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--[Field]                              [Type]
--Type                                 String
--Description                          String
--Civilopedia                          String
--CivilopediaTag                       String
--ArtDefineTag                         String
--VictoryCompetitiveness                Int64
--WonderCompetitiveness                 Int64
--MinorCivCompetitiveness               Int64
--Boldness                              Int64
--DiploBalance                          Int64
--WarmongerHate                         Int64
--WorkAgainstWillingness                Int64
--WorkWithWillingness                   Int64
--DenounceWillingness                   Int64
--DoFWillingness                        Int64
--Loyalty                               Int64
--Neediness                             Int64
--Forgiveness                           Int64
--Chattiness                            Int64
--Meanness                              Int64
--PortraitIndex                         Int64
--IconAtlas                            String
--PackageID                            String
 
local data ={
 
LEADER_ALEXANDER={
Description=[=[Alexander]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ALEXANDER_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Alexander held a state funeral for his horse, Bucephalas, when it died in 326 BC. He also named a city in India "Bucephala" after his dead horse.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Creation of An Empire]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Fall of Alexander]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[356 - 323 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Alexander]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Greeks]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Alexander the Macedonian is unquestionably one of the great warlords of all time. In 17 short years he marched his army to victory after victory across Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East, conquering every civilization he could reach.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Alexander was the son of King Philip II, an extremely successful king and warlord who had restored his kingdom from the verge of extinction and then led his people to triumph by conquering Athens, Illyria, and Thrace - the three powers who, a few short years before, had been on the verge of conquering Macedonia. As the son of the most powerful monarch in the "civilized" world, Alexander got the best of everything, including education - the scholar Aristotle, the great thinker of Western Civilization, was his tutor.
 
Taught by his mother Olympias that he was descended from Hercules and Achilles, Alexander did not lack for self-confidence, even at a very young age. At the age of 14 Philip left him in charge of Macedonia while he was away attacking Byzantium; Alexander crushed a Thracian rebellion during his father's absence. Two years later he commanded the left wing of his father's army during the battle in which Philip's forces defeated the allied Greek states and conquered all of Greece.
 
The next year Alexander's good fortune deserted him, for a while, at least. King Philip divorced Alexander's mother for a woman named "Cleopatra Eurydice", and mother and son fled Macedonia. Alexander and his father were reconciled some time thereafter, but Alexander's position as Philip's heir would have been in grave jeopardy had Philip not conveniently died before producing another son.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Following the conquest of Greece and the Balkans, King Philip had been working on building an army to invade and conquer Persia. In 336 Philip was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguard, Pausanias, while attending his daughter's wedding. (Some believe that Alexander's mother, Olympias - or indeed Alexander himself - was behind the assassination, but as Pausanias conveniently died during the murder there was no actual proof.) At the age of twenty Alexander was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army and nobility. He celebrated his victory by murdering all potential rivals to the throne, then resumed planning his father's interrupted invasion of Persia.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Alexander's force consisted of 30,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 cavalrymen, a huge army for the day, and was accompanied by engineers, surveyors, scientists, and even historians.
 
In battle Alexander had amazing success against the Persians. He repeatedly beat their best soldiers, routinely fighting against odds of 10-to-1. His success can be attributed to his military genius, his force's superb training and equipment, and their magnificent esprit de corps, largely engendered by their faith in Alexander's invincibility.
 
Alexander appeared to be without fear. He commonly led the elite Macedonian Companion Cavalry into the thick of battle personally, and he received a number of dangerous wounds during his military career, none of which dampened his military ardor.
 
Having secured Persia's surrender, Alexander then moved south, conquering Syria, Palestine, much of modern Iraq, and eventually Egypt herself. He returned to Persia, destroyed the last of the Persian forces and took over the entire country. He continued east, eventually coming into contact with the great Indian King Porus, who fought him to a standstill. Alexander eventually won the conflict, but at such a heavy cost that his men begged him to end the campaign and let them return to their families. Alexander himself returned to rule his empire from the captured city of Babylon.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In eight short years of fighting, Alexander had conquered more territory than any other living being. He successfully led his forces into battle against all of the great nations of the day, but none could stand against him. He was the absolute ruler of the largest empire the world had ever seen.
 
Apparently he found this boring.
 
Once in Babylon, Alexander began an inexorable decline. He began drinking heavily and engaging in all kinds of available debauchery (and there was much debauchery to be found in Babylon). He became subject to fits of anger and bouts of paranoid delusion. One night, in a state of blind rage and under the influence of alcohol, Alexander murdered Clitus, his closest associate. This barbaric act was to haunt Alexander for the rest of his life - which wasn't very long.
 
In June of 323 BC, his body weakened by his excesses, Alexander died of malaria. He was 32 years old.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=["When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."
 
This extraordinary man (and his father before him) conquered Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Persia, and Asia as far east as Afghanistan. His empire did not long survive Alexander's death - it was simply too large for any mere mortal to hold - and it was divided between a number of Alexander's generals. But Alexander's conquests allowed Hellenic culture to spread across most of the known world, and Greek would become the language of culture, art and science for centuries to come.
 
With the exception perhaps of one or two religious leaders, no single man has had such a great effect upon western civilization as did Alexander the Great.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Alexander the Great]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Alexander_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=8;
WonderCompetitiveness=7;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
Boldness=8;
DiploBalance=3;
WarmongerHate=2;
DenounceWillingness=7;
DoFWillingness=4;
Loyalty=4;
Neediness=4;
Forgiveness=5;
Chattiness=7;
Meanness=7;
PortraitIndex=9;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_ASKIA={
Description=[=[Askia]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ASKIA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Pilgrimage to Mecca]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Military Expansion]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Organization of the Empire]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1440 - 1538 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Askia]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Songhai]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Mohammad ibn Abi Bakr Ture, also known as Mohammad I Askia (reigned 1493 - 1528), welded the central region of the western Sudan into a single Songhai empire, the largest in African history. Although he fought several military campaigns, he is primarily remembered for reorganizing, modernizing and bringing stability to the Songhai. He is also remembered for making a famous pilgrimage to Mecca.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Askia was a general under Sunni Ali, the first great leader of the Songhai Empire. Ali extended Songhai control along the Niger River, capturing the wealthy cities of Timbuktu and Jenne. Although nominally a Muslim, Ali continued to practice African animism as well, tolerating Muslim and non-Muslims within his kingdom. In 1492 Ali died in a freak accident; he and his horse fell in a river and were swept over a waterfall. Ali was succeeded by his son, Sunni Baru. Askia almost immediately began plotting Baru's overthrow, successfully gaining power in 1493 with the assistance of Muslim rebels.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[1495, two years after he took the throne, Askia undertook a pilgrimage to Mecca. This pilgrimage has become famous for the pomp, style and wealth Askia displayed during the long journey. In Mecca Askia met the Caliph of Egypt, who appointed him the Caliph's religious representative, giving him the title "Caliph of West Africa." In a more colorful version of the events, the chronicler Mahmud Kati, who accompanied Muhammad, wrote that the jinn (demons) of Mecca had Askia named caliph.
 
By the time Askia returned to Songhai in 1497, he was deeply committed to Islam. During his reign Askia enthusiastically supported the religious universities in Timbuktu, and he opened many mosques and religious schools across Songhai.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[During his reign Askia expanded the empire to the north, south, and west, fighting successful campaigns against various neighboring cities and kingdoms. Not all of his battles were successful, however, and he is generally acknowledged to be an adequate but not exceptional military leader.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As the empire grew, it became increasingly difficult to manage. Askia divided the regions into provinces, each under a governor. He expanded the Songhai court, creating the posts of directors of finance, justice, interior, agriculture, waters and forests, and of the "tribes of the white race" (the Moors and Taureg subjects of Songhai). He also created a standing army and navy (the latter consisting of war canoes).
 
In addition, Askia restructured the tax system and imposed regulations on agriculture, hunting and fishing.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Askia ruled for some thirty-five years. In 1528, old and blind, he was deposed by one of his sons, dying some 10 years later. He is judged to be an extremely competent administrator, his reign a golden age for religion and knowledge in Western Africa. While not a great general, he was able to expand his empire and to hold on to what he had taken until age robbed him of his powers. Overall, Askia is generally considered to be one of the best sub-Saharan rulers in history.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Askia (Usurper)]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Askia_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=5;
WonderCompetitiveness=8;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
Boldness=7;
DiploBalance=6;
WarmongerHate=4;
DenounceWillingness=5;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=6;
Neediness=4;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=6;
PortraitIndex=20;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_AUGUSTUS={
Description=[=[Augustus Caesar]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_AUGUSTUS_CAESAR_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=["More haste, less speed." - Augustus Caesar]=];
FACT_2 = [=["Better a safe commander than a bold." - Augustus Caesar]=];
FACT_3 = [=["That is done quickly enough which is done well enough." - Augustus Caesar]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Death of Julius Caesar]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Antony and Cleopatra]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Octavius Becomes Augustus]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Augustus at Home]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Roman Expansion]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[63 BC - 14 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Augustus Caesar]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Romans]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Born Gaius Octavius, Augustus would become the first (and possibly greatest) Roman Emperor. He ended a century of civil wars and initiated two hundred years of the Pax Romana (Roman Peace) while overseeing a golden age of Roman literature and culture.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Octavius was born in 63 BC. His father (also named Gaius Octavius) was a respectable but undistinguished member of the equestrian order. His mother, however, was a niece of Julius Caesar. Octavius' father died when he was only four years old, and he was brought up in the house of his stepfather Lucius Marcus Phillippus.
 
At the age of fifteen, Octavius put on the toga virilis ("manly robes"), the symbol that he had reached adulthood, and was elected to the College of Pontiffs. In 46 BC he joined Julius Caesar during Caesar's last campaign in Spain. In Spain he made such a fine impression on the great general that Julius Caesar changed his will to make Octavius his heir.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[When Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March in 44 BC, all the wealth that Caesar had spent a lifetime accumulating passed into the hands of the 18-year old Octavius. At the time of Caesar's assassination, Octavius was with some of his soldiers in modern-day Albania. Upon hearing the news he went to Italy and recruited an army from among Caesar's veterans, gaining their loyalty by stressing that he was Caesar's heir. Once in Rome, Octavius allied with Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus to form what is known as the "Second Triumvirate," directed against Caesar's killers Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius. Octavius' and Antony's armies tracked down Brutus and Cassius in Greece, where they defeated the assassins' army at Philippi (42 BC). Brutus and Cassius both committed suicide after their defeat.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Antony married Octavius' sister Octavia to cement their alliance, and the two leaders divided Rome's territory between them. Octavius took the west, while Antony went to the east, where he entered into a torrid affair with Cleopatra, the ruler of Egypt. Octavius saw Antony's actions as an insult to his sister and to his family, and relations between the co-rulers soon soured. While Antony enjoyed the pleasures of Egypt, back in Rome Octavius strengthened his political position and his armies. The two eventually went to war, and in 31 BC Octavius defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium. The lovers were pursued to Egypt, where they both committed suicide.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Octavius was now the undisputed master of Rome. He surrendered his extraordinary powers to the Senate, which was filled with his allies; in return the Senate named him "Augustus" (one who is marked by dignity and greatness) and showered him with honors. More importantly, they also gave him the powers of a Roman consul, tribune, and censor, which had never before been combined into one office. All permanent legal power within Rome officially remained within the Senate - but since Octavius controlled the Senate, this was mostly a legal fiction. Although he had all of the power of an Emperor, Augustus preferred to style himself "Princeps," or "first citizen" (probably to avoid further antagonizing the few remaining republicans in Rome).]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[During his reign Augustus presided over four decades of peace and prosperity, a welcome relief to Rome after almost a century of civil strife. He carried out a great building program in the ancient city, constructing a new Senate house as well as great temples to Apollo and "Divine Julius" (his deceased great-uncle). Later, Augustus would boast - with justification - that he had found Rome a city of brick and left it marble. Under his patronage many of the most famous Roman authors and poets created their great works: Virgil, Ovid, Horace, and Livy all flourished during his reign.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Augustus' generals also enjoyed great success and were quite relieved to be once again turning their military strength against external enemies instead of one another. Rome's borders were extended to the Danube, northern Spain was finally conquered, and Armenia was pacified in the east.
 
Augustus did suffer two significant military defeats during his rule. In 15 BC Gaul's Roman governor, Marcus Lollius was defeated by an alliance of the Sicambri, Tencteri and Usipetes tribes who had crossed the Rhine into Gaul; little permanent damage was done to the Roman position in Gaul, and Suetonius calls this defeat "more humiliating than serious."
 
The second defeat, however, was of an entirely different magnitude. In 9 AD Publius Quintilius Varus, Governor of Germania, led three legions across the Danube and deep into barbarian territory where they were surprised by German Cherusci tribesmen and, after a three-day battle, captured or killed to the last man. Varus himself committed suicide and the victors sent his head as a present to King Marbod of the Marcomanni in Bohemia.
 
 Hearing of the catastrophe, Augustus sent troops into the city to watch for uprisings. He also prolonged the terms of the governors of the provinces to ensure that experienced men would be in charge if the subject people revolted. In addition he dedicated great games to Jupiter if he would improve the Empire's lot. It is clear that Augustus was badly shaken by the defeat. Suetonius says that "for several months in succession he cut neither his beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door, crying, 'Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!'"
 
Fortunately, the natives did not revolt and the Empire survived the catastrophe without long-lasting consequences.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[By Augustus' death in 14 AD, a return to the old system of the Republic was unthinkable, and he was peacefully succeeded by the Emperor Tiberius.
 
During Augustus' long rule Rome flourished and the Empire came to dominate the Mediterranean basin. The policies he put in place kept the Empire running smoothly, so much so that Rome would continue to rule the entire known world for almost two centuries without any major wars or other significant threats to its survival. Few if any leaders in world history could make the same claim.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Princeps]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Augustus_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=7;
WonderCompetitiveness=6;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=8;
Boldness=6;
DiploBalance=7;
WarmongerHate=4;
DenounceWillingness=7;
DoFWillingness=5;
Loyalty=4;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=4;
Meanness=7;
PortraitIndex=17;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_BARBARIAN={
Description=[=[Barbarian]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_BARBARIAN_PEDIA";
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_LEADER_BARBARIAN";
PortraitIndex=-1;};
 
LEADER_BISMARCK={
Description=[=[Bismarck]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_BISMARCK_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Foreign Policy]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Domestic Policy]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1815 - 1898 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Bismarck]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Germans]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Otto von Bismarck, also known as the "Iron Chancellor," is perhaps the most significant figure in German history. During his long political career Bismarck unified Germany and founded the German Empire; Germany was transformed from a weak and loose confederation of states into a powerful united country that would come to dominate continental Europe.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Descended from a noble Prussian family, Bismarck certainly inherited the arrogance of the Prussian Junker class. He was a poor student who excelled at dueling and was quite a historian and linguist. However, he spent much of his time drinking with the other aristocrats in their exclusive fraternity.
 
Unable to accept the discipline required for military service, Bismarck instead entered the Prussian diplomatic corps, where his skill quickly brought him to the attention of the Prussian Kaiser. Appointed to the German Federal Diet (congress), Bismarck worked to increase Prussian status and power within Germany. Eventually he would rise to the rank of Prussian Prime Minister, where after years of long struggle, he succeeded in unifying Germany under Prussian rule. Bismarck would accomplish this through crafty diplomacy, aided by a series of successful wars.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Once Germany was unified, Bismarck's main foreign policy aim was to keep the peace in Europe, mostly by isolating France, Germany's historic enemy. In this he was largely successful. He engineered a war with France in 1870 in order to draw several German states (Bavaria, Baden, and others) into the German empire. In the war, France was quickly defeated.
 
Having achieved his objective of acquiring the German states, Bismarck argued for fairly lenient terms, but the German people and military wanted more, and he was forced to annex the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. Bismarck knew that this would be trouble in the long run - before the war he had told a colleague, "Supposing we did win Alsace, we would have to maintain our conquest and to keep Strasbourg perpetually garrisoned. This would be an impossible position, for in the end the French would find new allies - and we might have a bad time." This, of course, is exactly what happened in World War I, where Germany had a very bad time indeed.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Although an ardent conservative and monarchist, Bismarck was the first European leader to promote a system of social security for workers. He rebuilt the German monetary system, introducing for the first time a single currency. He also helped fabricate the new country's code of civil and commercial law. His benevolence was not universal, however; while emancipating the Jews, Bismarck also enacted laws aimed at restraining Germany's Catholics.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As a diplomat, Bismarck's greatest weakness was his single-minded desire to weaken France. He was largely successful during his lifetime, but in doing so he made France into an implacable enemy, which would have dire consequences in the next century. Domestically, Bismarck's great flaw was his indifference to the lives of the German people. As Germany grew in power and stature, the people's lives improved but little. His social security system did some good, but he enacted that mainly to avoid having to make greater concessions to the German Socialists.
 
Bismarck was a great leader, perhaps the greatest European leader of the 19th Century. His triumphs outweighed his defeats, and he almost single-handedly turned a group of bickering kingdoms into a mighty state. Although his policies did contribute to the disasters in Germany's future, those were more so a result of his successors' inability to adjust to the changing geopolitical climate in Europe.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Chancellor of the German Empire]=];
TITLES_2 = [=["Iron Chancellor"]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Bismark_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=7;
WonderCompetitiveness=6;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=7;
Boldness=4;
DiploBalance=8;
WarmongerHate=6;
DenounceWillingness=8;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=6;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=6;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=4;
PortraitIndex=8;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_CATHERINE={
Description=[=[Catherine]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_CATHERINE_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Foreign Policy]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Domestic Policy]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[The Arts]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Scandal]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1729 - 1796 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Catherine]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Russians]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Catherine the Great ruled Russia during the latter half of the 18th century. She oversaw a great expansion of the Russian empire, adding tens of thousands of square miles of territory through conquest and shrewd diplomacy. A beautiful and intelligent woman, she beguiled and seduced the best minds of Europe, making her court one of the centers of Enlightenment thinking on the Continent. Although born in Germany, Catherine is one of the greatest rulers in Russian history.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Sophie Friederike Auguste Von Anhalt-Zerbst was born in Szczecin in 1729, a princess of Pomerania, a small kingdom in Prussia. At 16 she was married to Carl Peter Ulrich, the heir to the Russian throne, becoming Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseyevna. Catherine quickly learned Russian and joined the Russian Orthodox Church. Largely self-educated, Catherine immersed herself in the literature of the time. Endowed with both beauty and intelligence, she became strong friends (if not more) with the great thinkers of the day, including the brilliant French philosophers Rousseau and Diderot.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Catherine's marriage was extremely unhappy. Her husband, the Tsar Peter III, was by all accounts a shabby and neurotic person. He was described as mean, cruel, hideous (from smallpox scars) and a drunkard. He was said to detest Russians and loved Prussians, which didn't endear him to the Russian court. Although born a foreigner, Catherine was far more popular with the nobility and, most importantly, with the Russian military.
 
At the age of 33, with the support of the Imperial guard, she overthrew her husband, who was soon killed "in a hunting accident," leaving Catherine the sole ruler of Russia.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[As Empress, Catherine pursued an expansionist policy backed by military muscle. The "First Russo-Turkish War" (1768-1774) - declared by Sultan Mustafa III after a border incident in which a Cossack entered Ottoman territory and allegedly slaughtered the residents of Balta - was a resounding Russian success, gaining for Catherine the Southern Ukraine, Northern Caucasus and the Crimea, expanding Russian access to the Black Sea. The Ottomans tried to take their territory back in the Second Russo-Turkish war, but they failed miserably.
 
In the years following the French Revolution, Catherine became afraid that Enlightenment movements throughout Europe would threaten the monarchies of Europe. Toward the end of the century Poland, a Russian puppet, began to show disturbing signs of edging toward democracy. In 1792 Russian forces defeated Polish loyalists in the Polish "War in Defense of the Constitution," following which Poland was partitioned between Russia, Austria and Prussia.
 
Throughout her reign Catherine maintained cordial relations with the great powers of Europe, Prussia, France and Austria, who in return did not stand in the way of Russian expansion.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[During her reign Catherine undertook a wide range of political reforms, attempting to shape up the notoriously corrupt and incompetent Russian bureaucracy. She tried to model her government and court on Versailles, France. She paid for her reforms by seizing property from the clergy, who owned almost one-third of the land and serfs in Russia. She curried favor with the aristocracy, expanding their already-great power over the Russian peasants.
 
In 1773 a plague broke out in Russia, which was already suffering from ill-effects of the long war with Turkey. Taking advantage of growing public disaffection, Pugachov, a Cossack officer, pretended to be Catherine's dead husband, Tsar Peter III, and attempted to raise a peasant army to overthrow the Empress while the Russian military was locked in battle with the Turks. Fortunately for Catherine, the First Russo-Turkish War ended at just the right time, and a Russian army was able to return from the Front and crush the rebellion before it could reach Moscow. This made Catherine suspicious of the Russian peasants and she implemented even more repressive laws against them.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[A patron of the arts, Catherine commissioned many statues and paintings. Under her rule St. Petersburg was transformed from a primitive and forbidding city into one of the most beautiful and impressive European capitals. Her private art collection formed the basis of the famous Hermitage Museum, one of the world's great art museums.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Despite her many public successes, Catherine is best known for her private excesses. Her affairs are legendary; it has been suggested that she slept with a fairly large fraction of the Russian officers corps, not to mention her many well-publicized dalliances with a horde of well-known European politicians and artists. It is said that once she tired of a lover Catherine would "pension him off," giving him a large gift of cash, peasants, and land somewhere far away from Moscow.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Catherine's reign was notable for imperial expansion. Most important were the securing of the northern shore of the Black Sea, the annexation of the Crimea, and the expansion into the steppes beyond the Urals. This permitted the protection of Russian agricultural settlements in the south and the establishment of trade routes through the Black Sea. Catherine's partitioning of Poland also helped bring Russia closer to the rest of Europe, at least geographically.
 
Catherine implemented many public work projects throughout Russia and its possessions. She also increased internal and foreign trade. On the other hand, she did little to improve the lot of the Russian peasants; in fact, their lives grew distinctly harder during her reign.
 
Catherine died at the age of 67, having lived longer than any other Romanov monarch. Like Queen Elizabeth I of England, she proved that a woman could be smart enough and tough enough to lead a great country.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Tsarina of Russia]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Catherine_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=6;
WonderCompetitiveness=7;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=7;
Boldness=3;
DiploBalance=6;
WarmongerHate=5;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=6;
Neediness=6;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=7;
Meanness=4;
PortraitIndex=18;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_DARIUS={
Description=[=[Darius I]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_DARIUS_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Securing Persia's Borders]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Darius the Ruler]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[War With Greece]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[550 - 486 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Darius I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Persia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[The son of a satrap (governor) of Parthia, Darius I forcibly took the throne of Persia upon the death of Cambyses II in 522 BC. An administrative genius, during his reign Darius reorganized the sprawling Persian empire, greatly increasing its wealth and power. He also implemented many great construction works across Persia.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Much of our knowledge of Darius I comes from the early Greek historian Herodotus, as well as from Persian inscriptions commissioned by Darius himself. According to Herodotus, as a youth Darius was suspected by Persian king Cyrus the Great of plotting against him. Darius survived this suspicion, later becoming a general and bodyguard of Cyrus' son and heir, Cambyses II, after Cambyses assumed the throne. Cambyses died in 522 BC while in Egypt. Upon his death Darius returned to Media and killed Cambyses' brother, Bardiya, who Darius claimed was an imposter who had usurped the throne.
 
After killing Bardiya (or the imposter, depending upon whose story you believe) Darius claimed the Persian throne. This did not go over well in the provinces, and Darius faced serious revolts in Babylon, Susiana, Media, Sagartia, and Margiana. Babylon revolted twice, in fact, and Susiana three times. The insurrections were uncoordinated, however, and Darius was able to suppress each separately. According to one of his inscriptions, Darius defeated nine rebel leaders in 19 battles. By 518 or so his throne was secure.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[After establishing his position, Darius initiated a series of wars to expand and secure Persia's borders. In 519 he attacked the Scythians east of the Caspian Sea, and shortly after he conquered the Indus Valley. He later attacked northwest from Asia Minor, conquering Thrace and then Macedonia. He tried to expand his European bridgehead north across the Danube, but he was forced to withdraw by stubborn resistance of the Scythian nomads. Finally, he secured the Aegean islands of Lemnos and Imbros.
 
Persia now held the Greek colonies in Asia Minor, the straits of Bosporus (which gave them control over the Black Sea), Macedonia, which bordered Greece to the north, as well as a number of strategic islands in the Aegean. This inevitably led to conflict with the powerful but divided Greek city-states watching Persian expansion with jealousy and alarm.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[When not battling one of his empire's neighbors, Darius took a series of actions to unify the empire and to improve its administration. He completed the organization of the empire into satrapies (provinces) and set the annual tribute due from each. He improved the Persian road network and standardized coinage, weights and measures, greatly expanding the opportunities for trade throughout the empire. He funded exploration expeditions from India to Egypt, and he completed a canal in Egypt leading from the Nile River to the Red Sea.
 
Darius was the greatest builder in the Achaemenid Persian history. He constructed fortifications, a palace, and administrative buildings at Susa, his administrative capital. In his native Persepolis, Darius began construction of a new palace, as well as a council hall, treasury, and more fortifications (though these would not be completed until after his death).
 
While firmly putting down any attempts at insurrection within Persia, Darius showed a good deal of tolerance to his subject peoples' religious beliefs. He constructed a number of temples in Egypt honoring the Egyptian gods, and he ordered his Egyptian satrap to codify the Egyptian laws in consultation with the Egyptian priestly class. In 519 he allowed the Jews to begin reconstruction of the Temple at Jerusalem. Darius himself is thought to have been a follower of Zoroastrianism, which was eventually made the state religion of Persia.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In 499 BC the Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria supported a revolt of some Greek colonies in Asia Minor against Persia. Darius crushed the rebellion and began plotting a campaign against the meddling Greeks.
 
In 492 BC Darius' son-in-law Mardonius was put in charge of an expedition against Greece, but his fleet was destroyed in a storm off of Mount Athos and he was unable to advance. In 490 another Persian force successfully invaded Greece, destroying Eretria and enslaving its inhabitants before being defeated by Athenian warriors at Marathon. Darius was in the middle of planning yet a third expedition when he died in 486 BC.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[History's view of Darius is generally quite favorable (if you put aside his questionable ascension to power, which was pretty much standard operating procedure throughout much of history). He constructed roads, reorganized the Persian provinces and government, secured the empire's borders, and generally treated his subjects about as well as or better than anyone in that time. Although not primarily known as a warlord, he fought a number of successful campaigns against both internal and external foes. It is quite possible that he could have successfully subjugated Greece if death had not intervened. His son, Xerxes I, certainly wasn't up to the task. All in all, Darius left his empire in better condition than he found it, which is a pretty good epitaph for any leader in any time period.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King Darius the Great]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=4;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
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Neediness=6;
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IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_ELIZABETH={
Description=[=[Elizabeth]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ELIZABETH_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[A quote by Pope Sixtus V:"She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island, and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, By all."]=];
FACT_2 = [=[A poem by Queen Elizabeth:
 
THE DOUBT OF FUTURE FOES
 
The doubt of future foes exiles my present joy,
And wit me warns to shun such snares as threaten mine annoy;
For falsehood now doth flow, and subjects' faith doth ebb,
Which should not be if reason ruled or wisdom weaved the web.
But clouds of joys untried do cloak aspiring minds,
Which turn to rain of late repent by changèd course of winds.
The top of hope supposed, the root of rue shall be,
And fruitless all their grafted guile, as shortly ye shall see.
The dazzled eyes with pride, which great ambition blinds,
Shall be unsealed by worthy wights whose foresight falsehood finds.
The daughter of debate that discord aye doth sow
Shall reap no gain where former rule still peace hath taught to know.
No foreign banished wight shall anchor in this port;
Our realm brooks not seditious sects, let them elsewhere resort.
My rusty sword through rest shall first his edge employ
To poll their tops that seek such change or gape for future joy.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Queen Elizabeth I]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Patron of the Arts]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Foreign Relations]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1533 - 1603 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Elizabeth I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of England]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Elizabeth I was a remarkable woman living in a remarkable age. Beautiful, brilliant, and as tough as nails, she survived and indeed thrived, ruling in an era when most women were little more than chattel.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born to King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, who her father had executed for failing to give him a male heir, Elizabeth's early life was filled with danger. Growing up an unwanted daughter of an insane father who was destroying England's ties to the Catholic Church and engaging in civil war so that he could legally marry another woman (several other women, as it turned out), Elizabeth had to use all of her wits to survive. Elizabeth received an excellent education at the hands of various tutors, including the great scholars of the day. She was an outstanding student, and could speak five languages fluently.
 
When King Henry VIII died, the throne passed to his young son, Edward. At fifteen Elizabeth was implicated in a plot to overthrow him. She came close to being executed, surviving only because she was able to convince her skeptical interrogators that she knew nothing of the plot.
 
When King Edward died in 1553, Elizabeth's older sister Mary assumed the throne. An ardent Catholic, Mary was quite unpopular with a number of Protestant noblemen, who attempted unsuccessfully to overthrow her in 1554. Once again Elizabeth was implicated, but once again she talked her way out of execution. Queen Mary died in 1558, and at last Elizabeth became Queen.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Elizabeth was an extraordinary ruler. She established the Protestant Church as the official Church of England. However, she attempted to stem the persecution of Catholics in the country - at least as much as was possible when the Catholic nobility were actively plotting her demise. She also restored the debased currency of England, a step crucially necessary to restore the nation's flagging finances.
 
Elizabeth used all of the tools available to her to achieve her goals. She carefully crafted an image for herself as the "Virgin Queen," greatly increasing her popular support. She received countless offers of marriage from nobility and indeed from kings across Europe. But she accepted none of them, instead using her unmarried state to control her friends and foes alike; if one faction got too strong, she could drive them back into line by suggesting that she was considering marrying someone from an opposing faction.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Elizabeth was a great patron of the arts, particularly music and literature. She made England a center of culture, where great artists like William Shakespeare flourished. During her reign the first English playhouse was built, followed shortly by others including Shakespeare's Globe. And in 1574 weekday performances were made legal. An admirer of poetry, Elizabeth wrote a number of noteworthy poems herself.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Militarily, Catholic Spain was England's greatest threat. Spain was the great continental power of the day, and its leader, King Philip, had upon more than one occasion expressed the intent of invading England. In 1588 he tried, building a huge armada to conquer the upstart nation. Elizabeth quickly organized the country's navy to fend off the fleet, and by a combination of superior tactics, ship design, and some foul weather at just the right moment, they defeated the Spanish foe. England was not to be seriously threatened with invasion for about 400 years.
 
During Elizabeth's reign England, France, Spain and the Dutch all set up colonies in the New World. Elizabeth employed a large number of privateers to attack foreign ships and colonies, as did most other nations. Spain and its New World wealth remained the privateers' favorite targets.
 
Overall, with the exception of her lucky triumph over the Spanish Armada, Elizabeth was not a successful war leader. She oversaw various half-baked military incursions into Ireland, France and the Netherlands, none of which redounded to her credit.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Elizabeth died in 1603, having ruled 45 years. Although in her later years military and economic reversals had dimmed her luster to the point that many in England were relieved that she finally passed on, history acknowledges that she left her country in a much better state than when she came to power. Her great skills were an unerring survival instinct and flair for self-promotion, personal charisma, and toughness matching that of the strongest rulers in history. No better words can serve to describe her than her own: "I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king."]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Gloriana]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[The Virgin Queen]=];
TITLES_3 = [=[Good Queen Bess]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Elizabeth_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=5;
WonderCompetitiveness=5;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=8;
Boldness=4;
DiploBalance=7;
WarmongerHate=7;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=4;
Loyalty=5;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=5;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=6;
PortraitIndex=6;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_GANDHI={
Description=[=[Gandhi]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_GANDHI_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Gandhi had a set of false teeth, which he carried in a fold of his loin cloth - he only took them out for meals.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Albert Einstein once said of Gandhi:  "Generations to come will scarcely believe that such a one as this walked the earth in flesh and blood."]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[South Africa]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Return to India]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Partition]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1869 - 1948 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Gandhi]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of India]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Mohandas Gandhi was an Indian patriot who led India's nonviolent independence movement against British Imperial rule in the early to mid-twentieth century. He pioneered "satyagraha," or resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a ploy used to great effect against the British Raj.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Mohandas Gandhi was born in an India under British rule. The son of the Prime Minister of the small state of Porbandar, in his youth Gandhi displayed none of the brilliance that would mark him as an adult; in fact the young man was a mediocre student and quite shy. He entered into an arranged marriage at the age of 13, the usual custom of the period. Apparently he did not enjoy the experience, later calling the practice "the cruel custom of child marriage."
 
Upon graduating from high school, Gandhi decided to follow his father into state service. To this end he decided he would go to England to study. His father having just died, Gandhi's mother did not want him to go, allowing him only after he had promised to abstain from wine, women, and meat. His caste looked upon traveling over the ocean as unclean; when he persisted they declared him an "outcast." He learned much about England and the English during his time in that country, knowledge which was to prove invaluable later in his career. In 1891 Gandhi passed the bar and set sail for India. He attempted to set up practice in Bombay, but was unsuccessful and shortly relocated to South Africa.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Gandhi enjoyed more professional success in South Africa, but he was appalled by the racial bigotry and intolerance he found there. He spent the next twenty years of his life in South Africa looking after the interests of all under-classes, not just the Indians. It was here that Gandhi began to refine and teach his philosophy of passive resistance. He was jailed several times for opposition to the so-called "Black Acts," by which all non-whites were required to submit their fingerprints to the government. When the government ruled that only Christian marriages were legal in South Africa, Gandhi organized and led a massive non-violent protest, which eventually caused the government to back down. It was here that Gandhi acquired the title of "Mahatma," which means a person venerated for great knowledge and love of humanity.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[In 1915, Gandhi returned to India. He shocked the world when he expressed his humiliation that he had to speak English in his native land, and he shocked the Indian nobility when he chided them for their ostentatiousness, telling them that they should hold their jewels and wealth in trust for their countrymen.
 
Thus Gandhi began his long campaign to free his country from English rule. He followed two paths - he shamed the oppressors and he demanded sacrifice from his people. For the next thirty years Gandhi was to tirelessly exhort his people to passive resistance, leading strike after strike, march after march, fasting himself to the point of incapacity, enduring innumerable beatings, and months and even years in prison. At one point he made a historic trip to England, where he won over much of the English working and middle classes, to the great irritation of the government. Despite innumerable setbacks and years of endless toil, he persisted. In 1946, exhausted and virtually bankrupt by World War II, the English agreed to vacate India, but in doing so divided the country between Hindu and Muslims, which Gandhi abhorred.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[The partition sparked an outbreak of religious violence, in which Muslims were massacred wholesale in India, and the same fate awaited Hindus in Pakistan. The countries were in chaos. In response, Gandhi went on a fast, refusing to eat again until the violence ceased. Astonishingly, his fast worked: the peoples of India and Pakistan were unwilling to see their great hero die, and they sent him letters and representatives promising to stop the killings and begging him to end the fast. He did so, to the relief of millions. Twelve days later, Gandhi was assassinated.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Today Gandhi is considered to be one of the great figures in human history. He is recognized as a courageous and tireless champion for justice and moral behavior, in South Africa fighting just as hard for the rights of other downtrodden people as he did for fellow Indians. He is also acknowledged as a brilliant political leader who organized a successful independence campaign against one of the most powerful empires the world has ever seen. Of him, Martin Luther King said, "Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics."]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Mahatma]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=3;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
Boldness=2;
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WarmongerHate=7;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=8;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=3;
Chattiness=6;
Meanness=3;
PortraitIndex=11;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_HARUN_AL_RASHID={
Description=[=[Harun al-Rashid]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_HARUN_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[In the Sierra game Quest for Glory II, the sultan who adopts the Hero as his son is named Harun al-Rashid.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Harun al-Rashid figures prominently in the collected tales A Thousand Nights and One Night; he is reputed to have written many of them himself.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Reign]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Baghdad Renaissance]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Wealth of Harun and Arabia]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Foreign Relations]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Death of Harun]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[763 - 809 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Harun al-Rashid]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Arabia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Harun al-Rashid (which translates roughly as "Aaron the Rightly Guided") was the fifth Abbasid Caliph, ruling the Arabian Empire from 786 to 809 AD. During his reign the Caliphate stretched from Spain in the west to Anatolia in the north to India in the east, and it was the largest and most powerful political entity in the world. Harun was an able ruler, and his reign was a time of scientific and cultural advancement and prosperity for his subjects.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The son of the third Caliph and al-Khayzuran, a Yemeni slave girl, Harun came to power following the death of his brother, Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi. Al-Hadi died of a stomach ailment under somewhat suspicious circumstances, and some believed that his mother had al-Hadi poisoned because she had much stronger influence with her younger son, Harun. True or not, al-Khayzuran was one of Harun's chief advisors until her death in 789.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[At the start of Harun's reign, the Caliphate's capitol was in Baghdad, a new city founded by an earlier Caliph. The city was a center of arts, science and religion, with many beautiful buildings. There Harun founded the "House of Wisdom," a library and research facility which collected and translated scientific writings from Persian, Indian, Greek, and Roman texts. Under Harun Baghdad would blossom, becoming perhaps the largest and richest city in the world. Later Harun would move his government to the strategically important city of ar-Raqqah, but Baghdad would remain a great city of arts, science and commerce for centuries to come (the city would be conquered and sacked by the Mongols in 1258).]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[A somewhat fantastic description of Harun may be found in "The Thousand and One Nights," in which the Caliph is described as living in a sumptuous palace flowing with gold, silver, and jewels. Although exaggerated, there is a strong element of truth to the tale. During Harun's reign huge amounts of wealth poured into the Empire, and a goodly portion of it made it to the Caliph's coffers. According to ancient historians, Harun's wife insisted that all utensils and plates at her table be made of gold and festooned with jewels.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Politically, Harun attempted to maintain cordial relations with the European powers. He had direct diplomatic relations with Charlemagne, and in these pre-Crusade years Europeans had free access to Jerusalem and the Holy Lands. He also had diplomatic relations with the Imperial Court in China. However, his relations were somewhat less friendly with the Byzantines.
 
Under his father, Harun had led an army through Turkey to the gates of Constantinople, capitol of the Byzantine Empire. After negotiation with the Empress Irene, Harun agreed to spare the city in return for an annual tribute of 70,000 gold coins. When Irene was deposed and the Byzantines reneged on the agreement in 806, Harun led another army north and once again forced the Byzantines to capitulate.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Harun became ill and died in 808 while on his way to deal with a revolt in Iran. He was succeeded by his son, al-Amin. His passing marked the beginning of the slow decline of the Arabian Empire, after his death pieces of it were carved away by external enemies and internal revolt. Although the Empire would continue to exist for some centuries, it would never again reach the brilliant heights it had under Harun al-Rashid.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Although there were wars and internal trouble, most of Rashid's reign was peaceful and prosperous. The Caliphate enjoyed economic and industrial growth, plus an explosion in trade. Harun was a lover of music and poetry, and he gave lavish gifts to artists in his court. Although not necessarily a great leader, Rashid did rule the Arabian Empire competently at the very height of its power and wealth.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Caliph]=];
TITLES_2 = [=["The One Following the Right Path"]=];};
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VictoryCompetitiveness=4;
WonderCompetitiveness=7;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
Boldness=3;
DiploBalance=5;
WarmongerHate=5;
DenounceWillingness=3;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=6;
Neediness=6;
Forgiveness=6;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=4;
PortraitIndex=1;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_HIAWATHA={
Description=[=[Hiawatha]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_HIAWATHA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1550 AD?]=];
NAME = [=[Hiawatha]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Iroquois]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Hiawatha (or "Ayonwentah") is the legendary chief of the Onondaga Indians who, with the equally-legendary Chief Dekanawidah, formed the Iroquois Confederacy. Little is known about Hiawatha the man; according to Iroquois tradition he taught the people agriculture, navigation, medicine, and the arts, using his great magic to conquer all of man's supernatural and natural enemies. Hiawatha is also believed to have been a skilled orator who through his honeyed words persuaded the five tribes - Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas, Senecas, and Mohawks - to form the Five Nations of the Iroquois.
 
What little the West knows about Hiawatha is usually seen through the prism of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's remarkable epic poem, Song of Hiawatha.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[No verdict is possible on such a legendary figure. The only thing that can be said is that however it occurred, the alliance of the Five Nations proved to be long and remarkably sturdy, even in the face of ever-increasing pressure from the advancing Europeans to the east. Whoever built that alliance certainly did an outstanding job.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Chief]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Hiawatha_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=3;
WonderCompetitiveness=4;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
Boldness=2;
DiploBalance=4;
WarmongerHate=6;
DenounceWillingness=4;
DoFWillingness=6;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=6;
Chattiness=3;
Meanness=3;
PortraitIndex=12;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_MONTEZUMA={
Description=[=[Montezuma]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_MONTEZUMA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[A Modest Lifestyle]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Domestic Policy]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Sumptuary Laws]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Religious Changes]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Foreign Policy]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Death]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c.1397-1469 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Montezuma I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of The Aztecs]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[A mighty warrior and leader, Montezuma I helped propel the Aztec nation to greatness and glory. He should not be confused with his unfortunate grandson Montezuma II, who watched helplessly as his empire was dismantled by Spanish Conquistadors.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Montezuma (whose name means "he frowns like a lord") came from a royal family. His father Huitzilihuitl was the second Aztec "tlatoani" or emperor, and his mother, Miahuaxihuitl, was the daughter of the ruler of the city of Cuauhnahuac. Following his father's death, Montezuma's uncle Itzcoatl was elected. Montezuma's older brother Tlacaelel was one of Itzcoatl's closest advisors, while Montezuma served as a general in the Aztec army.
 
Following Itzcoatl's death in 1440, Montezuma was elected emperor. Tlacaelel did not seem at all unhappy about being bypassed (perhaps he thought he'd live longer if he didn't get the crown), and by all accounts he served his brother faithfully. Montezuma's coronation was a huge ceremony involving the sacrifice of many prisoners.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Despite the opulence of his political title, it appears that Montezuma himself lived modestly, in a simple palace with "just a few wives." When not engaged in religious duties or matters of state, he spent much of his time in consultation with his friends and advisors.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[During his reign Montezuma and his brother Tlacaelel worked to improve the Aztec city Tenochtitlan. Among other improvements they constructed an aqueduct system which brought a good deal of fresh water into the city. Of course as Tenochtitlan grew, in addition to fresh water it required ever greater amounts of food to sustain its hungry population. Since Central America lacked draft animals, every single morsel of food had to be transported to the city on somebody's back. Montezuma's government employed state inspectors to ensure that every piece of arable land within walking distance was planted and maintained. He also ordered the construction of a dike system to alleviate flooding and to provide more farmland.
 
Montezuma and his brother also constructed many temples in and around the city, including a new temple to Huitzilopochtli, the god of battle. The temple of Huitzilopochtli was consecrated in 1455 with the sacrifice of a large number of Huaxtec prisoners of war.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Probably at the urging of his brother, Tlacaelel, Montezuma instituted Sumptuary Laws which codified and reinforced the already-stratified Aztec class system. A person's station in life determined what he or she could wear and how he or she could speak. The poor were not allowed to wear cotton cloth, sandals or any clothing that extended below the knee. Only the nobility could live in homes of greater than one story. Crimes were punished by slavery, the lowest of all classes, or by being sacrificed.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[During Montezuma's rule, his brother Tlacaelel worked on reforming the Aztec religion. He rewrote the Aztec religious texts, ordering the destruction of many others which did not agree with his interpretations of the Aztec history and religion. Under Tlacaelel the Aztec religion became more militaristic, demanding ever more sacrifices of captured enemy soldiers. The need for prisoners for sacrifice would over time become one of the driving forces behind Aztec foreign policy.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[As ruler Montezuma sought to strengthen the "Triple Alliance" between the Central Mexican city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan. He also expanded the Aztec empire by conquering Panuco, the Totonacs, Coatzocoalcos and the Chalca. Some theorize that he conquered the tribes for their tribute, hoping to ensure a continuous food supply for Tenochtitlan, which despite his best efforts continued to suffer from periodic famine. Another theory is that he did so to feed the Aztec religion's ever-chronic need for prisoners of war to sacrifice. Yet another theory is that he did it because that's what Aztec Emperors did - conquer stuff. The answer is likely to be something of a combination of all three theories.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Montezuma died in 1469. He was succeeded by his 19-year-old cousin, Axayacatl, who would be the father of Montezuma I's namesake, the unfortunate Montezuma II who would lose everything to Spain.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Generally, Montezuma was a successful ruler. He expanded his empire, personally led his armies to victory, and worked hard to improve the lot of his people. He certainly was a bloody man, personally sacrificing thousands of prisoners to his thirsty gods. But his religion said such barbarity was necessary - blood was required to ensure that the sun would rise, the crops would grow, and the Aztec nation would continue to prosper.
 
Could he have cut back on the ritualized murder? Possibly. But the thought might never have occurred to him - or anybody else in the area at the time. It's useful to remember that the more "enlightened" people of Europe were busily burning heretics alive at roughly the same time. And while that doesn't in any way make Montezuma's actions any better, at least it puts them in some kind of context.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Emperor]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Montezuma_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=6;
WonderCompetitiveness=2;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=5;
Boldness=9;
DiploBalance=5;
WarmongerHate=1;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=3;
Loyalty=4;
Neediness=4;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=4;
Meanness=5;
PortraitIndex=2;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_NAPOLEON={
Description=[=[Napoleon]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_NAPOLEON_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Napoleon's rules of law for France - the so-called "Napoleonic Code" - represented a major advancement in legal reform and have influenced the legal systems of countries across the globe. Some historians have argued that these laws have had a greater effect on world history than all of Napoleon's military victories.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Vive l'Empereur!]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Russian Campaign]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Napoleon's Fall]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1769 - 1821 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Napoleon Bonaparte]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of France]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[It is virtually impossible to overstate the military genius of Napoleon Bonaparte.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Napoleon Bonaparte was born on the island of Corsica, where he entered a military academy at the age of ten. In school he displayed a great aptitude for mathematics, history, and geography, as well as a total indifference to literature and the humanities. At fourteen he was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in an artillery regiment. When the French revolution broke out, Napoleon sided with the Revolutionaries and was appointed lieutenant-colonel of artillery, where he quickly made a name for himself as a successful commander.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Early on Napoleon displayed both his military brilliance and his ability to navigate the perilous political landscape of Revolutionary France, where one false step could cost you your head - literally. By 1794 he was a brigadier-general, and by 1795 he was appointed command of the French Army of the Interior. He was 25 years of age. Over the next few years Napoleon led French armies to major victories over various continental foes, including the extremely powerful Austrians.
 
Capitalizing on his success and his growing popularity with the citizens and the army, in 1800 he overthrew the government and appointed himself "First Consul." Five years later he would crown himself "Emperor and Consul for Life," displaying his fine contempt for the democratic roots of the Revolution that brought him to power.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[An exceptional administrator, Napoleon rapidly reorganized the government, repealed the more radical and violent laws of the Revolution, and reopened the churches, cementing his popularity with the people of France. However, France was still at war with most of Europe, and Napoleon once again took to the battlefields, where he won stunning victories against Austria, causing that country and England to make peace.
 
England remained nervous of France's imperial intentions, and war resumed in 1803. Napoleon found himself facing a daunting alliance that included England, Austria, Russia and Sweden. Acting with amazing speed and cunning, Napoleon used his "interior lines" to concentrate his forces against the dispersed enemy. He rapidly marched across Europe, capturing the capital of Austria and then crushing the Russian forces at the battle of Austerlitz. Austria sued for peace once again. For several years Napoleon would defeat every foe that came against him. He crushed the Prussians, the Spanish, and the Austrians yet again. However, Russia and England remained undefeated.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Eventually Napoleon decided that he would never be safe in Europe as long as Russia, aided by the perfidious English, was on his flank. With England secure behind the Channel and its superb navy, he had little choice but to attack Russia, the only foe in the alliance his armies could reach. In 1812 he led half a million men to attack Moscow. The Russian forces retreated before his advance, taking or burning anything that might be of use to the invaders, while in the rear Cossack raiders destroyed Napoleon's supply lines. Bonaparte did reach and capture Moscow, but once again the Russians had removed or burnt anything there that might feed his men, and he was forced to retreat, fighting the Russian troops and the even more deadly Russian winter mile after bitter mile. By the end of the campaign Napoleon had lost 96% of his army.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Upon returning to Paris, Napoleon immediately recruited another army of 350,000, but his image of invulnerability was gone, and all Europe rose against him. Prussia, Russia and Austria allied against him, and England threw more troops into contested Spain. Though Napoleon was to again win famous victories, his enemies continued their relentless attacks. Eventually the allies drove their way into Paris, and Napoleon abdicated. For his trouble he was given rulership of the island of Elba, along with an income of six million francs, to be paid by France.
 
Later he would return to France and try to regain power one last time, but he was finally and irrevocably defeated by an English and Prussian army at Waterloo in Belgium. This time he was confined for life at the island of Sainte-Helene, a thousand miles from the coast of Africa. He died there in 1821.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Napoleon was one of the most brilliant generals of all time. He moved his troops with astounding rapidity, and he always knew exactly where to strike in order to cause the most damage. Domestically he turned out to be a decent, imaginative ruler and France flourished under his control (until his endless wars sapped her strength and will to fight). An Army general to his core, he never was able to create a navy able to seriously challenge England's dominance over the oceans.
 
In the end, he just couldn't beat everybody.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[First Consul of the First French Republic]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[Emperor Napoleon I of the First French Empire]=];};
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IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_ODA_NOBUNAGA={
Description=[=[Oda Nobunaga]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ODA_NOBUNAGA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Nobunaga was a great lover of archery. In fact, he commissioned clothing for himself to be made without sleeves, to better draw his bow in battle.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Nobunaga's hairstyle was often criticized by his enemies, as he chose to wear it in the style of a "lowly ronin (a masterless samurai)" and not in the traditional lordly "chonmage" with shaven pate.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Rise to Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Further Conquests]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Death of Nobunaga]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1534 - 1582 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Oda Nobunaga]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Japan]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Oda Nobunaga was a 16th century Japanese warlord. Both a brilliant general and a cunning politician - as well as an early adopter of new technology - Nobunaga fought and backstabbed his way to domination over nearly half of feudal Japan. His two lieutenants, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, would complete the job after his death, reunifying Japan for the first time in over a century.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Oda Nobunaga was born in 1534 AD, well into the "Sengoku" or Warring States period in Japanese history. During this period feudal Japan was divided into provinces run by powerful "daimyos" (territorial lords), while a weak shogun ruled in the name of a still-weaker Emperor. The Sengoku period saw an almost complete overthrow of the established order, with local lords overthrowing their daimyos, retainers overthrowing their lords, and inferior family branches fighting each other for dominance. It was a remarkably brutal period in Japanese history, and the nobility had to be smart, powerful and lucky to survive.
 
Nobunaga was born the son of a wealthy government official in the small and unimportant Owari province. Following his father's death in 1551 he inherited his father's title, wealth and military vassals. He was all of 17 at the time, and by all accounts was a wild and unruly child. According to legend Nobunaga acted so badly at his father's funeral that one of his friends and retainers committed seppuku (ritual suicide) in humiliation. Shocked and sobered by his retainer's death, Nobunaga began to take his position and obligations seriously.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Over the next ten years, Nobunaga rose to dominate Owari province, systematically co-opting or destroying anyone who stood in his way. The series of alliances, battles, betrayals and murders Nobunaga engaged in to achieve victory is bafflingly complex, rivaling the most intricate plot of a South American "telenovela" (soap opera). Here's how it went:
 
At the time of his father's death, the Oda clan was divided into many factions. Some favored Nobunaga as the legitimate heir, while others favored his younger (and less wild) brother, Nobuyuki. Meanwhile, his late father's brother, Nobutomo, used his position as deputy to the powerless Owari province's "shugo," (military governor) Shiba Yoshimune, to advance his claim to leadership of the Oda clan. But when he learned that the shugo secretly favored Nobunaga's claim, Nobutomo had Shiba Yoshimune murdered.
 
Meanwhile, Nobunaga convinced another of his father's brothers, Oda Nobumitsu, to turn on Nobutomo (who, we must remember, had just murdered Owari shugo Shiba). Nobunaga and his Uncle Nobumitsu attacked and killed Uncle Nobutomo in Kiyosu Castle. By destroying his uncle, Nobunaga gained control over Owari province's new shugo, Shiba Yoshikane (Shiba Yoshimune's heir). He used Shiba Yoshimune to gain alliances with the Imagawa and Kira clans, who also owed allegiance to Shiba.
 
Nobunaga then fielded an army to Mino Province to aid Saito Dosan against his rebellious son, Saito Yoshitatsu, but he was unsuccessful and Dosan fell.
 
In 1556 Nobunaga's brother, Nobuyuki (remember him?) rebelled with the aid of Shibata Katsuie and Hayashi Hidesada. Nobunaga defeated the conspirators at the Battle of Ino. Showing unusual mercy, he pardoned his brother and his allies. His brother repaid him by immediately planning another revolt, but he was betrayed by his onetime ally Shibata Katsuie, who informed Nobunaga of his plans. Nobunaga then murdered his brother.
 
And so on. By 1559 Nobunaga had destroyed all of his rivals and was undisputed master of Owari Province, though he kept Shiba Yoshikane in place as a puppet shugo (at least until he discovered that Yoshikane was secretly plotting against him with the Kira and Imagawa clans, at which point Nobunaga removed him from his position).]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Having secured Owari province, Nobunaga began to expand his power across Japan. In 1560 he led a laughably small army against a far superior force which was on its way to Kyoto to overthrow the weak Ashikaga Shogun, achieving a shocking victory against brutally long odds. 
 
One key to Nobunaga's military success was his early adoption of the new weapons which were beginning to appear in Japan at the time, brought in by European traders. He was one of the first daimyos to organize entire musket units, giving him a great advantage against his more backwards foes. He was also a gifted manager, making full use of the agricultural and mercantile wealth of Owari to support his war efforts.
 
In 1568 Nobunaga marched on Kyoto, putting up his ally Ashikaga Yoshiaki as his puppet Shogun. By 1573 the two men had fallen out, and Nobunaga deposed Ashikaga, at last ending the long Ashikaga Shogunate. 
 
Nobunaga consolidated his hold on Japan by attacking various politically powerful Buddhist sects. The monks put up incredibly stubborn resistance, some holding out for more than a decade. Nobunaga distributed the captured religious property to various samurai and nobility, further earning their loyalty. Nobunaga was friendly with the European Jesuit missionaries who appeared in Japan in ever larger numbers (probably because they had no political power with which to threaten him). He did not convert to Christianity, however.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[By 1582 Nobunaga had established firm control over central Japan and had begun attempting to expand his power westward. However, during a military campaign he was betrayed by a subordinate at Honno-ji temple and was forced to commit seppuku. His murderer survived him by just eleven days before being defeated by Nobunaga's loyal lieutenants, who would go on to complete the unification of Japan he so ably started.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Oda Nobunaga is generally agreed to be one of the three greatest leaders in Japanese history. His two lieutenants, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, are the other two. By 1590 Hideyoshi had completed the conquest of Japan, and following his death Tokugawa Ieyasu would come into power, creating the Tokugawa Shogunate which would rule Japan for centuries to come. Together these three men created the modern state of Japan.
 
Nobunaga was a brutal man in a brutal time. But by helping to unify Japan he brought an end to the brutal wars that had been ravaging his country for more than a century.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Daimyo]=];};
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Neediness=6;
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LEADER_RAMESSES={
Description=[=[Ramesses II]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_RAMESSES_II_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Military Campaigns]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Peace with the Hittites]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Pi-Ramesses]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Public Works]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Biblical Connection]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Death and Burial]=];
HEADING_9 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1303 - 1213 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Ramesses II]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Egypt]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Ramesses II is considered to be Egypt's greatest and most powerful pharaoh. Taking the throne in his twenties, Ramesses ruled Egypt for more than 60 years. Ramesses is remembered as a great military leader as well as for the extensive construction programs he instituted. He is also remembered for building a new capital city, Pi-Ramesses. Some historians believe that Ramesses is the pharaoh in the biblical story of Moses.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Egypt having recently emerged from a period of declining power and prestige, Ramesses' father, Seti I, spent a good deal of time subduing rebellious provinces in Asia. The Hittites, based in Asia Minor, were extending their power southward, and the two great civilizations were engaged in a protracted struggle for control of Syria and Palestine. The young Ramesses accompanied his father on some of these campaigns; by the age of 10 he was given the rank of captain - though this was almost certainly ceremonial, it does suggest that his military training began at an extremely young age. Ramesses assumed the throne in his early twenties, following his father's death.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Four years after becoming pharaoh, Ramesses led an army north to retake the rebellious provinces that his father had been unable to conquer. The campaign was apparently successful, and the army advanced as far as Beirut.
 
In the following year Ramesses attacked the Hittite stronghold at Kadesh. The Battle of Kadesh is one of the few battles from that period of which we have records. Believing the citadel to be abandoned, Ramesses approached incautiously and was ambushed by a large Hittite chariot force hiding beyond the fort. Although Ramesses achieved a marginal victory in that battle, his army was so weakened that he had to retreat to Egypt, leaving the fort in Hittite hands. Ramesses continued to battle the Hittites for some twelve more years, attaining tactical victories, but unable to hold the contested land for any time. 
 
In addition to his wars with the Hittites, Ramesses campaigned in Nubia and Libya, extending his rule to the west and south. However these were of much less importance as these enemies posed little threat to the survival of Egypt.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Eventually realizing that further combat was pointless, in the twenty-first year of his reign, Ramesses agreed to a peace treaty with the Hittites. This is the earliest known peace treaty in recorded history. Interestingly, the treaty was written in two versions: the Egyptian version states that the Hittites sued for peace while the Hittite version states that it was the Egyptians who requested an end to hostilities.
 
This treaty appears to have stabilized the borders between the two great powers, and no further combat between Egypt and the Hittites occurred during Ramesses' reign.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Early in his reign Ramesses moved his capital from Thebes north to a city in the Nile Delta, which he renamed "Pi-Ramesses ." The new location was near to his ancestral home, but more importantly it was far closer to the troublesome Northern provinces and the dangerous Hittite border. In a few short years the once-sleepy village was transformed into a major governmental center as well as an arms manufactory. The city was graced with a beautiful palace and many temples, as well as numerous statues and other ornaments.
 
Pi-Ramesses  was abandoned long after Ramesses' reign. For many centuries the site was lost, but archeologists have recently discovered ruins that they believe belong to the ancient city.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[During his reign Ramesses constructed many public works across Egypt. Many of these were temples and monuments, but he also constructed storehouses, government buildings, water works, and so forth. Evidently a tireless self-promoter, Ramesses covered Egypt with statues and carvings of himself, often recarving those of previous pharaohs with his name and image. (Ramesses ordered his masons to deeply engrave his image in the stone so that future pharaohs would have trouble doing the same to him.)]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Many historians believe that Pi-Ramesses is the city "Raamses" mentioned in the Old Testament of the Bible, one of the "Treasure Cities" constructed by the Israelites during their Egyptian Captivity. Some believe that Ramesses is in fact the pharaoh of the Biblical story of the Exodus, the ruler who Moses forced to free his people. However, this is open to debate (particularly since Ramesses II lived a very long life and emphatically did not drown in the Red Sea).]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Ramesses died at the age of 90. He was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, but he was later moved to a secret location. His body was discovered in the late 19th century and is now on display in the Cairo Museum. It is difficult to guess whether the pharaoh would be outraged by the desecration or if he would enjoy the publicity.]=];
TEXT_9 = [=[Ramesses II ruled Egypt as pharaoh for approximately 66 years, the second longest reign in Egyptian history. He stabilized his empire's borders and concluded a highly successful peace treaty with its most important rival, the Hittites. He clearly cared for his people's welfare and spent much treasure on massive public works. He is regarded by later Egyptians as the greatest pharaoh in history, a conclusion that is difficult to dispute.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Ramesses The Great]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[The Great Ancestor]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=9;
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LEADER_RAMKHAMHAENG={
Description=[=[Ramkhamhaeng]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_RAMKHAMHAENG_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[King Ramkhamhaeng]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Arts and Culture]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Ramkhamhaeng's Death]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1240 - 1298 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Ramkhamhaeng]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Siam]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[In 1278, a prince named "Ramkhamhaeng" inherited the small and unimportant kingdom of Sukhothai. In twenty years, employing a brilliant combination of military genius and shrewd diplomacy, he expanded his country's borders and influence to cover much of Southeast Asia.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Not much is known about Ramkhamhaeng's early life. His parents were King Sri Indraditya and Queen Sueang. He had two sisters and two older brothers, one of whom died early and the other, Ban Mueang, became king on their father's death. Ramkhamhaeng was said to have studied under the poet wise-man Sukathanta.
 
At 19 he served under his father during the latter's attack on the city of Sukhothai, which was held by the Khmer. The success of this attack greatly expanded the king's power, essentially establishing Sukhothai as an independent kingdom. Because of his heroic actions during the battle the prince was given the title "Phra Ram Khamhaeng," or Rama the Bold.
 
Upon the death of his father in 1257, his brother, the new king Ban Mueang, put Ramkhamhaeng in charge of the city of Si Sat Chanalai. Ban Mueang died twenty years later, and Ramkhamhaeng ascended to the throne.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[During his reign Ramkhamhaeng expanded his kingdom's dominance west into Burma, east into Laos, and south down the Malay Peninsula. The king was a shrewd diplomat as well as a warlord; many territories joined his confederation voluntarily. Ramkhamhaeng did not seek to dominate Southeast Asia, rather he promoted trade and diplomatic alliances with surrounding kingdoms.
 
Most of what we know of Ramkhamhaeng's rule comes from a stone inscription he created in 1292 towards the end of his rule. This is the earliest surviving example of Thai language, and it portrays him as a wise and benevolent leader.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Ramkhamhaeng was an ardent patron of Buddhism. He also supported the arts and Thai artistic expression achieved an especially high level during his reign, especially in bronze sculpture and ceramics.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Ramkhamhaeng died in 1298. His extended empire, held together by his personal magnetism and brilliant international diplomacy, did not long survive his death, and the furthest provinces soon broke away. Sukhothai itself survived another century before it fell.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Ramkhamhaeng is viewed today as a great leader and the first to rule over a united Siam (later Thailand). It should be remembered however that almost all that we know about him comes from the stone inscription that he himself created. If he did have any major flaws, would he have carved them into the living rock for all of history to see? (Would any of today's world leaders do so?)
 
Still, there is plenty of independent evidence to show that he successfully created a great empire and his people prospered during his reign. And that's a record that any leader could be proud of.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=["Rama the Bold"]=];};
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Loyalty=6;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=6;
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Meanness=3;
PortraitIndex=19;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_SULEIMAN={
Description=[=[Suleiman]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_SULEIMAN_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Suleiman kept numerous fancy breeds of pigeons at his palace in Istanbul.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Suleiman was fond of wearing "excessively large" turbans, as described by Venetian Bartolomeo Contarini, after his ascension to the throne.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early History]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Military Ambitions in Europe]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Military Adventures in Persia]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Domestic Improvement]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Culture, Religion and the Arts]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Verdict of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1494 - 1566 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Suleiman]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the Ottomans]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Suleiman I, known as "The Magnificent," "The Legislator" and "The Grand Turk," was the caliph of Islam and the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, taking the reins of the Turkish kingdom in 1520 and ruling until his death in 1566. During his rule Suleiman greatly expanded the Empire's territory, earning the fear (and grudging admiration) of leaders across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Suleiman was the son and grandson of sultans. At an early age he studied science, literature, theology, and the military arts in Istanbul. At 17 he was appointed governor of Kaffa by his grandfather, and he was made governor of Manisa during the reign of his father, Sultan Selim I. His father died in 1520 when Suleiman was 26, and he ascended to the throne. Although still quite a young man, Suleiman had nearly ten years of leadership experience when he came to power.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[According to some historians, Suleiman deeply admired Alexander the Great and hoped to emulate him and create an empire that encompassed Europe, Asia Minor, Africa, and the Middle East. Upon achieving power, Suleiman began planning a campaign against Europe and the Balkans.
 
In 1521, just a year after achieving power, Suleiman captured Belgrade. In the following year he took the Island of Rhodes from the Knights of St. John. In 1526 he defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohacs, killing the Hungarian king Louis II in combat.
 
Following Louis II's death, the Hungarian throne was taken by Ferdinand I, the Habsburg archduke of Austria. Seeking to weaken Habsburg power in Eastern Europe, Suleiman supported the claim of John Zapolya, lord of Transylvania. In 1529 he laid siege to Vienna. The siege was unsuccessful, however, but it did serve to keep Hungarian power concentrated on Vienna, effectively ceding control of most of Hungary to Suleiman's puppet, John. When John died in 1540 the Austrians moved back into central Hungary. The two forces would continue to battle inconclusively for the next twenty years, until a peace treaty was signed in 1562, four years before Suleiman's death.
 
To support his land campaigns Suleiman also created a great navy on the Mediterranean, the first such in Ottoman history. He put his forces under the command of admiral Khayr al-Din (known in the west as "Barbarossa"), a sometime pirate with a natural genius for naval warfare who defeated the combined Spanish-Venetian fleets in 1538, effectively giving the Ottomans dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean for the next forty years.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Suleiman waged three major campaigns in Persia during his reign. The first campaign (1534 - 1535) won the Ottomans control over a portion of eastern Asia Minor as well as most of Iraq. The second campaign some ten years later (1548 - 1549) won some additional terrain around the strategically important Lake Van on the border of Persia and Asia Minor. The third campaign was inconclusive, as the Ottomans were unable to sustain an offensive deep in Persian territory and thus were unable to hold onto their gains.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[As sultan, Suleiman surrounded himself with competent, often brilliant, statesmen and administrators. He built mosques, bridges, roads and fortresses across his territory, and the period is seen as a golden age of Ottoman architecture. He also worked to reform and codify the empire's legal system. "The Lawgiver's" legal system would survive almost unchanged for three centuries. He paid attention especially to the plight of his Christian subjects, who until then had been little more than serfs. Jews also were protected, to such an extent that many emigrated to the Ottoman Empire from Europe, where they were much more harshly treated.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[While his territorial accomplishments were impressive, the Sultan, a skilled poet and fervent Muslim, did not ignore the culture of his homeland. During his rule hundreds of artistic societies flourished across the country. Suleiman commissioned numerous new mosques of a previously unseen grandeur, many designed by master architect Sinan.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Suleiman died in 1566 while (once more) campaigning in Hungary. At the time of his death he was famous across the known world. In Europe he was envied for his unbelievable wealth, his magnificent treasury containing more riches than any other leader had possessed in history. He was admired for his military prowess and respected for his fair treatment of non-Muslim subjects.
 
Muslims respected the Sultan for his belief in the rule of law. The Sultan adopted Islamic sacred law to compliment the traditional law already in place from his predecessors, providing a model for Eastern powers for centuries to come.
 
Almost everyone - Christian and Muslim alike - agreed that he was fully worthy of the title "The Magnificent."]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[The Magnificent]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[The Lawmaker]=];};
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Loyalty=5;
Neediness=3;
Forgiveness=5;
Chattiness=6;
Meanness=3;
PortraitIndex=15;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_WASHINGTON={
Description=[=[Washington]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_WASHINGTON_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Like many Americans today, Washington had a fondness for ice cream - he even had a cooler installed in his house to better enjoy the treat.]=];
FACT_2 = [=[Washington was very conscious of style and fashion.  While he commanded the Virginia militia in the 1750's, he redesigned his soldiers' uniforms.]=];
FACT_3 = [=[Washington was the only president in history to have been unanimously elected, receiving all 69 votes of the Electoral College.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[French and Indian War]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Home Life]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Pre-Revolution Activities]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Commander of the Continental Army]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[President of the United States]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Washington's Place in History]=];
LIVED = [=[1732 - 1799 AD]=];
NAME = [=[George Washington]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of the United States of America]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[George Washington was one of a group of remarkable men who lived in the American Colonies in the late eighteenth century. Although not as pugnacious as John Adams, as imaginative as Benjamin Franklin or as brilliant as Thomas Jefferson, Washington had the capacity to lead, in war and in peace. He led the Continental Army to victory against extraordinary odds, and by so doing he led his country to independence.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[The descendent of English colonists who migrated to Virginia in 1657, George Washington was born into a family of wealth and privilege - or as much wealth and privilege as could be found in the Colonies in the early eighteenth century. As a young man Washington studied mathematics, writing, geography, and probably Latin, but he never attended college. Instead he concentrated upon learning how to raise stock, farm, and manage his family's growing estates. Washington was also trained as a surveyor and spent several years scouting and mapping the lands in and around the colony of Virginia.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[In 1754 war broke out between England (and her colonies) and the French and their allies the Indians. Washington fought in several engagements during this war, showing a great deal of courage and coolness under fire, but of no especial strategic or tactical brilliance. Eventually the war ended with the English victorious, and Washington resigned from the Colonial forces with the honorary rank of Brigadier General.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[After the war Washington married and devoted himself to his growing estates. He apparently greatly enjoyed managing his farms and plantations and was not above shedding his coat and helping with manual labor. He also sat in the House of Burgesses in Williamsburg, the mostly-impotent local governing body of Virginia (real power definitely resided with the Royal Governor of the colony and with King and Parliament back in England).]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Although a loyalist, Washington too chafed under the growing burden of taxation placed on the Colonies by Parliament (largely imposed to help pay off debts from the recent French and Indian War). As tensions grew and England ratcheted up the pressure on the Colonies, Washington's position grew more radical, and by 1768 he declared himself ready to take up arms against England whenever his country called him. By 1774 Washington was a member of the Continental Congress, the first truly national organization of the nascent country. When actual fighting broke out in and around Boston in 1775, Washington was named as commander of the military forces of all of the Colonies, a post he maintained once actual independence was declared in 1776.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[As military commander of the Revolutionary forces, Washington displayed the same strengths and weaknesses he had years before when fighting for England against France. He was personally courageous, almost to the point of foolhardiness. Early in the war he tended to favor overly-complex military actions beyond the capabilities of his volunteer soldiers, resulting in a series of near-catastrophic defeats at the hands of the professional British forces. But almost by force of will alone - through long, discouraging years of privation and defeat - he kept his army alive and in the field, and by so doing kept the revolution alive in the Colonies. Eventually, the sheer tenacity and growing skill of the Colonial Army and its general would win it the grudging admiration of even its fiercest enemies.
 
The entrance of France into the war on the side of the Colonies and increasing Colonial power and success on the battlefield led to growing anti-war sentiment of the British people. In 1781 Washington led his troops on a daring forced march into Virginia, where he (with the aid of a large contingent of French soldiers) besieged an entire British army on the peninsula of Yorktown. The French naval maneuvers having given them temporary command of the sea, the British general was unable to escape his predicament and surrendered his command. Although sporadic fighting continued for some months, the war was essentially over: America had won her independence.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[After the war, Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention, which determined the form of the new nation's government, and later served as its first President. As President, Washington sought to keep the country free from foreign entanglements, resisting close alliances or wars with any. He attempted (with little success) to keep the country free from political party rivalry and strife. Washington served two four-year terms as President, and then retired back to his home in Mount Vernon, Virginia, where he died in 1799.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[George Washington is known for good reason as the "Father of the United States of America." While not the greatest general in world history, nor the greatest statesman, Washington had a great steadiness and courage in the face of adversity, and he was able to get men to willingly die for him. Without Washington, it's unlikely that the United States would have been born.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Commander-in-Chief of Colonial Armies (during American Revolution)]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[President of the United States of America (1789-1797)]=];};
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IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_WU_ZETIAN={
Description=[=[Wu Zetian]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_WU_ZETIAN_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACT_1 = [=[Empress Wu placed great importance on the development of agriculture and commissioned many farming texts to be written.  One of her methods of judging an official's competence was how well he cultivated his land.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Concubine Wu]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Empress Consort Wu]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Dowager Empress Wu]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Emperor Wu]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 625 - 705 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Wu Zetian]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of China]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Like most civilizations, China has been male-dominated throughout much of its history. Until very recently, women were afforded few rights, and direct power was all but totally denied to them. For a woman to attain the rank of Emperor, to become the most powerful person in China, was almost unheard of. Only one person in the entirety of Chinese history was able to do so. That person was Wu Zetian, one of the most remarkable rulers - female or male - the world has ever seen.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[A shockingly beautiful child, at the age of 13 (in approx. 639 AD) Wu became a concubine of Emperor Taizong. She did not have any children with the Emperor, and at his death in 649 she left the palace to become a Buddhist nun, as was common for childless concubines at the time. That should have been the end of her story. However, Fate was to give her another chance at glory.
 
Like much of Chinese politics of the day, this gets extremely complicated. Empress Wang, the wife of the current Emperor Gaozong (son of the late Emperor Taizong), was afraid that Gaozong was becoming too infatuated with Consort Xiao. This was indeed a matter of some concern, as consorts had in the past been known to supplant empresses, who were often killed as a result. To divert her husband's attentions from Consort Xiao, the Empress had Wu - who was still young and beautiful - returned to the palace and reinstated as Consort.
 
This tactic was a complete success - too complete, in fact, for in a few years she had supplanted both Consort Xiao and Empress Wang in Emperor Gaozong's affections. Both ladies were killed, and she attained the rank of Empress. Some historians believe that she killed her own infant daughter and framed the Empress for the murder. While this is not proven, subsequent events have suggested that such an act was well within her scope.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[As Empress Consort, Wu moved quickly to consolidate her power. Forging alliances with certain powerful officials, she had those who opposed her demoted, exiled, or killed. She was an able advisor to the Emperor, and he delegated more authority to her as time passed. By 660 AD, the Emperor began to suffer from a debilitating illness (which some said was caused from slow poisoning by Wu), and he passed much of the day-to-day management of the Empire to Wu, who was then about thirty-five years old. Wu showed herself to be an able administrator, with sharp wit and extensive knowledge of history and literature. She also showed a remarkable ability to seek out and destroy those who plotted against her as well as those who might someday pose a threat. When Emperor Gaozong died in 683, she was inarguably the most powerful person in China.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Following Gaozong's death, Wu's son Zhongzong became Emperor. He immediately began displaying troubling signs of independence, including appointing officials to important posts without consulting with his mother. This threatened to undermine Wu's power base, and she took decisive action. Zhongzong was deposed and exiled, and Wu's youngest son, Ruizong, became Emperor. Taking no chances this time, however, Wu kept the new Emperor in virtual isolation. Having no doubt learned from the unhappy example of his older brother, the titular Emperor kept very quiet and did nothing to offend the Dowager Empress.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[In 690 AD, Wu took the throne herself, her son Ruizong reduced in title to Crown Prince. This caused a certain amount of displeasure among traditionalists, which Wu handled in her usually efficient and brutal manner. She expanded the powers of the secret police, who answered directly to her, and hundreds were exiled, imprisoned or murdered. She held this post for some 15 years, until, at the age of 80 and seriously ill, she was deposed. She died later the same year.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[As a leader, Wu was considered to be an able administrator and shrewd judge of character. She promoted and supported able men, and in return she received their firm loyalty. Generals appointed by her conquered Korea, adding that wealthy land to the Empire. She was quick to destroy any she saw as a threat, and the early years of her reign as Emperor were bloody and repressive, even by Chinese standards. As she grew more secure in her throne, however, she reined in the secret police, and even her enemies grudgingly praised her for her competence and decisiveness.
 
In short, her rule was benevolent to those who were no challenge to her, and lethal to those who were. All in all, Wu Zetian remains one of the most fascinating rulers in history, and well worth further study.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Empress Regnant]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=5;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=7;
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WarmongerHate=5;
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DoFWillingness=4;
Loyalty=3;
Neediness=6;
Forgiveness=4;
Chattiness=6;
Meanness=7;
PortraitIndex=4;
IconAtlas="LEADER_ATLAS";};
 
LEADER_GENGHIS_KHAN={
Description=[=[Genghis Khan]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_GENGHIS_KHAN_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Genghis Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Recent discoveries in genealogical mapping suggest that about 8% of men in Asia (roughly 0.5% worldwide) can trace their ancestry directly back to Genghis Khan.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Birth]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Unification Begins]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Outward Expansion]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Succession and Death]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1162 - 1227 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Genghis Khan]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Mongolia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Genghis Khan is one of the most recognized and worst feared leaders in all of human history.  Hundreds of statues, buildings, and commercial products bear his image, and numerous entertainment works have been created honoring his life.  He became the first to unite the warring, nomadic tribes of northeast Asia and founded the largest contiguous empire known to man.  Perhaps less known are the improvements and advancements he made in infrastructure, trade, and religious tolerance.  More than just a warrior, he was also a capable and shrewd civil leader.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born Borjigin Temujin in 1162 AD, Temujin was raised in a Mongol tribe that inhabited the lands near modern day Ulaanbaatar.  The third oldest son of a tribal chieftain, he is said to be named after a captured Tatar chieftain. Much of Temujin's early life is shrouded in mystery, and the few sources which do exist often conflict and disagree.  No accurate portraits or pictures of him exist today, but many sources describe Temujin as a "glittering" man, sporting long red hair and blue-green eyes.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Like many of the tribesmen in the region Temujin's early life was pretty difficult, despite being born into nobility.  At the age of nine he was betrothed to a neighboring tribe-chieftain's daughter and sent to live with her family.  His father was killed on the way back home, and Temujin's tribe subsequently abandoned him and the remainder of his family.  The family lived destitute until he married his betrothed at the age of 16.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Temujin began his bid for power by offering himself as a vassal to his late father's blood brother, Toghrul, the Khan of the Kerait tribe.  During this time, Temujin's wife was captured by the Merkit tribe, and Toghrul lent the young warlord 20,000 men to face them in battle.  Not only did Temujin recapture his wife, but he also completely defeated the Merkits, bringing them under this control.  He became a Khan in his own right and began conquering more of the neighboring tribes.
 
During his conquests the young Khan fundamentally broke with Mongol tradition - he created a new set of laws and incorporated his captured holdings into his growing empire, rather than destroying and pillaging them.  His law, the Yassa, promised soldiers fair pay and wealth, outlawed thievery and pillaging of any kind, and promised protection and religious freedom for all conquered tribes.  Temujin's political innovations brought him much loyalty and strongly united his growing nation.
 
The rest of his outward expansion and unification of the Mongol tribes is filled with tales of betrayal, intrigue, dashing victories, conspiracies, familial disputes, and more betrayal, including rifts between his former ally Toghrul and eldest son Jochi.  However, despite these setbacks he managed to subdue or unite all the nomadic tribes in the Mongolia area by 1206, the first man to ever do so.  At a joint council of chiefs he was given the name “Genghis Khan”, the eternal and universal ruler of the Mongol peoples.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[After the unification of Mongolia, Genghis soon began a series of successful military campaigns to conquer the surrounding and outlying areas, creating a massive empire under his rule. In 1209, he forced the surrender of the Xia provinces, and shortly thereafter in 1211, he finished the conquest of the Jin Dynasty.
 
Next he turned his attention west toward Persia.  In a deft maneuver containing only two armies of 20,000 men each, Genghis launched a successful attack against the Kara-Khitan Khanate, putting his reach of control right on Persia's doorstep.
 
Rather than conquer the neighboring empire of Khwarezmia, Genghis instead offered a political alliance, sending a 500-man trade caravan to the capital - he hoped to create a powerful trading partner using the Silk Road.  However, the Khwarezmian Shah distrusted the young leader and slaughtered the caravan.  Trying once more, Genghis sent a group of ambassadors to the Shah directly, who answered the gesture by beheading one of them.  Outraged, Genghis assembled some 200,000 men and personally oversaw the bloody fall and abject subjugation of the Khwarezmian Empire in 1220. Immediately following his success he captured many other regions on his way back to Mongolia, including Georgia, Afghanistan, and the remaining Western Xia holdings.
 
His victorious journey complete, Genghis's empire now stretched from the Caspian Sea in the west all the way to the Sea of Japan in the east, twice the size of the Roman Empire.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Now an aged man, the topic of Genghis's succession was heated and highly contested.  His eldest son, Jochi, was suspected of being born of a different man (as a result of his wife's capture), and many refused outright to follow him.  The clash ended however in 1226 when Jochi died mysteriously, some claiming that Genghis himself ordered the boy poisoned. His middle son Ogedei was named heir, as Genghis thought him the most level headed and stable of his remaining children.
 
Shortly after in 1227 Genghis died, the reason for which is still debated. Some claim he fell from his horse during a battle against the Tangut people, others hold that he was struck down by a long illness.  Some even claim that a captured Tangut princess killed him with a pair of pliers.  Regardless of the means or reason, Genghis Khan was buried in an unmarked grave as he wished, its location a closely guarded family secret.  Some folklore claims that a river was diverted over the site to protect it; other stories describe a grove of trees planted atop the grave to hide it.  In 2004, an archaeological dig uncovered what is believed to be the ruins of Genghis' palace. Hope remains that his grave may yet be found.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Depending on whom you ask, Genghis Khan is regarded as a worthy leader and excellent ruler or, conversely as a bloodthirsty killer.  In present-day Mongolia, he is thought of favorably as the father of the nation, and his many political innovations are upheld and heralded.  In formerly conquered lands, such as Iraq and Iran, he is seen almost universally as a genocidal, maniacal tyrant who caused untold destruction and damage.  Whether his tales of greatness or brutality are contested or exaggerated, he is undoubtedly one of the most important and influential leaders in the ancient world, his legacy still remaining strong and visible even today.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Leader of Mongolia]=];};
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VictoryCompetitiveness=8;
WonderCompetitiveness=4;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
Boldness=8;
DiploBalance=4;
WarmongerHate=4;
DenounceWillingness=5;
DoFWillingness=5;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=5;
Forgiveness=3;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=6;
IconAtlas="GENGHIS_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="293C1EE3117644F6AC1F59663826DE74";};
 
LEADER_ISABELLA={
Description=[=[Isabella]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_ISABELLA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Isabella Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Isabella was the first woman to be featured on a U.S. postage stamp, commemorated for her involvement with Christopher Columbus, as well as the first woman to appear on a U.S. coin.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Years]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Henry fails at matchmaking]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Ferdinand and the fight for the Throne]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[1492]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[No One Expects the Inquisition]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[The Later Years]=];
HEADING_8 = [=[Legacy in History]=];
LIVED = [=[1451 - 1504 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Isabella]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Spain]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Isabella I was the Queen of Castile and Leon for 30 years, and with her husband Ferdinand, laid the groundwork for the consolidation of Spain.  For her role in the Spanish unification, patronage of Columbus' voyages to America, and ending of the Reconquista (Recapturing) of the Iberian Peninsula, Isabella is regarded as one of the most beloved and important monarchs in Spanish history.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Isabella was born on April 22, 1451 in Ávila to John II of Castile and Isabella of Portugal.  She had an older brother, Henry (her elder by 26 years), and later a younger brother Alfonso, who displaced her in the line of succession.  When her father died in 1454, Henry took the throne of Castile as King Henry IV, and Isabella and her family moved to Arévalo and lived in a destitute castle, where her mother slowly started to lose her sanity. It wasn't until years later, when Henry's wife gave birth, that Henry allowed his siblings to move back to the main court in Segovia.
 
Here Isabella was educated in all manners of queenly disciplines and her life improved considerably, but Henry did put one limiting condition on her - she was forbidden to leave Segovia without his permission.  Henry claimed this was to keep Isabella from the political turmoil brewing in the kingdom over his choice of heir (his new daughter Joanna), but it could have also been to restrict her access to the rebelling noblemen.
 
The nobles, however, had no problem speaking with her younger brother Alfonso, and he instigated the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467, demanding that he be made Henry's heir.  As a compromise, Henry named Alfonso the Prince of Asturias, a title that would be given to the heir apparent of both Castile and Leon, and thought about marrying his daughter Joanna to Alfonso.  But Alfonso didn't have long to enjoy his new role; he soon died, probably a casualty of the plague.  Alfonso had named Isabella his successor in his will, and the title passed to her.
 
Rather than continue the rebellion against her older brother, Isabella met with Henry at Toros de Guisando and negotiated a permanent peace settlement. Henry would officially name Isabella as his heir, but she would not be allowed to marry without his consent.  However, Henry could also not force her to marry against her will.  Both parties pleased with their settlement, Henry began his search for a fitting husband for his younger sister.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[At this time, Isabella was betrothed to Ferdinand, son of John II of Aragon (and had been since the age of three), but Henry broke off this agreement.  Instead, he attempted to wed Isabella to Charles IV of Navarre, another of John's sons, but John refused the offer.
 
Soon after in 1464, Henry attempted to marry Isabella off to King Edward IV of England, but Edward also refused.  Many attempts were then made to wed the girl to Alfonso V of Portugal, but she refused him at the altar due to his old age.
 
The Castilian's personal soap opera continued with Isabella's betrothal to Pedro Giron, the brother of Henry's favorite Don.  Isabella prayed feverishly that the marriage be called off, as Don Pedro was 27years older than she.  Isabella fervently believed that God had answered her plea, as the Don died from a burst appendix on the way to greet his fiancée.
 
Next up in Henry's shrinking line of suitors was Louis XI's brother Charles, Duke of Berry.  At this point Isabella had had enough of Henry's thinly veiled attempts to remove her from the line of succession with a poor political marriage, and she began to negotiate with John II of Aragon in secret to once again secure a marriage to his son Ferdinand.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Although all parties were in favor of the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand (except of course for Henry, who was still trying to woo France and Portugal), there was one small problem - the young couple were second cousins.  By church law, a Papal Bull was required for a wedding of closely related cousins, but the Pope was loathe to grant one from fear of retribution from Castile, Portugal, and France.
 
However, Isabella refused to marry without the dispensation, as she was by this point a very devout woman.  Ferdinand sought the help of Rodrigo Borgia in Rome (later Pope Alexander VI) and presented Isabella with a "Papal Bull" from Pius II.  The probable forgery was good enough for her and she quickly agreed to the marriage.  With the excuse of visiting her brother's tomb in Avila, Isabella managed to escape Henry's sight and Ferdinand slipped into Castile disguised as a merchant.  Isabella's rather Shakespearian journey ended on October 19, 1469 when she wedded Ferdinand in Valladolid.
 
Henry found out about the marriage rather quickly after this, and pleaded with the Pope to dissolve the marriage.  The new Pope, Sixtus IV, didn't have any of his predecessor's qualms about Castilian hostilities and instead gifted the wedded couple a real Papal Bull, thwarting Henry.
 
A few years later in 1474, Henry died and a succession war broke out across Castile.  Portugal supported Henry's daughter, Joanna, to take the throne, but Isabella had the support of Aragon (through Ferdinand) and later France.  The war dragged on for four years, but ultimately Sixtus IV again came to Isabella's rescue. The Pope annulled Joanna's marriage to Alfonso V of Portugal, ironically on the grounds of their close familial relationship.  Joanna was forced to renounce her titles of Princess and Queen of Castile, and the throne passed to Isabella on January 20, 1479.
 
The early years of Isabella's reign mostly involved solidifying her power base and continuing the Reconquista (Recapturing) of the Iberian Peninsula.  However, her reign became memorable, in the momentous year of 1492.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Almost everything Isabella is known for in history took place in this year: the end of the Reconquista, the patronage of Christopher Columbus, and the intensification of the Inquisition.
 
Spanning seven centuries, a lengthy war known as the Reconquista was fought by the Iberian monarchs, who were attempting to regain control of the region and force the Muslims out.  For the last 200 of these years, the Emirate of Granada remained the final stronghold of the Muslim dynasties on the Iberian Peninsula. Isabella and Ferdinand continued the war and led a determined raid into the kingdom starting in 1482.  Isabella often took it upon herself to rally her soldiers by praying in the middle of the battlefield, and even built her stronghold outside the city of Granada in the shape of a cross, believing she was doing God's will.  Eventually Isabella's forces were victorious and she signed the Treaty of Granada, ending the Reconquista after 700 years of fighting.
 
Earlier in her reign, Isabella had been approached by a young explorer by the name of Christopher Columbus, who sought funding for a new expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west.  Her advisors judged his plan impractical and believed that his proposed distance to Asia was much too short to be possible.  However, instead of turning him out as Portugal had done, Isabella gave him a small annual allowance and free lodging in all her cities.  He continued to try and sell his plan to the monarchs, and they continued to decline.
 
Upon returning from Granada, Isabella was again approached by Christopher Columbus.  On the advice of her confessor, Isabella this time firmly turned him down.  As Columbus was leaving Córdoba in despair, Ferdinand quickly convinced Isabella to change her mind.  She sent a royal guard to fetch him and began to draw up plans for funding.  Columbus left on his fateful voyage on August 3, 1492, and landed in America on October 12. Isabella and Ferdinand's patronage of the intrepid explorer began Spain's Golden Age of exploration and colonization.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain (or more succinctly, the Spanish Inquisition) was established in 1478 by Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in Castile and Aragon, and to replace the Medieval Inquisition currently under Papal control.  However, in 1492, it took a turn for the worse.
 
A Dominican friar, Tomás de Torquemada became the first Inquisitor General and pushed the two monarchs to pursue a more active policy of religious unity.  While Isabella was loathe to take harsh measures against the Jews in her kingdom (for purely economic reasons), Torquemada was able to convince Ferdinand and through him, Isabella.  The Alhambra Decree was signed on March 31, 1492, calling for the forced expulsion of the Jews. About 200,000 Jews immediately left Spain while  some others converted, but this latter group fell under strict scrutiny of the Inquisition.
 
The Muslims in the Granada region, who had originally been granted religious freedoms, were pressured to convert.  After many Muslims revolted, a policy was enacted to force conversion or expulsion, much like with the Jews.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Isabella continued to stabilize her growing empire throughout her reign, and worked to link her children with other European nations, hoping to avoid another succession war similar to her own.  She strived to finally unite the Iberian Peninsula under one crown. She married her eldest son to an Austrian Archduchess, establishing a link to the Habsburgs, and her eldest daughter to Manual I of Portugal. However, Isabella's plans were laid to waste when both children died soon after and the crown passed to her third daughter, Joanna the Mad. Joanna married Philip of Burgundy and became the last Trastámaran monarch.   After her, the crown passed to the Habsburgs.
 
Isabella died in 1504 and was entombed in the Royal Chapel of Granada.]=];
TEXT_8 = [=[Under Isabella, Spain was united, the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula concluded, and the power of the region centralized.  She also laid the groundwork for the most dominant military machine in the next century (The Armada), reformed the Spanish church, and led the Spanish expansions into the new American colonies.  Although many criticize her role in the Inquisition and in the persecution of Jews and Muslims, others are currently campaigning to have the late Queen canonized as a Saint in the Catholic Church.  Regardless of her questionable acts persecuting others' religious beliefs, Isabella remains one of the most influential and significant monarchs of Spain.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Queen of Castile and Leon]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[Queen Consort of Aragon, Majorca, Naples, and Valencia]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=4;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
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DiploBalance=3;
WarmongerHate=6;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=7;
Loyalty=5;
Neediness=7;
Forgiveness=6;
Chattiness=5;
Meanness=4;
PortraitIndex=1;
IconAtlas="ISABELLA_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="B685D5DE7CCA4E7581B42F60754E6330";};
 
LEADER_PACHACUTI={
Description=[=[Pachacuti]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_PACHACUTI_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Pachacuti Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[During the 2000 Presidential elections of Peru, candidate Alejandro Toledo was nicknamed Pachacuti.
 
Pachacuti is sometimes referred to as the Napoleon of the Andes, a testament to his military prowess.
 
Pachacuti was a poet and author of the Sacred Hymns of the Situa.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Ascension to the Throne]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Creation of an Empire]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Judgement of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c.1410 - 1471 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Pachacuti]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Inca]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Pachacuti was the ninth ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco, who during his reign expanded the tiny kingdom into an expansive empire - Tawantinsuyu. Pachacuti's Incan Empire stretched from modern-day Chile to Ecuador, including most of Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina, and laid the foundation for an even larger Incan Empire to come.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Pachacuti was the son of the Inca Virococha, second in line for the throne after his older brother Urco.  The Kingdom of Cusco, at this point, was rather small and continuously threatened by the neighboring Chancas tribe. Not much is known of Pachacuti's early life, that is until he got a chance to impress his father during one of the Chancas' invasions. While his father and brother fled the battlefield, Pachacuti rallied the remaining army and not only won the day, but squashed the Chancas so thoroughly that stories were told of how the very earth itself rose up to fight for him. Pachacuti, "The Earth Shaker", was named the new crown prince and even joint ruler of Cusco.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[In 1438, Pachacuti became the sole ruler of the kingdom when his father died, and he launched an almost immediate series of successful invasions into the neighboring kingdoms.  His new empire stretched from Ecuador to Chile and became one of the most formidable kingdoms in South America.
 
While many kingdoms were gained through conquest, Pachacuti also employed a more devious tactic to acquire new regions. First he would send spies out to areas which interested him, gaining intelligence on wealth and military might.  If intrigued, he would invite the leaders of these lands to submit peacefully, extolling the virtues of living under Incan rule.  Many accepted (not wanting to repeat the fate of the Chancas) and sent their children to live in Cusco, where they were educated under Incan law. They were then indoctrinated and married into the Incan nobility before being sent back to rule their original lands, ensuring the expansion of and continued peace in the empire.
 
To keep his new land in order, he established four provinces, each controlled by a local governor who ran the day to day affairs. He also created a separate branch of power for both the priesthood and army, forming one of the first systems of checks and balances.  Cusco itself was rebuilt to serve as an Imperial Capital City, and each province had its own sector dedicated in the city.  During this time he also constructed the famed Machu Picchu, believed now to be a mountain estate built for his personal use.
 
After his death in 1471, Pachacuti's younger son Tupac became the next emperor of the Incan Empire, the elder Amaru passed over for not being a warrior like his father.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Pachacuti is viewed in Peru as a national hero, and many of the monuments he constructed around the empire still stand.  While he was well known for his political and military abilities, he wasn't the most benevolent ruler.  To ensure the continuation of his empire, he displaced hundreds of thousands of people, relocating them about the empire as he saw fit.  Despite any faults, Pachacuti began the Incans largest era of conquest, expanding their empire until it dominated nearly all of the known, inhabited South America.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Sapa Inca]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=7;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=3;
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DiploBalance=4;
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Chattiness=7;
Meanness=4;
IconAtlas="PACHACUTI_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="B685D5DE7CCA4E7581B42F60754E6330";};
 
LEADER_KAMEHAMEHA={
Description=[=[Kamehameha]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_KAMEHAMEHA_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Kamehameha Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Many buildings and foundations have been named in Kamehameha's honor, such as the Kamahameha Schools, Kamehameha Day, and the Royal Order of Kamehameha I.
 
Akira Toriyama, the creator of the popular manga Dragonball, named Goku's attack in Kamehameha's honor, after a visit to Hawai'i.
 
Kamehameha is the only royal monarch to ever be featured on a US coin.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life, One of Prophecy]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[First Stop, the Big Island]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[More Prophecis, More Conquering]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[The Napoleon of the Pacific]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Death of a Legend]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgement of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 1758 - 1819 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Kamehameha I]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Polynesia]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[One of the most respected leaders in Hawaiian history, Kamehameha I was the first man to unify all the Hawaiian Islands, establishing the independent Kingdom of Hawai'i.  His birth and early actions in life fulfilled many ancient Hawaiian prophecies, and he became one of the greatest warriors in recorded Hawaiian history.  Beyond his military prowess, Kamehameha was also a great statesman, and established important wartime edicts which have become the basis for many humanitarian laws around the world.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Ancient legend held that one day a great king would be born who would unite the whole of the Hawaiian Islands, and a flame across the heavens would herald his coming.  In 1758, Hailey's comet streaked across the sky of Hawai'i - many accounts state that Kamehameha was born shortly thereafter.  Known originally as Pai'ea (the "hard-shelled crab"), Kamehameha was born to Chief Keōua Nui of the Big Island.  Keōua was but one of many lesser chiefs on the island, which had been split into multiple districts during a succession war in the previous generation. Alapa'inuiakauaua, a rival chief in the area, had reclaimed much of the island for himself, and was the defacto ruler.
 
At news of Pai'ea's birth Alapa'i became alarmed, for the great king of legend was also known in other records as the "killer of chiefs" - a unified Hawai'i wouldn't need tribal chiefs any longer. Alapa'i ordered the child slain.  Keōua, however, was well aware of his child's ominous birth and hid him away with another noble family.
 
For five years Pai'ea lived in secret, until Alapa'i (for reasons unknown) invited the child to return to the court under his protection.  During this time at the court, Pai'ea learned the kingly disciplines of diplomacy and war and earned his more famous name, Kamehameha, meaning "the lonely one".]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[After Alapa'i's death, Kamehameha became an aide in the new chief's court.  This lasted until 1782, when the kingship moved on to a new ruler and Kamehameha was promoted to an important religious position.  With this new found power, Kamehameha began to build himself a support base among the lesser chiefs of the Kona district of the Big Island.  Eventually garnering the support of five chiefs, Kamehameha challenged the local court.  At the battle of Moku'ohai, Kamehameha's forces defeated the ruling chief and Kamehameha became the new ruler of the Kohala, Kona, and Hamakua districts.
 
From here, Kamehameha successfully conquered the neighboring district of Puna in 1790, but soon had to face an uprising in Ka'u led by rival Keōua Kuahu'ula. Ever a religious man, Kamehameha constructed a large temple in a bid to gain the favor of his gods and the divine blessing to quash the rebellion.  In 1791 the temple was finished, and Kamehamea invited Keōua to meet with him.  Accounts differ on exactly what happened at that fateful meeting on the beach, but in the end Keōua was killed by musket fire and Kamehameha became the King of all the Big Island.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Kamehameha was driven to unite more than just the Big Island - he had his sights on ruling all of the Hawaiian Islands under one banner.  Adding fuel to his wish was another ancient legend, one which he was purported to have fulfilled.  On the Big Island a massive boulder was placed by the gods - the 3,000 pound Naha Stone.  Legend stated that a mighty warrior would emerge one day who could lift it, and he would be known as the great king and unifier of all the islands.  At age 14, Kamehameha was recorded as the only person to accomplish this feat.  Confident from his round of victories and multiple fulfilled prophecies, he began to lay the plans for the rest of the islands.
 
In a happy coincidence for Kamehameha, British and American traders began to arrive on the island and gladly sold him guns and ammunition. With his technologically superior weapons, he quickly moved to take Maui and O'ahu in 1795.  With only 10,000 soldiers he quickly decimated Maui's forces and moved onto O'ahu.  He met with fierce resistance at the cliffs of Pali (mostly from a defected commander), but in the end he defeated the enemy soldiers, driving many over the deadly cliff's edge.
 
Only two islands remained now - the western islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau.   From his capital at Honolulu, he constructed a massive warship and attempted his first invasion of Kaua'i in 1796.  A rebellion on the Big Island, led by his brother, forced him to return and reassign his forces.  Not easily foiled, he tried again to take Kaua'i in 1803, but this time a deadly disease broke out among his men.  Tired of his setbacks, Kamehameha then constructed the largest armada in Hawaiian history, filled with European schooners, massive war canoes, and deadly cannon.  The chief of Kaua'i, Kaumuali'i, viewed the approaching armada with perhaps a twinge of trepidation, and decided he'd have better luck of survival with negotiation.  In 1810 Kuamuali'i became a vassal of Kamehameha, who then became the sole ruling power in all of Hawai'i.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Not just a conquering war hero, Kamehameha immediately went to work on improving life on the islands and solidifying the unification.  He created a single legal system, established taxes, and opened official trade with Europe and the United States.  Kamehameha also created the basis for Hawai'i's eventual state constitution, the Law of the Splintered Paddle (the Mamalahoe Kanawai). This law had its humble beginnings during one of Kamehameha's early military engagements.  During a raid, Kamehameha caught his foot under a rock and was ambushed by two local fishermen, who were quite fearful of the legendary warrior.  Scared that he would kill them, they smacked him in the head with their canoe paddle, cracking it in half. While he was stunned, they ran and left him for dead.  Twelve years later, the two fishermen were found and brought to justice; at least, they thought they were. Instead, Kamehameha apologized for attacking innocents and gave the two men gifts of land, proclaiming that all noncombatants would be protected during war from here out. His Splintered Paddle law has since influenced many later humanitarian laws of war around the world.
 
During his reign, he also managed to keep Hawai'i an independent nation while all other Polynesian islands were swallowed by hungry colonial powers.  This legacy of independence earned him the nickname, the "Napoleon of the Pacific".]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[On May 8, 1819 Kamehameha died a respected king, legendary warrior, and father of seven children.  In the sacred custom of the Hawaiian religion, his body was hidden by his closest friends so that none may know of its location and steal his power, or mana, for personal use.  The site of his burial still remains a mystery to this day.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[Kamehameha remains one of the most important people in Hawaiian history and one of its most respected leaders.  He abolished the practice of human sacrifice, protected the innocents during war, and established one of the few independent nations in all of Polynesia.  Whether his birth was divinely inspired or not, none can argue that he fulfilled the role of the great king foretold by ancient prophecy centuries ago.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King of the Hawaiian Islands]=];};
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VictoryCompetitiveness=3;
WonderCompetitiveness=3;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=5;
Boldness=5;
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DoFWillingness=7;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=4;
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IconAtlas="KAMEHAMEHA_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="ECF7C605BA114CAC8D80D71306AAC471";};
 
LEADER_HARALD={
Description=[=[Harald Bluetooth]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_HARALD_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Harald Bluetooth Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The origins of Harald's assumed name, Bluetooth, are still debated to this day. The most popular theory is that he may have had one or more dead teeth, which turned black.  The other, that his affinity for eating blueberries caused his teeth to turn blue, is the stuff of internet lore.
 
Created by Swedish telecommunications firm Ericsson in 1994, the Bluetooth wireless standard was named after Harald Bluetooth. The Bluetooth logo designed by Ericsson is actually a combination of the runes Hagall and Bjarkan, forming the initials of Harald Bluetooth.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Uniting Denmark]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Construction Projects]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Conversion to Christianity]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgement of History]=];
LIVED = [=[~920 AD -  986]=];
NAME = [=[Harald Bluetooth]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Denmark]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson was King of Denmark for nearly 30 years beginning in approximately 958 AD. During his reign, Bluetooth united the outlying tribes of Denmark and defended his people from the incursions of Norway and Germany, while overseeing the completion of vast construction projects that strengthened the defenses of his nation. Bluetooth is equally known for casting off the Norse pagan traditions of his forbearers, becoming a devout Christian who strove to peacefully convert the people of Denmark during his rule.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Although the precise date of Bluetooth's birth is unknown, based on records of his accomplishments while serving as king, it's assumed he was born sometime around 920 AD. The son of King Gorm the Old and Queen Thyra Dannebod, Bluetooth was a born and raised Viking in the truest sense. Throughout his early years, Bluetooth and his brother Canute (also known as Knud) set sail to pillage and plunder, returning to their father with the spoils of war. It is believed that Canute, the first born and favored son of Gorm, was killed in England while raiding near Ireland. Canute's death left Bluetooth as the sole heir to the throne of Denmark.  With the death of Gorm in 958 AD, Bluetooth took up the throne and proved to be a capable leader both on and off the battlefield.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Shortly after the death of his father, Bluetooth consolidated his power and quickly moved to unite the remaining discordant tribes of Denmark under one rule. Although his father Gorm is considered the first true King of Denmark, during his rule, the kingdom did not encompass the entire region, and independent tribes remained. Under Bluetooth, the entirety of Denmark, as well as parts of Norway and Sweden, fell under his rule. For a time, Bluetooth would even claim the title of King of Norway, although the extent of his authority there remains questionable.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Bluetooth commissioned a number of important construction projects throughout Denmark during his reign. In this time, "Runestones" were a common form of monument used to honor the dead and acknowledge their deeds, and Bluetooth saw fit to honor his parents in this way. Commissioning a second Jelling Stone - runestones found in the town of Jelling, Denmark-  to memorialize his parents, Bluetooth created what is today considered the most well- known example of runic inscriptions in Denmark. Featuring an easily distinguished image of Christ on the cross, the Jelling Stone erected by Bluetooth is often referred to as the "Baptism Certificate of Denmark," signifying the end of the polytheistic traditions followed by much of the Danish population.
 
Aside from the Jelling Stones, Bluetooth was also responsible for the development of a series of six Viking ring fortresses, known as the "Trelleborg." After losing control of several outlying territories to various Germanic forces, Bluetooth ordered the construction of these forts in strategic locations across Denmark in response. Capable of housing up to 500 Danish warriors, these strongholds succeeded in warding off further losses and secured the interior of Denmark from future incursions.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Bluetooth's conversion to Christianity in approximately 960 AD is a point of contention among many modern historians, mainly due to variations in the story of how his conversion came to pass. The two most notable accounts of the event come to us from contemporary historians Widukind of Corvey and Adam of Bremen. Widukind wrote that Bluetooth was converted by a cleric known simply as "Poppa," who was either a guest of the court or a missionary who found his way to Denmark. Adam of Bremen (whose account was written some 100 years later) believed that Bluetooth had been converted forcibly by Otto I of Germany following a defeat in battle.
 
Regardless of how his conversion came to be, what we can say with certainty is that Harald became a devoted follower of Christianity, not only ensuring that Christian imagery was included on the Jelling Stone commemorating his parents, but also going so far as to remove his father's body from its traditional Viking burial mound and having it reburied under the church constructed by Bluetooth, where the Jelling Stones still stand today.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[King Harald Bluetooth is generally viewed today as a just and wise king, having ruled Denmark for 30 some- odd years. He maintained the sovereignty of his country against the influences of several neighboring empires (despite some setbacks) while at the same time shaping the culture of his people for centuries to come. In the end, Bluetooth's own son, Sweyn, would rebel against him, forcing him to flee Denmark. After Bluetooth's death in 986 AD, Sweyn Forkbeard would take the throne and shape a notable legacy of his own.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King of Denmark]=];
TITLES_2 = [=[King of Norway]=];};
ArtDefineTag="Denmark_Bluetooth_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=3;
WonderCompetitiveness=3;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=5;
Boldness=7;
DiploBalance=4;
WarmongerHate=4;
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DoFWillingness=5;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=4;
Forgiveness=5;
Chattiness=4;
Meanness=6;
IconAtlas="HARALD_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="B3030D39C0D84BC791B17AD1CAF585AB";};
 
LEADER_SEJONG={
Description=[=[Sejong]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_SEJONG_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Sejong Factoids]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[The Republic of Korea Navy employs a class of guided missile destroyers known as "King Sejong the Great", developed under the "Korean Destroyer eXperimental (KDX)" program.
 
The likeness of King Sejong the Great appears in Korean currency on the 10,000 Won note.
 
A Korean television drama produced in 2008, entitled "Daewang Sejong," chronicled the life of Sejong the Great during his reign.
 
Designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2009, King Sejong's tomb, known as Yeongneung, is located in Gyeonggi-do in present-day South Korea.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Life]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Language, Literature, and Science]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[The Magnanimous Leader]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Law and the Criminal Justice System]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Military Advancements]=];
HEADING_7 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[1397 - 1450 AD]=];
NAME = [=[Sejong the Great]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Korea]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Sejong Daewang, known to history as "Sejong the Great," was the fourth king of the Choson Dynasty of Korea, ruling from 1418 until his death in 1450. Considered by many to be the greatest king in Korean history, Sejong is known for his remarkable appreciation and respect for human life, adopting numerous civic and social policies to improve the well-being of his people. Sejong also encouraged advances in science and technology and is credited with the creation of the Korean written language, Hunminjeongeum, known today as "Hangul."]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Born on May 7th, 1397, Sejong was the third son of King Taejong of the Choson Dynasty. Said to have been an exceptional student and avid reader at an early age, Sejong was named Crown Prince at age 16. At age 21, Sejong ascended to the throne, and his impact on Korean life and the kingdom's political structure would be immediate.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Sejong is perhaps most famously known for his introduction of the Korean written language, Hangul.  The "Chiphyonjon," or "Hall of Worthies," established in 1420, was a collective of noted scholars selected by the king himself. Initially created as an institute of research, the Chiphyonjon would eventually be tasked with the creation of a Korean alphabet to aid the common people in their understanding of the Korean language.  Until this time, Korea had relied on the Chinese "Hanja" script, incorporated into the Korean dialect, for all written works. However, this script was not widely understood by the masses, and Sejong sought to change this trend of illiteracy.
 
Originally known as "Hunminjeongeum," literally meaning "The Correct Sounds for the Instruction of the People," this native Korean script would usher in a new era of literacy and understanding for the common citizens of Korea. First published in 1446, it would be several years before the new script found wide acceptance. To this day, October 9th, the original date of publication, is celebrated as "Hangul Day" throughout South Korea.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Sejong's legacy is one of great benevolence, led by his strong belief that all people were worthy of his respect, not only the subjects within his kingdom, but even the so-called "barbarian tribes" scattered throughout Asia. The standard by which he measured his own success as a leader was the happiness and prosperity of his people, their welfare being his highest priority. As king, Sejong would provide surplus food supplies to the poor and elderly, and frequently abolished taxes on farmers and occasionally entire provinces that had experienced hardships due to weather or poor crop yields. Sejong was also known for inviting the elderly to banquets in their honor, regardless of the rank or social status of those attending.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[Sejong mandated a number of improvements to the Korean justice system in order to provide fair trials and reasonable punishments for the convicted. Sejong believed it was unjust to hold citizens accountable for violating the law without ensuring they were provided a means to understand the laws they had broken. Despite the reluctance of his ministers, Sejong ordered the entirety of the Korean legal code be put on public display, for all to see.
 
Sejong also opposed the death penalty, and informed judges that it was not to be used unless absolutely necessary. His implementation of "The Law of Three Appeals" allowed the accused up to three appeals to the king, ensuring they were provided with an opportunity to speak on their own behalf.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Under Sejong, Korea began the development of various early gunpowder weapons, most famously the "Hwach'a," or "Fire Vehicle." Specifically designed as an anti-infantry weapon, the Hwach'a was a wheeled platform capable of launching dozens of gunpowder-propelled arrows across the battlefield. Although limited in use during Sejong's time, the Hwach'a would become a crucial defensive weapon throughout the Korean peninsula for centuries to come. During the Battle of Haengju in 1593, three thousand Korean soldiers repelled an invading Japanese force of over 30,000 by successfully utilizing the Hwach'a, inflicting over 10,000 casualities.]=];
TEXT_7 = [=[In old age, Sejong is said to have continued his involvement in daily routines and government affairs, despite going blind and developing diabetes, which would be the eventual cause of his death on May 18, 1450. Sejong is remembered in history for his wise, noble, and compassionate leadership that spurred amazing advances in science and technology, and led to a revolution in the cultural development of the Korean people for centuries to come.]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[King of the Choson Dynasty]=];};
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WonderCompetitiveness=6;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
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WarmongerHate=4;
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DoFWillingness=7;
Loyalty=7;
Neediness=6;
Forgiveness=7;
Chattiness=4;
Meanness=4;
IconAtlas="SEJONG_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="112C22B2530842B6B734171CCAB3037B";};
 
LEADER_NEBUCHADNEZZAR={
Description=[=[Nebuchadnezzar II]=];
Civilopedia="TXT_KEY_LEADER_NEBUCHADNEZZAR_PEDIA";
CivilopediaTag={
FACTOID_HEADING = [=[Nebuchadnezzar II Factoid]=];
FACTOID_TEXT = [=[Nebuchadnezzar's name translates roughly as "Oh god Nabu, preserve my firstborn son" in the Akkadian language.]=];
HEADING_1 = [=[History]=];
HEADING_2 = [=[Early Years]=];
HEADING_3 = [=[Upon Assuming Power]=];
HEADING_4 = [=[Diplomacy]=];
HEADING_5 = [=[Domestic Policies]=];
HEADING_6 = [=[Judgment of History]=];
LIVED = [=[c. 634 - 562 BC]=];
NAME = [=[Nebuchadnezzar II]=];
SUBTITLE = [=[Leader of Babylon]=];
TEXT_1 = [=[Nebuchadnezzar II was king of Babylon for some 43 years (605-562 BC). He is best known for his military conquests and his restoration of the city of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar II also figures prominently in the Bible for the conquest of Judah and the forced relocation of many Israelites to Babylon.]=];
TEXT_2 = [=[Nebuchadnezzar (which is sometimes spelled "Nebuchadrezzar") was the oldest son of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Chaldean empire, who had done much to make Babylon into an imperial power. He served under his father in several military campaigns, and in 606 BC he commanded an army which destroyed an Egyptian army at Carchemish, securing for Babylon the control of Syria.]=];
TEXT_3 = [=[Upon his father's death in 605, Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon and assumed the throne. He resumed campaigning shortly thereafter, when he conquered a number of smaller states including Judah. He continued his conquests until 600, when, possibly over-extended, he lost badly to an Egyptian army. Taking advantage of Babylon's disarray, Judah and several other subject states revolted.
 
It took Nebuchadnezzar some two years to regroup and rebuild his armies, but by 598 he was on the march again, and in 597 he occupied Jerusalem, deposing the Judaian king Jehoiachin and transporting him and other prominent citizens to captivity in Babylon (most likely as hostages against further Jewish rebellions). He continued his expansionist military campaigns for the rest of his reign, clashing more or less successfully with the other powers in the Eastern Mediterranean, Asia Minor and the Middle East.]=];
TEXT_4 = [=[Not just a warlord, Nebuchadnezzar was also active diplomatically, sending and receiving ambassadors from nearby kingdoms. He is known to have sent an ambassador to mediate in a conflict between the Medes and the Lydians in Asia Minor.]=];
TEXT_5 = [=[When not campaigning, Nebuchadnezzar spent much of his energy in rebuilding Babylon and improving its fortifications. He is known to have rebuilt many temples, paved roads, cut canals, and constructed a moat and wall around the city. He is also credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which according to legend he built to please his wife who was pining for the hills of her home in Media.]=];
TEXT_6 = [=[Despite his capture of Judah and relocation of the Israelites, Nebuchadnezzar appears in a mostly favorable light in the Bible. He is credited for protecting Jewish prophets and citizens from persecution; the prophet Jeremiah apparently believed that Nebuchadnezzar was God's appointed instrument of vengeance against evil-doers.
Nebuchadnezzar II died in Babylon in 562 BC. He is remembered as a successful military leader who increased the size of his empire and who strengthened and improved the capital city of Babylon, and who treated his subject people well. By all measures he earned his title of "Nebuchadnezzar the Great."]=];
TITLES_1 = [=[Nebuchadnezzar II]=];};
ArtDefineTag="NEBUCHADNEZZAR_Scene.xml";
VictoryCompetitiveness=6;
WonderCompetitiveness=8;
MinorCivCompetitiveness=4;
Boldness=5;
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WarmongerHate=4;
DenounceWillingness=6;
DoFWillingness=5;
Loyalty=4;
Neediness=3;
Forgiveness=3;
Chattiness=6;
Meanness=7;
IconAtlas="NEB_LEADER_ATLAS";
PackageID="7459BA32576444AE8E9501AD0E0EFD48";};
 
}
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