a newfound economic boom and period of modernization, as well as new attempts by the local government to restore its nearly demolished historic center.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Bucharest]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BELGRADE={
Description=[=[Belgrade]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The present capital of Serbia, Belgrade lies at the juncture of two of Europe's most important waterways, the Danube and Sava rivers, and has served as a major crossroad between Europe and Asia for centuries. Belgrade is one of the oldest cities in Europe, with settlements dating as far back as 6,000 BC, and may have been the home of the largest known prehistoric European culture, the Vincas. The first recorded fort and permanent settlement  on this location was built by the Celts in the 3rd century BC, who named it Singidun, or Singidunum, "White Fortress".
 
Singidunum was ravaged and occupied by a large succession of peoples over the next couple of hundred years, including the Romans, Huns, Sarmatians, Ostrogoths, and Avars, before falling under Byzantium rule in the 9th century AD. This is when the city was given its Slavic name, Beligrad, which means "White Fortress." In the following centuries the city hosted the armies of both the First and Second Crusade and remained a contested battleground between Bulgaria, Hungary, and Byzantium.
 
In 1456, the Ottomans launched the famous Siege of Belgrade in an attempt to subjugate Hungary - the fall of the fortress at Belgrade would have opened a clear path for Sultan Mehmed II to take the heart of Central Europe. However, an army led by Hungarian John Hunyadi destroyed the Ottoman's forces and is credited not only with saving the city but also with preserving Christianity in Europe. To this day, Catholic churches still ring the church bells at noon in commemoration of the victory.  Unfortunately, plague killed many of the victorious soldiers - including Hunyadi - in the weeks following their triumph. In 1521, nearly 70 years later, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent finally captured the city, and it was made the seat of the Ottomans' Sanjak district and quickly became the second largest city in the Empire, eclipsed only by Constantinople.
 
The Second Serbian Uprising of 1815 (following a brief failed attempt in 1807) granted the Serbian region semi-independence, with full independence not achieved until 1878; the capital of this new kingdom was moved to Belgrade and the city once again prospered and grew rapidly.  The city's growth was halted however with the advent of World War I in 1914, when Belgrade was decimated from repeated attacks. After the war, Belgrade became the capital of newly-formed Yugoslavia and experienced a period of unforeseen growth and modernization.
 
Despite the Serbian government's attempt to stay out of World War II, Belgrade was heavily bombed and its people massacred by the Luftwaffe in 1941, and was quickly occupied by the Germans.  In 1944, the Allies bombed the city and finally liberated it a few months later. At war's end Serbia was under the Soviet Union's control, and a year later the People's Republic of Yugoslavia was created, with Belgrade again housing the government's seat. Communist Belgrade rapidly developed into a major industrial center.
 
In 1996, massive demonstrations were held in Belgrade against the Communist-led government, and in 1997 the first mayor of Belgrade was elected who did not belong to the Communist or Socialist party.  Unrest continued however, with major bombings during the Kosovo War of 1999 causing substantial damage and leading to hundreds of thousands of protesters taking to the streets.  However, in spite of these military and economic troubles of the 1990s, Belgrade has been growing strong ever since as a center for history, culture, and tourism.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BRUSSELS={
Description=[=[Brussels]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Brussels was officially founded along the banks of the Senne River in 979 AD, when Charles of Lorraine, a descendent of Charlemagne, constructed the first permanent fortification around a small Catholic chapel and township. The early city lay low along the river and was often at risk of floods, giving it its Dutch name Broeksel, or, "home in the marsh".  City walls, constructed and expanded during the 11th to 14th centuries, allowed for a period of growth, expansion, and for a general peaceful existence, uncommon for the times.
 
The peace ended violently in 1695, when King Louis XIV of France sent troops to Brussels and bombarded the city with artillery, destroying the Grand Palace and nearly a third of the city in one attack, the most destructive event in the entire history of the city. This invasion brought a "Frenchification" to the region, in both culture and language. In 1830 the southern French-speaking provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands seceded from the Dutch-speaking provinces in the Belgian Revolution, the conflict taking place for the most part in Brussels. Following Belgian independence, the new king Leopold I began the massive undertaking of destroying the old city walls to make way for new construction and more modern buildings. It also helped his cause that by this point the Senne, the previous life-blood of the city, had become a serious health hazard and its entire urban area was buried over and rebuilt.
 
Brussels escaped the World Wars with little damage (even though Belgium was invaded by Germany on both occasions), largely in part to its adamant policy of remaining neutral. It is this neutrality which has made the city a modern-day center for international politics and the de facto capital city of the European Union (the EU) and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).  The only major controversy in the otherwise peaceful city revolves around the laws governing the language borders between the French and Dutch speaking municipalities, a tension mirrored in the rest of Belgium as a whole.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Brussels]=];
Adjective=[=[Brussels]=];
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MINOR_CIV_MONACO={
Description=[=[Monaco]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The Principality of Monaco is the world's smallest monarchy and the second smallest country, larger only than Vatican City. While being populated by Ligurian people (Monoikos in Greek) from the 6th century AD, the city of Monaco was founded in 1228 as a colony of Genoa. In 1297 Francesco Grimaldi captured the fortress protecting the small city state, and his family has ruled the country since.
 
French revolutionary forces captured the principality in 1793, and it remained under French control until 1814 when it was designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna. It remained under Sardinia until Sardinia was also annexed to France, then gained its independence in 1861. France, however, was (and still is) required to provide any military defenses for the small country. Not a bad deal for a country less than a mile square in area. Monaco was briefly occupied during World War II, but the attempt to set up a Fascist administration and replace the Grimaldis failed, leaving the country little changed.
 
Monaco's current claim to fame comes primarily from three sources - the late Princess Grace, its status as a tax haven, and its world renowned casino. For the first, Prince Rainier III married the American actress Grace Kelly in 1956, focusing the world's attention on the small country for the first time in centuries. Besides the constant attention she brought to the country, she also avidly worked to improve arts and education support in the U.S. and Monaco. For a second point of fame, or rather infamy, Monaco has never levied a personal income tax on its inhabitants, thereby attracting numerous wealthy residents from around the world. Finally, the Monte Carlo Casino is one of the greatest tourist attractions in the country.  Open since 1856, the casino is visited by many of the world's wealthiest gamblers, but is forbidden to the country's own citizens. The casino serves as a landmark in the annual Monaco Grand Prix and as a location for three James Bond films. A class of computational algorithms and methods for sampling random data also take their name from the casino.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_KATHMANDU={
Description=[=[Kathmandu]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The ancient city of Kathmandu, capital to the highly-elevated country of Nepal, traces its history back almost 2,000 years to the dawn of the first millennium AD. Steeped in both Hindu and Buddhist traditions, the city of Kathmandu was named after a great temple found at the site known as "Kasthamandap," said to have been constructed from the timber of a single tree in the 16th century.
 
Long before the city's establishment, the Kathmandu Valley was inhabited by the Newar people, ancestors to the modern Newars who continue to live throughout Nepal. The Newars are responsible for many of the unique characteristics that have come to be recognized as symbolic of Nepal, including the pagoda style architecture that was adapted over the centuries from both Chinese and Indian designs.
 
During the reign of the Malla Dynasty, who ruled Kathmandu for over 500 years beginning in the 12th century, many of the city's most notable temples and pagodas were constructed. Though the city was often fraught with conflict and turmoil, leading to the destruction of many of the earliest structures, dozens of magnificent examples remain today. In 2006, the collective of monuments within Kathmandu was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site, acknowledging the cultural significance of the historic city.
 
In the present-day, Kathmandu is home to more than one million residents, with an economy supported by the production of local crafts as well as an increasingly large tourist population. As the city continues to grow and modernize, the local government faces a difficult task in dealing with urbanization and pollution issues.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_HANOI={
Description=[=[Hanoi]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Located on the banks of the Red River in Vietnam, the area surrounding Hanoi has been inhabited from at least the third millennium BC. One of the first recorded permanent structures at the site was the Co Loa citadel, built sometime around 200 BC. However, it is not until 1010 AD that the official founding of Hanoi is recorded - the then ruler of the land, Lý Thái To, moved the capital to the site and renamed it Thang Long, or "ascending dragon". Thang Long remained the capital of Vietnam until 1397.
 
The city continued to grow quietly for the next few centuries, even while briefly occupied by the Chinese in the early 1400's. In 1831 Emperor Minh Mang renamed the city, giving it the more literal name of "Between Rivers". Shortly thereafter, the French occupied the city and surrounding area in 1873, later making Hanoi the capital of their new colony - French Indochina - in 1887.
 
After World War II the city was the scene of deadly fighting as control of the country was contested between the independent nationalists and the French government. North Vietnam finally won its independence in 1954 and made Hanoi the capital of the country. The city remained the capital once North and South Vietnam were reunited in 1976.
 
Since then, Hanoi has boomed into a vibrant metropolitan area, exponentially increasing in size with every passing generation. The city is now the most developed and modern in Vietnam, boasting the latest advancements in infrastructure and agriculture technologies.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_LHASA={
Description=[=[Lhasa]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world, located almost 12,000 ft above sea level. Lhasa literally translates to "place of the gods", a name change from Rasa in the early 7th century (which meant "goat's place"). The recorded history of the city starts around this time when Songstan Gampo became the leader of the Tibetan Empire and moved the capital to Lhasa in 637 AD. Gampo soon converted to Buddhism (which he learned of from his wives), and began the construction of Buddhist statues and temples.  While the political power of the city slowly waned over the centuries (the monarchy dissolved in the 9th century), Lhasa continued to rise in prominence as a religious center. During this time the first Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of the Tibetan Buddhists, rose to power in 1391.
 
In 1642 the fifth Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso, began to wield real political power, in addition to his spiritual authority, and unified the loosely assembled Tibetan tribes into one country. Lhasa was named both the spiritual and political capital of the new country. By the time the West began sending explorers to the city in the early 20th century, nearly half of Lhasa's population were practicing Buddhist monks.
 
In 1950 China invaded Tibet and many people fled the city, including the 14th Dalai Lama, and sought refuge in exile in India. The attack is classified as a "peaceful liberation" by the Chinese, but the Tibetans, U.S. Congress, and other prominent military and political figures consider it an unprovoked invasion. Many of the remaining monks and nuns in the city revolted and held peaceful demonstrations against the Chinese oppressors, which led to an imposed restriction upon the monasteries. Re-education programs were instituted in an attempt to realign the Buddhists with Communist views, while also requiring the protesters to denounce both the Dalai Lama and Tibet's independence. Many monks and nuns refused to cooperate and were sent to prison; those who escaped fled to India.
 
The question of Tibetan independence is still a major source of controversy in Lhasa and in the rest of the world, with many world leaders continuing to condemn the Chinese treatment of the Tibetan people. Talks between the reigning Dalai Lama in exile and the Chinese government began in May 2008 discussing Tibet's independence and autonomous rule, but little has changed as a result.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_ALMATY={
Description=[=[Almaty]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Located near the southeastern border of modern-day Kazakhstan, Almaty has hosted human settlements from as early as 1000 BC.  Its early history was one of farms and tribal herdsman, and it wasn't until the Middle Ages that Almaty began to prosper and flourish as a city, when it became an integral part of the Silk Road trade route.  For three centuries Almaty thrived as a center for agriculture and crafts, but in the 13th century much of the city was destroyed by Mongol raids.  By the 15th century, Almaty and the surrounding region found itself in a state of decline.
 
It wasn't until 1854 that Almaty began to recover and build anew into the modern city it is today.  Imperial Russia constructed Fort Zailiyskoye on the ancient site, later renaming it Fort Verniy. A year later the soldiers started accepting peasants and tradesmen to the area and formed the town of Verniy, which housed the administrative center of the newly created Semirechye province of Turkistan.  For a brief thirty years this version of Almaty prospered again, only to be destroyed in less than twelve minutes by a catastrophic earthquake in 1887.
 
In the early 20th century, the town's name was changed to Alma-Ata. With the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railroad the city regained some of its former importance as a trade depot.  The capital of Kazakhstan was moved to Alma-Ata in 1936, with the idea of remaking the city into a kind of cultural Mecca.  In 1993 Alma-Ata's name was changed yet again to Almaty (referencing the area's ample apple orchards).
 
In 1997 the government moved the country's capital to Astana - a city with far fewer threats of natural disasters. Despite this setback to its political importance and the constant threat of destruction from catastrophic mudflows, Almaty once again prospers as a cultural, financial, and industrial center.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_KUALA_LUMPUR={
Description=[=[Kuala Lumpur]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Kuala Lumpur had its start as a tin mining town when the Malay Chief ordered a new mine opened at its location in 1857. The original name, Pengkalan Lumpur, literally translated to "bundle of mud", a testament to the site's low laying position between two equally muddy rivers. Later the town's name was changed to Kuala Lumpur or, "muddy confluence" - apparently the environment still hadn't changed much for the better.
 
The small mining town eventually developed into a more lucrative trading post, but it was constantly plagued by disease, fires, and floods, slowing its progress some. The state's capital was moved to the city in 1880 despite this, taking advantage of the strategic rivers and mines. However, a year later a fire engulfed the town, quickly followed by a massive flood. The two natural disasters destroyed virtually every building in the city, mostly because they were made of wood and thatch - both of which either quickly burn or can easily be mildewed or swept away by raging waters. Leaders of the city mandated that all new constructions be fashioned of brick and tile. After the city rebuilt itself, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States in 1896.
 
The 1900's brought more problems to Kuala Lumpur - it was occupied by the Japanese during World War II, tin collapsed as a commodity, and it had to deal with a guerrilla war fought between the British rulers and communist nationals. However, in 1963 Malaysia gained its independence from Britain, and made Kuala Lumpur its new capital.
 
The city is now the largest in Malaysia and has one of the most iconographic modern skylines. At one point it also boasted the world's tallest skyscrapers, the Petronas Twin Towers, before they were overtaken by Taipei 101 in 2004. Today the city is an economic and cultural hub of the country, with a booming industrial and tourist sector.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Kuala Lumpur]=];
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MINOR_CIV_SINGAPORE={
Description=[=[Singapore]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Records and archeological excavations show that the island of modern-day Singapore has been occupied from about the second century AD - the small island was originally part of the Sumatran Empire and went by the name of Temasek, or "sea town." For unknown reasons the area slid into a decline in the 14th century, and for the next few centuries the island's population consisted mostly of small villages of fishermen.
 
This all changed on January 29, 1819, when the British statesman Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles landed on the island and signed a treaty to develop the southern portion into a British trading post. Singapore officially became a British colony in 1824 when the British East India Company gained control of the entire island. The island city grew steadily as it became an important hub for trade and commerce in the Pacific.
 
In 1941, the Japanese invaded Singapore and in six short days gained control of the city and its military base. The Battle of Singapore, as it came to be known, was the worst recorded military disaster in British history and the city became an important base for the Japanese for the rest of World War II. The British regained control of the island a month after Japan's surrender in 1945.
 
After the war, Singapore started on the road to independence. In 1955 the city was allowed to hold its first general election, but delegations sent to England demanding self-rule were met with resistance until 1959. Four years later the small city-state nation declared formal independence from the British Empire and quickly joined the Federation of Malaysia. However, major ideological conflicts between Singapore and the Federation soured the relationship and two years later Singapore officially declared complete sovereignty.
 
Since its independence, fortunes for the city-state have increased, with massive improvements in standards of living, the economy, and education. Singapore is now the fifth wealthiest country in the world (in terms of GDP per capita) with booming tourism and medical industries.]=];
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Adjective=[=[Singaporean]=];
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MINOR_CIV_PANAMA_CITY={
Description=[=[Panama City]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Panama City, capital of the Republic of Panama, is the Pacific terminus of the Panama Canal on the Gulf of Panama. The word "panama" means "many fish," and the city is built on the site of a large native fishing village existing when the Spanish conquistadors arrived. The port city was founded in 1519 AD by the Spanish governor of Panama on the Pacific side of the isthmus to facilitate the trans-shipment of goods and treasure from the Atlantic. It served as the principle staging point for the conquest of the Incan Empire, and the Incan riches passed through on the way to Spain's treasury.
 
The city quickly became wealthy from this trade, and was subsequently plundered and burned by the English pirate Sir Henry Morgan. Three years later, the city was rebuilt slightly to the south. Although Panama City itself was thereafter well defended by the Spanish, the 1746 destruction of the Caribbean port at Portobelo dealt a serious blow to the overland trade route. Panama City declined in wealth and prestige, although it returned to prominence again a century later when the Panama Railroad opened and gold seekers bound for California flowed across the isthmus by rail and road. Ships from Panama City carried the flood of peoples and supplies north that the Gold Rush unleashed.
 
After Panama declared its independence from Columbia in 1903, the city was established as the capital. When the Panama Canal was completed in 1914, the city emerged as Central America's hub for international commerce, trade and tourism. Home to over 80 banks, today Panama City is considered the wealthiest city in Latin America. The recent spate of foreign investment in Panamanian shipping and the 2006 referendum to expand the Canal means the city is likely to continue its remarkable economic boom.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Panama City]=];
Adjective=[=[Panama City]=];
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MINOR_CIV_CAPE_TOWN={
Description=[=[Cape Town]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Located on the southern edge of Africa, Cape Town is the first European settlement in South Africa. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company established a refreshment station for its ships on the shores of Table Bay, a harbor just to the northwest of the Cape of Good Hope with convenient access to fresh water. Within a few years Dutch colonists ventured outside of the forts and set up farmsteads, working the fields with African slaves imported from other locations. The local native inhabitants (the Khoekhoe, whom the Dutch called "Hottentots") were not enslaved, and in fact many lived side by side with, and in some cases intermarried with, the colonists. By the turn of the century the town had some 200 houses and a thriving port.
 
During the seventeenth century the port continued to grow in size and in strategic importance, its position allowing the Dutch to dominate the Cape of Good Hope, the primary water passage between Europe and the Far East. The British sought to occupy the port in 1781, during the American Revolution, but a French fleet beat them to it, establishing a garrison to help the Dutch keep it out of British control.
 
As the century progressed the British dominance of the high seas gave them increasing leverage over African colonies. Ownership of Cape Town passed back and forth between England and the Netherlands, and by 1814 title of the colony had passed to Britain permanently. The British freed the slaves in 1834, and within a few years the young city's population reached some 20,000 citizens. In 1870 diamonds were discovered inland from the city, and roughly 16 years later gold was found as well. This brought a massive influx of prospectors and those who supported/preyed upon them to the city and the land beyond.
 
At the turn of the 20th century the Boer War (1899-1902) broke out between the British and the Boer Republics, which, depending upon which historians you read, was a fight to end growing British tyranny over the people of Dutch ancestry, a rebellion by Afrikaans seeking to continue to enslave and oppress non-Whites, or a war between greedy politicians over the growing profits from the gold and diamond mines. The war was long and bitter, and though fighting took place miles inland, the city was an important military base for the British, and it gained an industrial base constructing war materials and other supplies.
 
In 1910 the British colonies of Cape Colony, Transvaal, Natal and Orange River were unified into the Union of South Africa, and Cape Town was its capital. The 20th century saw increased efforts by the European inhabitants to protect themselves from what they saw as a growing threat of being overwhelmed by the African natives. Increasingly odious apartheid laws relegated non-white citizens to subservient status, with limited access to employment and education, and almost no say in government or control over their own affairs. The struggle for equality intensified over the course of the century and, along with internal resistance, the white government faced growing sanctions from the rest of the world. By 1990 the apartheid system was in collapse, and Cape Town and South Africa saw the appointment of Nelson Mandela as president, the first black man to ever hold that title.
 
Modern Cape Town is a vibrant, growing city. It still faces the after-effects of years of inter-racial struggle and the poverty and lack of education of a large portion of its native inhabitants. But it survived the transition from apartheid to near universal democracy with remarkably little violence (thanks largely to the genius of Nelson Mandela). Though the city is troubled by the ailments that face all modern cities (and some unique to itself), Cape Town's future remains bright.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_SIDON={
Description=[=[Sidon]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Sidon is an ancient city located on the coast of Lebanon. Originally a fishing and trade center, in modern times Sidon serves as the Mediterranean terminus for the Trans-Arabian Pipeline from Saudia Arabia.
 
Sidon was founded by Phoenicia in the 3rd millennium BC.
		Sidon became wealthy and prosperous in the 2nd millennium BC, famous for the quality of its glass and its purple dyes. In approximately 2700 BC, Sidon colonists founded the city of Tyre some 25 miles down the coast, and for many years the two cities competed for the seat of Phoenician wealth and power.
 
As Phoenicia's power waned, Sidon's wealth and strategic location made it a tempting target for conquest. During its history Sidon has been ruled by Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Alexander of Macedonia, the Seleucids, the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, the Romans, the Ottomans, the French, and finally, Lebanon. During the Crusades the city changed hands several times, being destroyed and rebuilt in the process. The area is littered with the remains of fortifications from throughout history. Today, Sidon is home to Sunni and Shiite Muslims as well as Christian Greek Catholics and Maronites.
 
The city is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. Perhaps its most famous citizen is the wicked Queen Jezebel, wife of King Ahab of Northern Israel and great aunt of Queen Dido of Carthage. According to the Bible, Jezebel was an evil and corrupt ruler, and she encouraged the worship of foreign (Phoenician) gods in Israel. For these crimes she was killed by her own eunuchs and thrown into the street to be eaten by dogs.
 
There are two great lessons from this story for all rulers: first, don't mess with the people's religion, and second, never trust the royal eunuchs.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_TYRE={
Description=[=[Tyre]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city located in the southern portion of Lebanon, approximately 12 miles north of the Lebanese border with Israel. Tyre was built on the mainland and a nearby offshore island. Founded in approximately 2700 BC by colonists from the city of Sidon, the city soon grew to rival and eventually surpass its sister city as a fishing and mercantile center for Phoenicia. In the 9th century BC settlers from Tyre founded the city of Carthage in North Africa.
 
Like Sidon, Tyre is frequently mentioned in the Bible. Relations between Israel and Tyre were generally cordial; in fact, Hiram, king of Tyre, furnished building materials for Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.
 
Because of its wealth and strategic location, Tyre was subjected to repeated attacks by whatever power happened to be rampaging in the area. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC it was under Assyrian dominance. In the 6th century BC it withstood a long siege by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, though it was captured shortly thereafter by the Persians. Then, in the third century BC, Alexander of Macedon happened by at the head of his army.
 
Alexander's siege of Tyre lasted some seven months. To defeat the stubborn defenders, Alexander completely destroyed the mainland city and used the rubble to construct a causeway out to the island. After capturing the city, the great Alexander showed his appreciation for the citizens' valor and courage by putting 10,000 of them to death and selling 30,000 others into slavery. Though it revived somewhat under later Egyptian and Roman rule, Tyre never fully recovered from Alexander's exuberance.
 
Today Tyre is a city of approximately 120,000 residents. Because of its proximity to Israel, it tends to suffer whenever violence occurs along the Lebanese-Israeli border, which seems to happen with depressing frequency, as bombs, bullets and missiles from all sides make the ancient ruins even more ruined. Still, Tyre has survived worse than this - much worse - and it will hopefully live to see peace and prosperity once again.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_ANTWERP={
Description=[=[Antwerp]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The city of Antwerp is located in the central European nation of Belgium, in what is known as the Low Countries. Settled by the Franks in the 4th century, Antwerp is believed to be situated on the same land as an early Roman encampment founded in the previous century. Built up over the years through the efforts of several ruling kingdoms, by the 16th century Antwerp had grown to become the wealthiest city in Europe, serving as an economic hub for traders from across the world.
 
During Antwerp's height as a thriving financial center, the city was home to international traders, merchants, and bankers who flocked to the growing city, bringing with them art and culture from abroad. Although the city enjoyed a period of calm and prosperity, the tumult of the Protestant Reformation, along with the increasing influence of nearby Amsterdam, led to a swift decline in Antwerp's economy and population by the 18th century.
 
In the 20th century, Antwerp was occupied by Germany during World War II, only to be liberated by the Allied forces after several years of conflict. Unfortunately for the people of Antwerp, Germany battered the city with V-2 rockets in an attempt to disrupt the flow of supplies arriving in Antwerp's port. Much of the city was ravaged, and it would be several decades before Antwerp again rose to its former place of prominence within Europe.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Antwerp]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_CAHOKIA={
Description=[=[Cahokia]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Found in the southern region of the U.S. state of Illinois, Cahokia was once an ancient city comprised of more than one hundred earthwork mounds, constructed around 700 AD by the Native American Mississippian culture. Covering more than 2,200 acres, Cahokia is the largest native city north of Mexico. Throughout the city's early history, it served as an important economic hub along the Mississippi river, joining far off settlements in the exchange of goods and services.
 
Of the approximately 70 to 80 mounds remaining today, the largest is that of "Monks Mound," which covers an area nearly as big as the Great Pyramid at Giza. Although the site is thought to have been abandoned some 600 years ago, European settlers, including a group of French monks, inhabited the area during the early 1800s (the monks providing the mound's namesake).
 
Today, Cahokia is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.  Several hundred thousand tourists from around the world visit the site each year, while archeologists working in the area expand on their research and continue to make new discoveries.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Cahokia]=];
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MINOR_CIV_COLOMBO={
Description=[=[Colombo]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The largest city on the island nation of Sri Lanka, Colombo, has long been a vibrant trade center due in no small part to its strategic location along the trade routes connecting Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Beginning in ancient times, traders sailing from Greece, Rome, and China all stopped within Colombo's naturally formed harbor while sailing to distant ports.
 
Sometime around the 8th century AD, Arab settlers and traders hoping to profit from the port made permanent residence in the area of Colombo. However, it wasn't until nearly 600 years later with the arrival of Portuguese explorers that Colombo saw a vast expansion in its economic influence. From the early 1500s on, Colombo was of strategic and economic importance to a number of empires, as control of the city changed hands from the Portuguese to the Dutch, and later still, the English.
 
In the present-day, Colombo and its port are integral to the overall economy of Sri Lanka, as much of the nation's imports and exports pass through the city.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Colombo]=];
Adjective=[=[Colombo]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_HONG_KONG={
Description=[=[Hong Kong]=];
Civilopedia=[=[A city-state in its truest form, Hong Kong is a massive city residing along the southern coast of China. Home to more than seven million residents in the present-day, the island of Hong Kong and its surrounding territories were once home to numerous small settlements, including those constructed by foreign explorers. During the reign of the Chinese Qing Dynasty in the 19th century, trade relations with England dissolved amidst growing concern over the importation of Indian Opium into China. Britain had hoped to offset its increasing expensive tea imports from China by exporting greater amounts of Opium from its Indian colonies to China. However, the Qing rulers objected, and attempted to seize incoming opium shipments, inciting the First Opium War in 1839.
 
As one of the premier naval powers of the era, Britain had little trouble defeating the Chinese forces and occupying the island of Hong Kong. After nearly 3 years of conflict, the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 provided Britain with various spoils, including control of Hong Kong. After growing as a British colony for more than 150 years, Hong Kong was finally returned to China in 1997, after a peaceful transfer of power led to the creation of the Hong Kong special administrative region. Modern Hong Kong is distinguished by its highly dense, urban landscape with a distinctive skyline marked by dozens of skyscrapers and brightly lit structures. Despite the communist system utilized by the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong maintains an autonomous system of government that firmly supports free trade, and the city is now considered one of the world's premier financial hubs.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Hong Kong]=];
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MINOR_CIV_ORMUS={
Description=[=[Ormus]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The city-state of Ormus dates back to the 10th Century AD when Arab princes sought to establish a port off the south coast of Persia to control trade through the Persian Gulf. The city dominates the narrow Strait of Hormuz, the strategic waterway linking the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. Ormus grew immensely rich by being the crucial stage on the slave routes from East Africa into Persia and Arabia. At the zenith of its influence in the 14th Century, it was the most powerful maritime state in the region, with a large commercial fleet and a navy of 500 warships.
 
In 1505 AD, King Manuel I of Portugal decided to block Muslim trade with India. Afonso de Albuquerque took his ships into the gulf in 1507, captured the island of Hormuz, built a fort there, and claimed the city of Ormus for Portugal. In March 1515 Albuquerque returned with a fleet of 27 vessels, 1500 soldiers with cannons to insure that the city remained under Portuguese rule. The city became known for its licentiousness and guilty pleasures, according to accounts by Portuguese visitors and priests. The luxury and leisure of Ormus is captured in an Arab saying of the time: "If all the world were a golden ring, Ormus would be the jewel in it."
 
Although largely bypassed by maritime routes for three centuries after, the discovery of oil in the Persian Gulf and Middle East again gave the city a new role in world trade. In 2011 AD, 35% of the world's seaborne oil shipments passed by the city. The Iranian Revolution that disposed the absolute monarchy in favor of an Islamic fundamentalist republic under the Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979 only heightened the city's strategic significance, as the new government proved hostile to the Western powers.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_JERUSALEM={
Description=[=[Jerusalem]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The often contentious debate over Jerusalem, holy city to the followers of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, has raged for decades since the city's establishment as the capital of Israel. With portions of the city having been constructed over 6,000 years ago, Jerusalem is one of the oldest known cities in the world. Throughout its tumultuous history, Jerusalem has come under siege numerous times, as far-reaching empires and local kingdoms alike struggled to wrest control of the city from one another.
 
The oldest area in Jerusalem, the City of David, is said to have been founded by the legendary King David sometime during the 1st millennium BC. Over the centuries that followed, immigrants and refugees toiling under a number of kings and emperors worked to expand the city. By the time the Islamic Caliphates rose to power in the 6th century AD, Jerusalem had already been controlled by the Macedonians, the Romans, and the Byzantine Empire.
 
The past century has arguably been the most controversial in Jerusalem's history, following the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel and Israel's subsequent annexation of Jerusalem following the Six-Day War. In the time since, Israel's control of Jerusalem has been one of the major hurdles preventing a resolution to the longstanding Israeli-Palestinian conflict.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_LA_VENTA={
Description=[=[La Venta]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The ancient Olmec settlement of La Venta, found in central Mexico, is thought by archeologists to have been an important cultural center that also contributed greatly to trade in the region. The structures of La Venta are unique in that the surrounding region had no stone available for construction, leaving the Olmec to build everything from clay and fill dirt. Although large portions of the site have been lost to present-day construction, what has been excavated indicates that La Venta held ceremonial significance for the Olmec. Numerous monuments and sculptures adorn the complex, with burial tombs and altars having also been discovered. Of the iconic "Colossal Heads" carved by the Olmec, La Venta features four of the most famous. Weighing several tons each, archeologists can only theorize as to how the Olmec managed to acquire the stone for these massive carvings. Unfortunately, due to ongoing construction taking place in the area, it appears unlikely that further excavations will take place at La Venta in the near future.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_VANCOUVER={
Description=[=[Vancouver]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The native peoples of the region had lived in the Pacific Northwest for 10,000 years when British naval captain George Vancouver landed at Point Grey in 1792 AD. In 1808, the British trader Simon Fraser travelled down the river that bears his name as far as Point Grey. Based on reports from Fraser and other trappers, in 1827 the Hudson Bay Company built Fort Langley - but the area remained little inhabited until the Fraser Gold Rush in 1858, when miners from California and eastern Canada poured in.
 
A more enduring source of wealth soon became the basis for greater growth. A number of lumber mills were established along the shores of the inlet; in 1867 a crude settlement called Gastown sprang up around the shore-front tavern run by "Gassy" Deighton. In 1884 the town, with its magnificent natural harbor, was selected as the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railroad. The influx of newcomers, mostly Scandinavians and Scots, brought such rapid growth that the various settlements on the inlet were combined and incorporated as the city of Vancouver in April 1886.
 
With the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914 AD, it became economically feasible to ship grain and timber directly to the east coast of North America and to Europe from Vancouver. With its completion in 1923, the Ballantyne Pier made Vancouver the most technologically advanced port in the entire British Commonwealth. After World War II, the boom in Vancouver continued, making it the eighth-largest city in Canada. The rise of tourism in the North Pacific means a number of cruise ships depart regularly from Vancouver, 199 sailings in 2011. Recently, the exploration and exploitation of oil in Alaska and natural gas in western Canada have resulted in plans to make it a major crude oil and gas terminus.]=];
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Adjective=[=[Vancouverite]=];
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MINOR_CIV_MANILA={
Description=[=[Manila]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Although accurate historical records of Manila's early history are limited, sometime around the 10th century AD, the site of the Philippine's future capital city was settled in its earliest incarnation. It wasn't until 1571 however, with the arrival of Spanish Conquistador Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, that the existing settlements were destroyed, and the reconstructed city first came to be known as Manila. For the next 300 years, Manila and the Philippine islands remained under Spanish control. In 1898, Spain relinquished the Philippine territories to the United States after the Spanish-American War.
 
Manila's port, simply known as the Port of Manila, is one of the busiest seaports in the world, and the primary means of import and export within the Philippines. With a diverse variety of exported products, ranging from food and local commodities, to chemicals and industrial products, the Philippines rely heavily on Manila's port to maintain their flourishing economy. Tourism is also a major component of the local economy in Manila, as visitors come from around the world to see the historic walled district within Manila known as the Intramuros.]=];
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Adjective=[=[Manilan]=];
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MINOR_CIV_ANTANANARIVO={
Description=[=[Antananarivo]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Unlike most capitals in southern Africa, Antananarivo was already a major settlement before the arrival of the Europeans. It served as the seat of the Hova chieftains, having been founded c. 1625 AD; it took its name, "City of the Thousand," from the number of soldiers reputed to guard it. Between 1689 and 1725, Madagascar was a pirate haven, and the capital city grew rich on booty and plunder paid for shelter and protection. By 1793, when it served as seat of the Merina kings who controlled all Madagascar, it was a city of about 80,000. It was the commercial center of the island; Antananarivo's thriving economy was fueled by the export of tobacco and leather goods, most bound for Europe and India.
 
Antananarivo was captured by French troops in 1895 AD and forcibly incorporated into their Madagascar protectorate. The new French administrators commenced an extensive rebuilding program. Under the relatively benign French rule, the city grew to 175,000 inhabitants by 1950. Along with two forts, schools and a university, parks, paved roads and paths, and a water system, the French also constructed churches - today there are some 5000 church buildings in the city and its suburbs. In 1955, it was made an archdiocese of the Catholic Church.
 
In 1947, with their prestige and military presence at low ebb due to World War II, the French suppressed a bloody revolt by Malagasy nationalists; between 80,000 and 90,000 died in the year-long fighting. The French subsequently instituted wide reforms under the Loi Cadre, which provided for a peaceful transition to independence for the country. Following the creation of the republic, Antananarivo was made the capital. Bolstered by lucrative industries producing food, cigarettes and textiles, the city modernized rapidly. With nearly two million citizens today, Antananarivo is one of Africa's wealthiest cities.]=];
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Adjective=[=[Antananarivo]=];
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MINOR_CIV_MILAN={
Description=[=[Milan]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Founded in the 4th century BC by the Celtic Insubres people, the city of Milan in northern Italy grew over time to become one of the greatest cultural centers of the Italian Renaissance period.
 
After being conquered by the Romans in approximately 222 BC, Milan later became one of the three capitals of the Roman Empire during the Tetrarchy of Emperor Diocletian. Passing through the hands of a number of kings and empires following Rome's decline, Milan's prosperity continued to climb as the city became an increasingly important bastion in northern Italy.
 
Of the many notable aspects of Milan's history, none have a greater renown than the city's cultural contributions to the world. As an integral part of the Italian Renaissance movement, Milan was home to many great artists, who produced some of the greatest works of the era. Perhaps the most famous of Milan's residents was the painter Leonardo Da Vinci, who spent much of his life working and studying in the city.
 
In the present day, Milan is still recognized as one of the world's leading cultural centers, with much of the current focus being on fashion and modern design.  Milan is also one of Italy's most important commercial business centers, as much of the country's transportation infrastructure leads through the city. Numerous multinational corporations also have offices in Milan, with industries ranging from telecommunications to manufacturing.]=];
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Adjective=[=[Milanese]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_MOMBASA={
Description=[=[Mombasa]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Although the founding of Mombasa is shrouded in conflicting historical records, it is believed the city, now the second largest in Kenya, was settled sometime around the 10th century AD. By the Middle Ages, Mombasa had grown into a flourishing city with an economy primarily based on the export of Ivory. Mombasa was also known for its vast network of plantations producing coconuts, cashews, and millet, which were then shipped out along the trade routes crossing the Indian Ocean. Mombasa's port, known as the Kilindini Harbor, is the only international seaport in Kenya, which has allowed the city to become a major center of commerce and trade for the entire nation. In the present day, Mombasa's largest exports continue to be agricultural in nature, particularly coffee, tea, and grain.]=];
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Adjective=[=[Mombasa]=];
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MINOR_CIV_PRAGUE={
Description=[=[Prague]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Widely recognized for its cultural contributions to Europe over the past millennium, the city of Prague, capital of the Czech Republic, grew from a minor settlement of the mid-8th century to a major metropolitan area of more than one million people as it stands today.
 
During the 14th century, Prague flourished as the seat of power for the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. Many of the city's most notable landmarks were constructed during his reign, including the famous St. Vitus Cathedral built in the Gothic architectural style. Prague also expanded as an economic center during this period, receiving traders and financiers from across Europe as the city's population greatly increased.
 
Home to a number of renowned museums, theaters, and other cultural attractions, Prague is an extremely popular tourist destination in the present day. By current estimates, more than three million visitors come to Prague each year to enjoy the sights of the historic city.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Prague]=];
Adjective=[=[Prague]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_VALLETTA={
Description=[=[Valletta]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The capital city of the Republic of Malta, located south of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea, Valletta was founded by Jean Parisot de la Valette, Grandmaster of the Order of Malta. The island of Malta was given to the Knights Hospitaller, a Christian military order, by Spanish King Charles V in 1530 during the height of the Islamic Ottoman Empire's power. This eventually led to the famous Siege of Malta in 1565, when the Ottomans moved to invade the island and conquer the Knights. In successfully repelling the invasion, the Order of Malta decided to construct a new, fortified city to ensure their position would be secure from future attacks. Valetta was founded along the Maltese coastline, an ideal location that provided easy access to two major harbors. The Grand Harbor, as it's known today, is the most crucial port on Malta, handling much of the republic's import and export duties.]=];
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Adjective=[=[Valletta]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MILITARISTIC";};
 
MINOR_CIV_VATICAN_CITY={
Description=[=[Vatican City]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The walled Vatican city-state, officially established in 1929, serves as the epicenter for the Catholic Church and its millions of followers throughout the world today. Founded as a means of resolving the ongoing conflicts between the Pope and the Kingdom of Italy over land ownership and control of Rome, the Lateran Treaty laid the groundwork for an independently governed city-state within the boundaries of Rome itself. As the sovereign of Vatican City, the Pope is the only absolute monarch left in Europe, and he holds supreme authority over all branches of the Vatican's government. The city itself is known for the many incredible works of art housed in its museums and cathedrals. St. Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel are perhaps the best known sites within the Vatican, featuring works by Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Vatican City]=];
Adjective=[=[Vatican]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_RELIGIOUS";};
 
MINOR_CIV_WITTENBERG={
Description=[=[Wittenberg]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The city of Wittenberg, a small settlement in central Germany, claims a unique stature in history as the birthplace of the Protestant Reformation incited by Martin Luther in the 16th century. Although the city was well-established within the Holy Roman Empire as the seat of power for the Elector of Saxony, it was Martin Luther's revolt that put Wittenberg on the map.
 
While teaching theology at the University of Wittenberg, Martin Luther first expressed his distaste for the selling of indulgences - the process of paying the Catholic Church for the forgiveness of sin. In 1517, Martin Luther famously nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, sparking the Protestant Reformation across Europe. Although it would take more than a century before the religious wars spurred by the Reformation were resolved, Wittenberg was always remembered as the wellspring for Martin Luther's dissidence.
 
More recently, Wittenberg was consumed by the conflicts of World War II, although much of the city's historic center was spared from the devastation of the allied bombing campaign. Following the conclusion of the war, Wittenberg was occupied by the Soviets and became part of East Germany in 1949, where it remained until the reunification of Germany in 1990.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Wittenberg]=];
Adjective=[=[Wittenberg]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_RELIGIOUS";};
 
MINOR_CIV_YEREVAN={
Description=[=[Yerevan]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Standing among the oldest cities in the world, Yerevan, the present-day capital of Armenia, traces its founding to the construction of the Erebuni fortress in 782 BC by King Argishti I of Urartu. Since that time, Yerevan has fallen under the rule of a number of powerful empires, having been conquered during the Arab invasions of the 7th century AD. It was during this period that Yerevan became an important stopover along the caravan routes connecting Europe to Asia. In the present-day, Yerevan is known for the many industries based in the city, which account for more than 50% of Armenia's total industrial output. Industries producing heavy machinery, chemicals, raw materials, and textiles, have all contributed to the city's growing economy. Yerevan also plays an important role in Armenia's reputation for producing high quality alcohol, as a number of manufacturers are based within the city.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Yerevan]=];
Adjective=[=[Yerevan]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_ZANZIBAR={
Description=[=[Zanzibar]=];
Civilopedia=[=[As part of the region once known as the "Spice Islands," Zanzibar, found in Tanzania in East Africa, has long captured the eye of traders sailing from around the world. At one time, Zanzibar was the world's leading producer of cloves, in addition to a number of other spices including nutmeg and cinnamon. In the modern day, Zanzibar is also heavily reliant on the tourism industry, which provides a steady income in addition to the agricultural industries.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Zanzibar]=];
Adjective=[=[Zanzibar]=];
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ArtStyleSuffix="_AFRI";
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_ZURICH={
Description=[=[Zurich]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Zurich, the largest city in modern Switzerland, traces its early history to the Romans, who are thought to have founded the city some 2,000 years ago as a minor fortress. Zurich's growth into a major international center of trade and business wouldn't come until the 18th century, when vast expansions took place and the city grew exponentially.
 
Zurich is presently a crucial economic center for Switzerland and Europe as a whole, with many of the world's largest banks and financial institutions having central offices within the City. The Swiss Stock Exchange, having existed for more than 150 years, is also based in Zurich.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Zurich]=];
Adjective=[=[Zurich]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_SAMARKAND={
Description=[=[Samarkand]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Samarkand is one of the oldest cities in the world, located in the region of Central Asia known as Transoxiana. Built in the fertile Zerafshan River valley, Samarkand had the benefit of abundant natural resources and food; more significantly, it sat astride the Silk Road, the main trade route between the Orient and the West. Founded c. 700 BC by the Sogdians, by the time Alexander the Great conquered it in 329 BC Samarkand was one of the world's richest and most important cities.
 
The city remained a mercantile power for centuries after, growing ever richer on taxes imposed on caravans along the Silk Road; it also served as a conduit for culture and innovations between the East and the West. Legend has it that the secret of papermaking was obtained from two Chinese prisoners by the Muslims around 751 AD, which led to the creation of the first paper mill in the Islamic world in Samarkand. From there the knowledge of linen paper spread throughout the Muslim lands, and onward to Europe.
 
Marco Polo, in his account of his journey along the Silk Road to China, described Samarkand as "a very large and splendid city." In 1370, Tamerlane, founder of the Timurid Empire, made Samarkand his capital. During the next 35 years, he rebuilt, several times over, the city, populating it with skilled artisans, craftsmen, merchants and scholars from across the empire, making it the cultural and commercial center of all Central Asia.
 
But the opening of sea trade routes between the Orient and Europe, and the exploitation of the newly-discovered Americas, made it a backwater. The population declined precipitously, and for a period it was uninhabited. Only after it became a provincial capital in the expanding Russian Empire in 1887 did Samarkand became an important economic center again.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Samarkand]=];
Adjective=[=[Samarkand]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_MALACCA={
Description=[=[Malacca]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The town was founded about 1400 AD when Paramesvara, king of Tumasik, fled the invading Majapahit forces and found refuge in the small fishing village there. There, in a port that dominated the Straits of Malacca, he founded the Malay kingdom, which soon extended its authority over the whole of the peninsula and beyond. The successor Sultanate of Malacca soon became a vital layover for Chinese, Arab and European traders to replenish their food and water supplies. Malay rule ended in 1511 when Afonso de Albuquerque seized the city for Portugal.
 
Over the next century, Malacca became the most important trading port in Southeast Asia, with the Portuguese constructing extensive docks and warehouses to export sugar and rice. Port expansion continued under the Dutch East Indies Company, who captured and fortified the city in 1641 AD. British and Dutch rivalry for control of the strategic straits was settled in favor of the English by the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, and Malacca became one of the original "Strait Settlements" in the British Empire. Heavy silting of the harbor estuary, combined with the growth of Singapore, led to Malacca's decline as a commercial center.
 
After the dissolution of the crown colony following Japanese occupation during World War II, Malacca became part of the independent Malayan Union in 1957 AD, which evolved into the modern nation of Malaysia. Prior to the war, the surrounding region had seen the development of rubber as a commercial crop; after the war, rubber became Malacca's primary export, making the city again a major port. Dredging and the construction of seawalls has made the city accessible to deep-draft ocean-going freighters and container ships, and the building of a railroad and modern highways into the city has made it an important cargo terminus in the region once more.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Malacca]=];
Adjective=[=[Malacca]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_MOGADISHU={
Description=[=[Mogadishu]=];
Civilopedia=[=[According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Mogadishu was already a major maritime center in the 1st Century AD when Roman merchants began trading from Egyptian ports along the Red Sea coast. With the settlement of Muslim traders in the Somali city around 900 AD, trade routes were expanded to distant realms such as China, Vietnam and Sri Lanka. By the time the Moroccan explorer and author ibn-Batuta arrived in 1331, Mogadishu was at the zenith of its prosperity, the pre-eminent city on the Horn of Africa.
 
The wealth of Mogadishu became the stuff of legend in Europe, supported by the observations of travelers. Vasco de Gama, who stopped in the city in the 15th Century, noted that it was well defended and well built, with houses of four or five stories, large palaces in the center, and many mosques. The following century the Portuguese traveler Duarte Barbosa wrote of hundreds of ships from distant lands that sailed into its harbor with cargos of cloth and spices which they bartered for gold, wax and ivory. Barbosa also described Mogadishu as the center of a thriving weaving industry that produced a light-weight fabric highly valued in Egypt and Syria.
 
Spurred by greed, European powers sought to incorporate the city into their colonial empires; the Portuguese tried unsuccesfully and later the British East India Company briefly established control. In 1892 AD the Zanzibar sultan leased Mogadishu to Italy, which made it the capital of Italian Somalia in 1905. In 1960 Somalia achieved its independence peacefully. But the democracy collapsed in the course of the 1991 civil war. Since 1994, when the United Nations withdrew its peacekeeping force, Mogadishu has been torn by near constant fighting between rival militias. In such chaos, the once thriving port has fallen into disrepair and disuse.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Mogadishu]=];
Adjective=[=[Mogadishu]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BYBLOS={
Description=[=[Byblos]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Archeological excavations show that the site of Byblos on the Mediterranean coast was first inhabited in the Neolithic Age; by the fourth millennium BC a large settlement there supported itself through fishing and inland agriculture. Over the next thousand years an extensive export in cedar - its wood indispensable in the building of boats and docks, its oil used for the mummification of bodies - to Egypt evolved. The Amorites burned the city during their invasion c. 2150 BC; the site lay barren for almost two centuries before the Phoenicians rebuilt the harbor, naming the town Gebal. The town made its most important contribution to human civilization with the development of a 22-character phonetic alphabet, replacing the complex cuneiform previously used in the region.
 
A commercial center, Gebal grew ever richer under successive occupiers: Assyria, Babylon, Achaemenid and Persia. Following conquest by Alexander, Byblos prospered as a Hellenized city, its citizens adopting Greek dress, language and religion. Along with cedar, grain and fruit, the town became famous for the production and export of papyrus, from which it took its Greek name Byblos. During the Roman era the city lost its commercial preeminence, but its religious role increased as hordes passed through it on pilgrimages to various holy sites.
 
In 395 AD Byblos became part of the Byzantine Empire, albeit a backwater port in its realm, until Muslim invaders overran it in 637. Under Muslim rule the city, now known as Jbail, declined even further in wealth and influence, eventually abandoned completely. Byblos disappeared into obscurity until excavations by the French historian Ernest Renan in the 1860s. Although Byblos will never again be a maritime power, it is re-emerging as an upscale tourist hub, with vacationers drawn to its sandy beaches, mild climate, and extensive ruins from the Roman, Muslim and Crusader eras.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Byblos]=];
Adjective=[=[Byblos]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MARITIME";};
 
MINOR_CIV_KYZYL={
Description=[=[Kyzyl]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Founded in 1914 AD as Belotsarsk by Tsarist Russia to serve as the capital of its Tuva Republic, Kyzyl lies on the confluence of two tributaries of the Yenisei River in the heart of Asia. In fact, the town claims to be built on the exact geographical center of Asia. Historically, the region was controlled by the Mongols until 1757 AD, when it was brought under Manchu rule until 1911. During the 1911 Chinese rebellion, Tsarist Russia proclaimed Tuva a protectorate, a claim China was in no position to challenge. Following the Russian Revolution, the city was occupied at times by both the White and Red armies; after a brief two years under Chinese control again, in August 1921 the local Bolsheviks established a Communist republic, with the city renamed Kyzyl (Turkic for "red") as its capital. The Soviet Union annexed Kyzyl, along with Tuva, outright in 1944.
 
Until the Russian Federation was formed in 1992 AD, Kyzyl was largely isolated from the world. This 50-year enforced isolation helped preserve the Turkic-Mongolian culture found nowhere else that characterized the town. Khuresh, a Tuvan form of wrestling, is extremely popular, and an annual competition is held in Kyzyl. Turkic music, notably Tuvan throat singing, is celebrated each year at the Naadym festival. Since the Soviet collapse, a concerted effort to preserve the region's rich oral tradition of epics, poems, riddles and tongue-twisters has been promoted.
 
Since 1992 the Tuvan Democratic Movement has sought to provide jobs and housing to the nomadic peoples of the republic, as well as promote the Tuvan language and crafts. Following a wave of attacks on Kyzyl's sizeable Russian population, which resulted in 88 deaths, many Russians relocated to other Federation cities. Kyzyl, although being promoted as a tourist venue, remains remote and difficult to reach.]=];
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Adjective=[=[Kyzyl]=];
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MINOR_CIV_IFE={
Description=[=[Ife]=];
Civilopedia=[=[According to ancient legends, the holy city of Ife is the birthplace of the Yoruba, the largest ethnic group in West Africa. In their mythology, Ife was the place where Oduduwa, brother to the supreme god Obatala, climbed down from the heavens and threw a handful of dirt on the primordial ocean, thus creating the land on which Ife would stand. The meaning of the word "ife" in Yoruba is "expansion," and the city is believed not only the birthplace of the Yoruba but of all mankind.
 
Whatever the truth of its founding, by the 11th Century AD Ife was the capital of a well-established kingdom spanning what is now Nigeria. Within a century, the city was exerting considerable religious and political influence in the area, especially over the Edo kingdom of Benin to the southeast. Although the Yoruba cities of Benin and Oyo would become more politically significant states, Ife remained the spiritual center. Ife managed to avoid the attacks by the Islamic Fulani that toppled Oyo, but was weakened by struggles with Owu to the southwest in the 1820s for control of the slave trade. In 1882, Ife was largely destroyed when a combined army of Ibadan and Modakeke warriors sacked the holy city.
 
Although Ife remained a city holy to the Yoruba, its political influence was ended by 1900 AD. Following the Napoleonic Wars, the British established a series of ports and trading posts in West Africa. In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence were recognized formally by the other European powers, and the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered by the crown. Nigeria remained part of the British Empire until it gained independence in 1960. During the colonial period, Ife was largely ignored except by European scholars and Yoruba pilgrims.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Ife]=];
Adjective=[=[Ife]=];
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DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_GRAY";
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MINOR_CIV_KIEV={
Description=[=[Kiev]=];
Civilopedia=[=[According to legend, Kiev was founded by three Slavic brothers - Kyi, Schek, and Khoryv -around the beginning of the 6th Century AD. Since then, Kiev, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, has passed through times of great prominence and periods of relative obscurity. Throughout the centuries, however, it has remained the most important Slavic cultural center, playing a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization.
 
Located on the Dnieper trade route between Constantinople and Scandinavia, Kiev came under the control of local Varangian (Viking) nobility and became the nucleus of the state of Rus. During the 1000s, it reached its ascendancy, a cultural hub with over 400 churches, eight markets, docks and a caravansary, and magnificent homes. With the founding of the Kiev-Mogilyanskaya Academy in 1632, the city became the center of Ukrainian learning and scholarship. But as the capital of Kievan Rus, the city was repeatedly sacked and occupied.
 
In 1667 the city became part of the Russian Empire; Kiev remained an ecclesiastical and cultural center, but its political and economic influence was marginalized. Kiev experienced growing "Russification" in the 1800s, as a result of Russian migration, educational policies, and industrialization. However, enthusiasts among ethnic Ukrainian nobles, military officers and merchants kept the native culture alive in Kiev, often through clandestine activities such as book-printing, amateur theater, private soirees, folk festivals and the like.
 
Forcefully incorporated into the Soviet Union, the city weathered all manner of troubles: the famine of 1932-1933 devastated the lower classes, Stalin's 1937-1938 purges almost obliterated the city's intelligensia, and the 1941-1943 Nazi invasion brought death and destruction. But Kiev survived, and in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union an independent Ukraine was proclaimed in 1991, with resurgent Kiev as its capital and cultural heart.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Kiev]=];
Adjective=[=[Kievan]=];
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ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_BUENOS_AIRES={
Description=[=[Buenos Aires]=];
Civilopedia=[=[An energetic and seductive city, which stretches north to south along the Rio de la Plata covering 78.5 square miles, Buenos Aires has been the gateway to Argentina for centuries. Portenos, as the multinational citizens of Buenos Aires term themselves, possess an elaborate and rich cultural identity, drawing on Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, Irish, Polish, Jewish as well as native influences; the city has often been referred to as the "Paris of South America." Its lifestyle and architecture is more distinctly European than those of any other city in the southern hemisphere. Its physical layout is a mosaic as varied as its people, its cuisine, and its music. Buenos Aires is, not surprisingly, the most visited city in South America (ahead of even Rio de Janeiro).
 
The city was founded as Ciudad de Nuestra Senora Santa Maria del Buen Ayre ("City of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Fair Winds") in 1536 AD by a Spanish expedition. When Argentina became independent in 1816, the cosmopolitan city became its capital. In the decades between 1880 and 1940, Buenos Aires became a haven for those seeking refuge from political, religious, ideological and artistic persecution in countries across Europe. From hungry Irish to devout Jews to Tsarist survivors, each wave of immigrants brought their traditions and talents to add to the stew, making the city the cultural rival of any world capital.
 
Perhaps nothing reflects the city's unique cultural blend as does the tango. A combination of several dances, the tango evolved in Buenos Aires in the late 1880s. Practiced in dance halls, parks, open plazas and ballrooms, it became the national dance, combining both "elegant reserve and an exuberant passion." Few dances have been so identified with a place as the tango is with Buenos Aires, the soul of Argentina.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Buenos Aires]=];
Adjective=[=[Buenos Aires]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_PURPLE";
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ArtStyleSuffix="_AMER";
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MINOR_CIV_MBANZA_KONGO={
Description=[=[M'banza-Kongo]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Situated on a low plateau in northwestern Angola, M'banza-Kongo was home to the Manikongo, absolute ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, founded c. 1390 AD. At its peak, the Bantu warriors of M'banza-Kongo controlled a territory that reached from Africa's mid-Atlantic coast to the Kwango River, and from Point Noire in the north to the Loje River in the south. The city supported itself through taxes, forced labor, and royal levies; at times, to finance his military, the Manikongo traded slaves, copper and ivory with the Europeans on the coast. It was also supported by exhorting tribute from neighboring cities and kingdoms, making M'banza-Kongo one of the wealthiest African cities in the 1500s.
 
In 1568 AD, the king was compelled to allow the Portuguese to establish a colony in the Luanda province. From this base the Portuguese would gradually gain control over most of the territory surrounding M'banza-Kongo, leading to increased tension. At the Battle of Ambuila in 1665, a force of Portuguese musketeers and light cannon decisively defeated the Manikongo's army; casualties among the native warriors were in excess of 5000, including the king, effectively ending M'banza-Kongo's military supremacy in the region. The battle is generally regarded as the decisive turning point in the city's history, for it was sacked several times during the civil wars that followed the king's death, and it was largely abandoned by 1678.
 
M'banza-Kongo was re-occupied by the Portuguese-supported native Christian prophet Beatriz Kimpa Vita and her followers in 1705 AD and restored as Kongo's capital in 1709. Although now effectively a vassal of Portugal, the kingdom continued to exist for another 150 years, until divided between Portugal, Belgium and France at the Conference of Berlin in 1884. M'banza-Kongo never returned to its former glory, even after Congolese independence was granted in 1960.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[M'banza-Kongo]=];
Adjective=[=[Kongolese]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MILITARISTIC";};
 
MINOR_CIV_KABUL={
Description=[=[Kabul]=];
Civilopedia=[=[To his fellow Afghans, Abed Rahmani wrote, "Be united like a rain; be powerful like an ocean." The people of Kabul, largest city in Afghanistan, having weathered repeated imperial invasions to retain their distinctive culture and identity, can be said to have done that. Wedged in a valley in the Hindu Kush, Kabul occupies a strategic location on the route between south and central Asia, controlling the approaches to the Khyber Pass. The city serves as Afghanistan's cultural and educational center; although the conflicts beginning in 1978 crippled Kabul's influence, since the ascension of the Karzai administration in 2001, progress has been made in returning the capital to its historic role in the cultural and political life of the Hindu Kush.
 
Kabul is over 3500 years old, but rarely free. The Hindu Rigveda praised it as the ideal city, a "vision of paradise set in the mountains." Late in the Achaemenid Era, the city became a center for Zoroastrianism. Numerous kingdoms and empires held Kabul over the next dozen centuries. In 1504 the city was taken by Babur, who made it his headquarters as he carved out the Mughal Empire. Babur so loved the city he lived in for two decades that his tomb carried an inscription in Persian reading: "If there is a paradise on earth, this is it, this is it."
 
Free at last when the 20th Century dawned, Kabul experienced a renaissance that spanned 60 years. During the 40-year rule of the liberal Mohammed Zahir Shah, European investments helped develop a modern network of communication and transportation. The ten-year Soviet occupation ended in civil war in 1989, resulting in the repressive Taliban-controlled Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Not until an American-led coalition established a new democratic government did Kabul begin to reassert its historic cultural identity.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Kabul]=];
Adjective=[=[Kabul]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_GREEN";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_ASIAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_ASIA";
ArtStylePrefix="ASIAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_SOFIA={
Description=[=[Sofia]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Capital and largest city of Bulgaria, Sofia lies in the center of the Balkan Peninsula. The Serdi, a Thracian tribe, first settled the area c. 700 BC; around 29 BC the Serdi settlement was conquered by the Romans. The town, lying on an important trade route through the Balkans, flourished during the emperor Trajan's reign (98-117 AD), and reached its height of prosperity and peace during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Constantine. Thereafter, Sofia's history is primarily one of strife, war and conquest.
 
The city was largely destroyed by the invasion of the Huns in 447 AD. Rebuilt by the Emperor Justinian I, in 809 the city was seized by the Bulgarian khan Krum. The Bulgars were supplanted by the Ottoman Turks in 1382. Following the failed crusade of Wladyslaw III of Poland to liberate Bulgaria, the city's Christian elite was annihilated and it became the capital of the Ottoman province of Rumelia for the next four centuries.
 
Sofia was taken by Russian troops during the Russo-Turkish War of 1878 and was made the capital of the "Autonomous Principality of Bulgaria," which evolved into the independent Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1908. Following its independence, Bulgaria became embroiled in two Balkan wars. After sitting out the first year of World War I, Bulgaria joined the Entente and attacked Serbia, Greece and Romania, all allies of the Western Powers.
 
In the political shambles left by the war, the inter-war years were a period of internal strife and bloodshed. Bulgaria joined the Axis Powers in 1941, with the result that Sofia was heavily bombed by Allied air forces in 1943 and occupied by the Red Army in September 1944. The Soviet occupation would last until the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989, latest act in the city's long history of turmoil.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Sofia]=];
Adjective=[=[Sofian]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_GREEN";
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ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MILITARISTIC";};
 
MINOR_CIV_UR={
Description=[=[Ur]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Originally a coastal city on the mouth of the Euphrates at the north end of the Persian Gulf, the ruins of Ur now lie inland about 150 miles, six miles from the right bank of the river. Mentioned in Genesis as the birthplace of the Jewish patriarch Abraham, "Ur of the Chaldees" was founded c. 5500 BC in the Ubiad period of Sumer. Controlling trade between the villages along the Euphrates and Tigris and the sea, Ur was favorably located for development into a commercial and political center. Founder of the first dynasty of Ur, Mesanepada oversaw the construction of docks and levees to control the annual river floods. By 2800 BC it had become one of the first Sumerian city-states, and trade routes between Mesopotamia and India, Ethiopia and Egypt passed through it.
 
After a period of decline and stagnation, under Ur-Nammu Ur experienced a renaissance of Sumerian art, literature and culture. Historians' estimates make Ur the largest city in the world from 2030 through 1980 BC, with a population in excess of 65,000. But under the last three kings of the third dynasty Ur's influence and wealth declined; around 1940 BC the city was captured and sacked by the Elamites.
 
Rebuilt shortly thereafter, Ur became part of the kingdom of Isin, later incorporated into the Babylonian Empire. Still an important religious center, its commercial influence declined, possibly as a result of a shift in the course of the Euphrates. After Babylon itself came under Persian control, Ur was largely ignored. Its population moved away; its walls and temples fell into ruin; its anchorage was buried in sand and soil. By the 4th Century BC, Ur was practically forgotten until rediscovered and partially excavated by the British vice counsel at Basra, John G. Taylor, beginning in 1854 AD.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Ur]=];
Adjective=[=[Ur]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_PURPLE";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_MIDDLE_EAST";
ArtStyleSuffix="_AFRI";
ArtStylePrefix="AFRICAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MARITIME";};
 
MINOR_CIV_MELBOURNE={
Description=[=[Melbourne]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Located on Port Phillip Bay, on the southeast coast of Australia, Melbourne became a permanent settlement in 1835 AD when Englishman John Batman negotiated a treaty with local Aborigines to purchase 500,000 acres there. It is distinguished from other Australian cities in that it is the only one founded by private enterprise rather than the crown. Melbourne was incorporated as a city in 1847, but its main growth came in the 1850s following discovery of gold at nearby Bendigo and Ballarat. The town served as the principle port and supply hub for the ensuing gold rush, and its population increased from 25 to 40 thousand in a few months.
 
The economic boom peaked in the 1880s, by which time Melbourne was considered the richest city in the world and the largest in the British Empire after London. As a result of the boom, commercial buildings and banks, terrace apartments and palatial mansions sprang up across the city. But the gold boom ended in 1891 AD, bringing bankruptcy to many businesses and economic depression; the financial crisis in Melbourne contributed to the Australian banking panic of 1893.
 
The city's banking and industry recovered and Melbourne grew slowly through the early part of the 20th Century. At the time of federation, creating the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 AD, Melbourne was important enough to become the seat of government (until transferred to the new capital at Canberra in 1927). In the aftermath of World War II, the city's economic influence was strengthened even more by the influx of immigrants, primarily from southern Europe, bringing new businesses and industries. Major transportation and housing projects marked the 1970s through 1990s; recent substantial international investment has given the city a diversified economy particularly strong in banking and finance, manufacturing, shipping, research, information technology and tourism.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Melbourne]=];
Adjective=[=[Melburnian]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_GREEN";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_BOGOTA={
Description=[=[Bogota]=];
Civilopedia=[=[With its many universities, museums and libraries, Bogota has been nicknamed "the Athens of South America," a tribute to its long and rich cultural heritage. It was founded by the Spaniard Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada, who in 1536 AD led an expedition of 500 conquistadors into the Rio Grande de la Magdalena in search of El Dorado. In clashes with the indigenous Muiscas, they plundered the temples at Zaque Quemuenchatocha and Sogamoso, taking emeralds and gold. But by March 1537 only 70 men remained and Quesada decided to build a settlement to serve as a base, locating it on a plateau in the northern Andes near what would be known as the Bogota River. In 1553 the central plaza was constructed, and a cathedral and government buildings begun. The town became the capital of the crown colony of New Grenada, and remained a viceroyship until it achieved independence under Simon Bolivar in 1819. In the following years, it served as the capital city of "Gran Columbia" (until 1830), then the Republic of New Grenada (1863), then of the United States of Columbia through 1886, when the current Republic of Columbia came into existence.
 
 
Throughout these changes, Bogota flowered as the educational and cultural center of the nation, whatever form it took. In 1823, the town’s public library was expanded, modernized and became the National Library. A few years later, a National Museum was founded. The first "State School," precursor to the National University of Columbia, was established in 1867. Due to its relative isolation, the city became a mecca for authors and poets looking to create new trends distinct from South American Spanish literary traditions, and from the mid-1800s to the mid-1900s was home to such great writers as Jose Asuncion Silva and Rafael Pombo. Despite bouts of civil unrest and civil war, the city was also a favorite haven of artists; in 1886, the National School of Beaux Arts was founded. Its status as one of the most culturally-rich cities of the world was formally recognized in 2007, when UNESCO named Bogota a World Book Capital, only the second one in the Western hemisphere (along with Montreal, Canada).]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Bogota]=];
Adjective=[=[Bogotan]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_MIDDLE_PURPLE";
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ArtStyleSuffix="_AMER";
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_VILNIUS={
Description=[=[Vilnius]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Lying at the junction of two navigable rivers, the Vilnia and the Neris, some 194 miles from the Baltic, Vilnius was settled as a trading post deep in the woodlands of Lithuania. The town is first mentioned in written records in 1323 AD, when German Jews were invited to relocate to the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Duke Gediminas, who promised religious tolerance and commercial opportunities. Over the following decades under the duke and his sons the duchy expanded until it encompassed most of modern Lithuania, Belarus, the Ukraine, Transnistria, and portions of Poland and northern Russia. With the Union of Lublin in 1569, the city became an important mercantile center in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
 
During this period, Vilnius expanded dramatically. Migrants were welcomed by the authorities, and thousands of Slavs, Germans and Jews moved into the booming city. Polish kings and Lithuanian dukes undertook extensive building projects, not the least of which was fortification with extensive city walls and nine fortified gates. In 1579, King Stefan Bathory founded the institution that would evolve into the Vilniaus universitetus, the oldest university in the Baltic States, which quickly became one of the most important scientific and cultural centers in the Commonwealth. Guilds of several types were established, and the city served as the primary center for trade between Scandinavia and western Europe and the interior of Poland and northern Russia.
 
 
But the 17th Century brought disaster. During the Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667, the city was captured by Tsarist troops, pillaged and burned and its population massacred. In 1710, an outbreak of the bubonic plague killed an estimated 35,000 citizens. A series of devastating fires destroyed much of the city during the first half of the 1700s. In 1795, the third partition of Poland saw Vilnius become part of the Russian Empire, where it remained until the Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920, when Lithuanian independence was recognized. However, in 1922 Poland annexed the region, and the city would be under nominal Polish rule until World War II, after which it was again occupied by Russian forces. Not until 1990, with the secession of the Lithuanian SSR from collapsing Soviet Russia, would Vilnius again be self-ruled, becoming the capital of modern Lithuania.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Vilnius]=];
Adjective=[=[Vilnian]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_ORANGE";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_WELLINGTON={
Description=[=[Wellington]=];
Civilopedia=[=[According to Maori legend, the Hawaiki chief Kupe arrived on the North Island of New Zealand around 925 AD after having sailed there by canoe, besting numerous sea monsters and demons to reach this promised land. Whatever the truth of that may be, in September 1839 an expedition of the London-based New Zealand Company arrived and established a landing on a flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River. The next year, the ship Aurora arrived with 150 settlers from England. The initial site proving too swampy and prone to flooding, the newcomers relocated their settlement plans across the sheltered bay and the company directors named the town Wellington (the town of Petone now sits on the site of the original landing). In 1865, the city was declared the new capital of the colony, replacing Auckland which had been made the seat of the nascent government in 1841. It was argued by the colonial administration that Wellington, with its magnificent harbor and more central location, would serve that purpose better.
 
 
Wellington lies on the Cook Strait, on hills to the southwest of the bay. On his first voyage of exploration, Royal Navy Captain James Cook, searching for the rumored continent of Terra Australis, reached the islands of New Zealand in 1770 AD. He circumnavigated and mapped the entire coastline, and made special note of the sheltered natural harbor where the New Zealand Company would establish Wellington. For most of its history, the 27 square-mile anchorage was known as Port Nicholson. After the capital was established, Wellington Harbour quickly became the most important port on the islands, serving the needs of both British naval and commercial vessels. It is today the largest container port in the region, and a tanker terminus was constructed at the industrial suburb of Seaview. In 1895 the Union Steamship Company established regular service to and from the port, and for more than a century Wellington has been the primary terminal for ferry service between the nation’s islands and beyond.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Wellington]=];
Adjective=[=[Wellingtonian]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_PEACH";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MARITIME";};
 
}
return data

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