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--[Field]                              [Type]
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MINOR_CIV_WARSAW={
Description=[=[Warsaw]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Located along the banks of the Vistula River, the area covered by present day Warsaw has been inhabited for roughly 14,000 years. The first fortified settlement at the site was the town of Bródno, built in the 9th century AD, followed by the town of Jazdów in the 12th century. Both of these towns were raided and razed, allowing Prince Boleslaw II of Masovia to establish a small fishing village by the name of Warszowa on the site in 1300. The early years of the city were mostly quiet and calm, the majority of the population working as small craftsman or dealing in local trade.
 
However the 16th and 17th centuries brought drastic changes to the little city. Civil unrest began to develop in Warsaw, as the economic discrepancies between the tradesman and nobility grew to even greater heights, and the occasional peasant revolt broke out in the city. On a happier note, Warsaw became the capital of the Polish Commonwealth in 1596 with the crowning of the new King Sigismund III Vasa. The city grew to over 14,000 people and expanded well past its old, fortified walls. A Swedish invasion ravaged the city in 1655, but this only left more room for the wealthy and nobility to rebuild, establishing new private districts in the wake of the old; many of these magnificent Baroque residences survived until World War II.
 
In 1700 the city once again took a turn for the worse when the Great Northern War broke out. Two years into the war the city was captured by Swedish forces and suffered heavily under their occupation. In 1705 Saxon-Russian troops laid siege to the city for two years, up through the end of the war. Much of Warsaw's economy was destroyed as it was obliged to pay heavy contributions to the war effort, and the city fell under the shadow of the Russians.
 
Much of Warsaw began to change after this, as it developed into a capitalistic and enlightened city. Museums, libraries, and factories were built, and the middle class of merchants, industrialists, and financers greatly expanded; by 1750 Warsaw had over 115,000 people living within its borders. These large changes in the makeup of the population also brought about new unrest. In 1794 the Warsaw Uprising broke out, an insurrection supported by the local army to overthrow the Russian control of the city. Russian soldiers reached the capital a few months later and defeated the Polish forces in a matter of hours. The exact death toll of the Uprising is unknown, but it is estimated that the Russian troops slaughtered at least 20,000 civilians that day.
 
Warsaw remained under Russian control for the next 120 years, its citizens revolting two more times in the November and January Uprisings. After World War I, the independent nation of Poland was created and Warsaw was named as its capital. Russian forces however returned for the city in 1920 and the massive Battle of Warsaw was fought along the eastern outskirts of the city. The Polish troops managed to defeat the Red Army and are credited not only with saving the country from the Soviets, but also with saving all of Central Europe from the brunt of Communism (for the time being).
 
Unfortunately, during World War II, the city fell to the Nazis and its Jewish inhabitants - almost 30% of the population - were herded out of the city and exterminated. Faced with various uprisings from the Polish people and the encroaching Red Army, the Nazis sought to completely demolish Warsaw, razing 85% of the buildings to the ground (including the historic old mansions and the royal palace).  The ruins of the city were liberated on January 17, 1945.  It is here that the city earned its nickname "The Phoenix City" as a grand effort was made to rebuild the city. Many of the original streets and buildings were successfully restored and in 1980 the reclaimed historic center was inscribed onto UNESCO's World Heritage list.  In 2004 Poland joined the European Union, and Warsaw has begun to see its biggest economic boom of its history.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BUDAPEST={
Description=[=[Budapest]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Budapest is the capital of Hungary. Known historically as "the Queen of the Danube," Budapest is the political and cultural center of the country and an important economic and industrial hub in Central Europe.  While inhabited from the Neolithic Period (c.9500 BC), the first recorded settlement in the region of modern-day Budapest was the Celtic city of Ak-Ink, later occupied by the Romans and renamed to Aquincum in the 2nd century AD. Its strategic position along the Danube River made Aquincum a desirable holding for both Rome and its enemies alike.
 
At the end of the 9th century AD, a group of Hungarians led by Árpád (the second Grand Prince of the Magyars) settled in the area around Aquincum and officially founded the Kingdom of Hungary a hundred years later. While the city grew and prospered, little was done to reinforce or extend the early Roman fortifications, and a Tatar invasion in the 13th century showed the Hungarians that it can be very difficult indeed to hold a city on the open plains. After the defeat, King Béla IV of Hungary constructed reinforced stone walls around the city and even moved his own palace to the protected, hilled town of Buda, located on the outskirts of Aquincum. In 1361 Aquincum/Buda became the capital of Hungary.
 
The Italian Renaissance greatly influenced the cultural role of Buda, when King Matthias Corvinus built his library there in the 15th century, housing one of Europe's greatest collections of historical, philosophical, and scientific works. Only the Vatican's library rivaled it for holdings and size. This explosive period of cultural growth slammed to a halt when the Turks pillaged the city in 1526, besieged and captured it in 1541, and occupied it for the next 140 years.  In 1686 the city was successfully retaken by Charles V and incorporated into the Habsburg Empire. Unfortunately, the city was largely destroyed during the subsequent battle.
 
The nineteenth century was dominated by the Hungarians' struggle for independence from the Habsburgs until the Reconciliation of 1867, which created the new dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary and placed Buda as the capital for both these monarchies.  In 1873 Buda, Pest, and Óbuda (ancient Buda) were officially merged into the modern city of Budapest, starting a golden age of economic and cultural growth.
 
Budapest's happy times ended with World War I and the collapse of the Austria-Hungarian Empire. During World War II the city sustained heavy damage from British and American air raids and was besieged during the Battle of Budapest in 1945. Major damage was afflicted upon the city from the attacking Soviet troops, and tens of thousands of civilians were killed. The communist government of the country did little to rebuild the city after the war's end, and systematically gutted and destroyed many of the surviving historic buildings in the city.
 
In 1956 a peaceful student demonstration in Budapest led to the start of the Hungarian Revolution when State Security Police fired upon the crowd. The government was overthrown, but the USSR sent a regiment of tanks to Budapest and crushed the revolt and restored the Communist Party to power. The last Soviet troops left Budapest in 1991 as Hungary began the transition to a free society. For the rest of the century, work was done to repair much of the wartime damage and to preserve and rebuild the remaining historic locations. Despite these beginnings of growth and construction, the city has begun recently experiencing a sharp decrease in population as its inhabitants flee to the neighboring Pest county.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_GENEVA={
Description=[=[Geneva]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The original site of the city lay upon a hill overlooking a lake, settled sometime during the Paleolithic Period and later by a tribe of Ligurian and pre-Celtic peoples. Around 500 BC Geneva became a fortified town inhabited by the Celts before it was taken by the Romans in 121 BC. Ownership of the city continued to flip between the warring neighboring states, before landing in the hands of the German Emperor in 1033 AD. By this time Geneva had become an important ecclesiastical seat, with the bishop of the city a direct vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor as a territorially vested prince.
 
Control of Geneva was contested between the nearby Savoy dukes and the Catholic bishop for the next five centuries. When the last ruling bishop fled the city in 1533, the citizens of Geneva made a risky move in an attempt to rid themselves of both the Catholic rule and the Savoyards - the city allied itself with the Protestant state of Bern and declared themselves a Protestant sovereignty in 1536. While this did give power back to the people of Geneva, it also alienated the city from the surrounding Catholic Swiss population for generations.  The Protestant reformationist John Calvin came to reside in the city shortly thereafter in 1536 and stayed for the next thirty years until his death, becoming a new spiritual leader in the absence of the bishop. The city remained a stronghold of the Protestant faith for many years to come, although a large section of the historic section reverted back to Catholicism by the early 17th century.
 
Geneva was briefly annexed by France during the French Revolution, but in 1814 it was admitted into the Swiss Confederation at the Congress of Vienna, its jurisdiction expanded to cover the fifteen neighboring Savoyard parishes. The Congress expressly provided that these Catholic Savoyard parishes would be protected from religious persecution and, in return, guaranteed the city's own neutrality. Tensions continued to run high between the Catholics and Protestants until 1907 when Geneva passed a law mandating the official separation of Church and State - no religious body has received aid from a state or municipal power since.
 
After World War I Geneva became the seat of the League of Nations in 1919, giving it the status of "the international city". Its new reputation continued after World War II when the European headquarters of the United Nations was seated in the city, bringing along with it numerous other international bodies and organizations. Tourism and business have thrived in the city since.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_VENICE={
Description=[=[Venice]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The city of Venice stretches across 118 small islands in the saltwater Venetian Lagoon, between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers. No exact date is known for the founding of Venice, but some archeological evidence shows that the city's original citizens may have been Roman refugees fleeing the Germanic invasions and the Huns. As the centuries passed, the originally small settlement began to spread across the islands, its inhabitants using the small rivulets and canals as their roads.  The city fell under Byzantine rule early in its life.  In the late 700's AD the ducal seat was moved to Venice and a basilica dedicated to St. Mark the Evangelist was built, heralding the birth of the "Queen of the Adriatic". The city eventually gained its independence from the Byzantines and became an autonomous city-state.
 
The city flourished as a trade center between Western Europe and the rest of the world, its strategic location making its commercial and naval power unmatched in the Adriatic. Venice began to expand outside of the islands as it seized cities along the eastern shores of the sea, later extending its holdings as far west as the Adda River in mainland Italy. It soon came to control most of the islands in the Aegean Sea, including Cyprus and Crete, and became a major power in the Near East.  While it did take most of these cities and regions by force, the people of its empire quickly rallied to Venice's aid whenever she was threatened by invaders, as the city-state actively improved the standards of living in all these territories.
 
Venice's dominance was further secured in 1204 when it sacked the city of Constantinople, securing the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Considerable wealth was brought back to the city, and combined with its already formidable riches from trade, made Venice the wealthiest city in all of Europe. The city also became known as a hub for culture, music, and the arts, and was especially famous for its operatic composers.  Venice can also lay claim to the invention of the paperback book, and by 1492 was the printing capital of the world.
 
The glory days for Venice couldn't last, and a war with the Ottoman Empire cost the city most of its eastern Mediterranean holdings, including Constantinople. Shortly thereafter Christopher Columbus discovered the New World and Portugal found a sea route to India, peacefully destroying Venice's trade route monopoly where all others had failed. In the late 1500's the city was ravaged by the Black Death, which killed over 50,000 people in three years, a third of its total population.
 
On May 12, 1797, Napoleon conquered Venice and ended over 1,000 years of the Republic's independence. Venice then became the property of Austria when Napoleon signed it over later that year. A revolt in the 1800's attempted to restore independence to the Republic of Venice, but in 1866 it became a part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.
 
The current threat to the city comes not from war or encroachment upon its trade economy, but rather from the very environment around it - the city has slowly been sinking into the sea since artesian wells were dug into the lagoon bed in the early 20th century.  The sinking has slowed dramatically as measures are being taken to preserve the city, but new plans are being put in place to either build an inflatable bulkhead (to stop rising tidal waters) or to physically raise the city itself by restoring the seabed damaged by the wells.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Venice]=];
Adjective=[=[Venetian]=];
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MINOR_CIV_GENOA={
Description=[=[Genoa]=];
Civilopedia=[=[While no exact date is known for the founding of Genoa, the city's history goes back to ancient times as a settlement founded by the Ligurian people. An excavated cemetery from the 6th century BC shows that the city was once occupied by the Greeks, but it was almost certain to have been established long before this. Under the Romans it was a flourishing trade junction, military port, and market town but it was quickly invaded and pillaged by the Ostrogoths after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. For the next several centuries, Genoa remained a small, obscure fishing center, but it used this time to build up a fleet of merchant ships which would come to dominate the trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea.
 
In the 10th century AD Genoa gained independence from the local feudatories as one of the city-state "Maritime Republics", having its own lord who reported directly to the Holy Roman Emperor. Most of the actual power in the city was wielded not by this Bishop-President, but by consuls elected by the popular assembly. Genoa's shipbuilding and banking industries helped the young republic to flourish, and Genoa began to expand its borders and establish colonies throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa.
 
Genoa's prosperity was brought to an end when a Genoese trading post at Caffa imported the Black Death into Europe in 1347. Genoa's economy collapsed and its population fell as the plague took its toll. Drastically weakened, the city fought a series of unsuccessful wars over the next seventy years, losing all of its colony states in the process and falling under the rule of the Visconti of Milan.
 
The city had a lucky break when its famous son, Christopher Columbus, returned from his discovery of the Americas and donated one-tenth of his income to the local banking institutions. This helped create the alliance which made Genoa a satellite of the wealthy Spanish Empire, a move which led to its economic recovery.  Soon the noble families of the city-state had re-amassed their fortunes and the growing city began to attract famed artists and architects. This golden age for Genoa lasted through the 1500's and into the early 1600's, when a return of the plague wiped out half of the citizens of the city in 1656. Genoa's further and steady decline was assured once the world economy began to shift away from the Mediterranean over to the New World when new trade routes were established in the 1700's. Modernization and the world wars of the early 20th century did little to help the city recover.
 
While Genoa now has the fifth highest economy in Italy and is part of the nation's "industrial triangle", it has never recovered the importance and fame which once gave it the title La Superba, the glorious one of Italy.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_FLORENCE={
Description=[=[Florence]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Florence (in Italian, "Firenze") is one of the most interesting and beautiful cities in Europe. It lies on the River Arno in northern Italy, in the heart of the beautiful Tuscany region. Florence was founded in 59 BC by Julius Caesar as a settlement for former Roman soldiers, at the strategic location where the Via Cassia (the main route north from Rome) crosses the Arno. It was laid out in a checkerboard pattern, in the style of a military encampment. Its position allowed Florence to prosper from the trade between Rome and the north, and by 300 AD the city was made the capital of the province of Tuscia (Tuscany). For the next several hundred years the city was under attack from both Ostrogoths and Byzantines, and ownership changed hands repeatedly until 774 AD, when Charlemagne took and held the city, fending off further foreign attack.
 
Florence regained its wealth and prominence during the subsequent centuries, growing to become one of the wealthiest and most powerful city-states anywhere in Europe. In 1252 the Republic of Florence introduced its own currency, the gold florin. Florins were accepted across much of the Mediterranean and into Europe, and Florentine merchants and bankers rapidly spread across the known world.
 
During the Renaissance Florence was controlled by several extremely wealthy and ruthless families, including the Medici. When not engaged in deadly power struggles with each other the Florentine nobility were great patrons of the arts, Lorenzo de Medici alone commissioning works by Michelangelo, Botticelli, and Leonardo da Vinci, to name just three of the brilliant men he supported. By the mid-fifteenth century the Medici were made the hereditary Grand Dukes of Tuscany, ruling the province and Florence for several centuries. In 1737 Florence became part of the territories of Austria, in 1859 it was transferred to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, and in 1861 it became part of the newly-united Kingdom of Italy.
 
Modern Florence is a thriving tourist center of some 500,000 citizens, a city that relishes its Roman, Medieval and Renaissance histories. It remains one of the most beautiful and evocative places in Europe, and indeed in the entire world.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Florence]=];
Adjective=[=[Florentine]=];
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MINOR_CIV_RAGUSA={
Description=[=[Ragusa]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The modern Croatian city of Dubrovnik was at one time a powerful city-state known as the Republic of Ragusa. Established in the 7th century, the city of Ragusa is believed to have originally been founded on a small island nestled in the Adriatic Sea, not far off the southern coast of modern Croatia. These founders, a group of Roman refugees, established the settlement after fleeing the destruction of their home city of Epidaurus. Over time, the city would expand into the surrounding region thanks to assistance from the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires as well as the kings of Croatia and Hungary. The development of the city, particularly into key areas such as the Harbor of Gruz (a crucial port even today) would draw the ire of Venice, whose dominance of maritime trade had previously been unrivaled.
 
Beginning in 1205 when Venice invaded what was then known as Dalmatia (a region of Eastern Croatia), Ragusa was forced into a position of suzerainty, providing extensive tribute to Venice while also serving as the Venetian naval base in the Adriatic Sea. Despite the pressures of Venetian influence, Ragusa's own development as a center of trade on the Adriatic would continue. Venice's meddling, however, took its toll on the populace and growing resentment amongst the Ragusan people towards Venice during this period would mark the beginning of a longstanding economic rivalry between the two city-states.  After Venice yielded its claims to Dalmatia in 1358, Ragusa finally had an opportunity to gain real autonomy. The Republic of Ragusa was established soon after, the city's aristocracy quick to consolidate power amongst themselves. The nobility managed nearly all aspects of Ragusan politics, leaving the citizens and plebeians with almost no voice at all. This government would operate autonomously, under the sovereignty of the Hungarian king, for the next 100 years. 
 
In 1458, a treaty signed with the Ottoman Empire would solidify Ragusa's position as a powerful trade center for the remainder of its time as a republic. Under the protection of the Ottomans, the city thrived. Reduced customs fees, access to the Black Sea (previously restricted to Ottoman merchants), and Ottoman backing in trade disputes would all provide valuable advantages bolstering Ragusa's position as the dominant Adriatic port. 
 
At its peak, Ragusa had a population approaching 30,000 people, and served as a crucial link between the ports of Italy and the destinations of the East. However, as goods from India, China and beyond became more readily available, Ragusa's commercial influence dwindled. A massive earthquake would strike the city in 1667, destroying nearly 75% of the structures and killing over 5,000 residents. A shell of its former self, in 1806 the city was finally surrendered to the army of Napoleon and by 1808 the Republic of Ragusa was no more. 
 
Today, the city of Dubrovnik is a popular tourist destination on the Adriatic Sea with a population of over 40,000.  Dubrovnik also remains a commercial seaport, one of the few remaining remnants of its storied past.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_SYDNEY={
Description=[=[Sydney]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Sydney, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, was not only the first British colony established on the continent, but also the first European settlement of any kind. Founded by Admiral Arthur Phillip in 1788 as a penal colony, Sydney's early development would be led initially by convicts, and later continued by retired soldiers and settlers arriving from Britain. Over time, Sydney would grow to become the largest and perhaps most famous city in Australia, with a population of over 4 million people today.
 
Scouted by James Cook in 1770, the original landing site, known famously as "Botany Bay", was deemed unsuitable for the location of a permanent settlement. The nearby Sydney Cove named for "Lord Sydney" Thomas Townshend, would prove to be the ideal location. This area is thought to have been inhabited by Australian Aborigines for several thousand years prior to the arrival of British colonists, and numerous tribes were found in the region upon their arrival. Despite the efforts of Admiral Phillip to regulate the interaction between colonists and the local tribesmen, thousands of Aborigines would die from smallpox and measles spread by colonial expeditions.
 
During its later history, Sydney experienced a massive population boom throughout the 19th century as gold was discovered in neighboring areas, particularly Bathurst. Greatly expanding its industrial development during this period, by the 1920s, Sydney's population would reach over 1 million and the city would continue expanding to meet its growing infrastructure needs.
 
In the present day, Sydney is known for its financial development, serving as the economic hub for all of Australia. Home to numerous major banks and financial institutions, the Australian Securities Exchange is also located in Sydney. Since the early 1800s, the date of Sydney's founding, January 26th, has been celebrated as Australia's national day, commemorating not only the city's history, but also its importance to Australia in the present day.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_QUEBEC_CITY={
Description=[=[Quebec City]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Quebec City, founded in 1608 by the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, was once the location of a small Iroquois village known as Stadaconé. Taking its name from the Algonquin word "Kebec," meaning "where the river becomes narrow," the settlement of Quebec City would grow to become the center of French colonial efforts in North America throughout the 17th century.
 
During its early development, Quebec City served not only as a valuable trade outpost, but also as a home to various Christian missionaries and an increasing number of permanent settlers. The fur and lumber industries provided the French with valuable resources that strengthened early efforts to expand their reach in North America. Briefly passing under British rule from 1629 until 1632, the city would otherwise be controlled by the French for over 150 years, despite several sieges. In 1663, Quebec City was officially named the capital of New France, having already served as the capital of French Canada since its founding.
 
The French would finally lose control of the colony in 1759 to the British during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Britain would remain in control of Quebec City until the formation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Following the Constitution Act of Canada, Quebec City would become the capital of the Canadian Province of Quebec.
 
Today, Quebec City is home to over 500,000 residents, and continues to thrive with a rich cultural heritage. Named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985, Quebec City still maintains much of the historic architecture from its colonial roots. Of particular interest are the famous Château Frontenac hotel, and the Roman Catholic churches of Notre-Dame de Québec and Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, both originally constructed in the 17th century.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Quebec City]=];
Adjective=[=[Quebec City]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BUCHAREST={
Description=[=[Bucharest]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Lying along the banks of the Dâmbovita River, Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania.  Archeological excavations have shown that people have lived in the Bucharest area from as early as 9,000 BC, but the city of Bucharest was not mentioned until 1459 AD in a document signed by Vlad III, the Impaler.  Vlad III built the first fortress and his summer residence at Bucharest at this time in an attempt to hold back the encroaching Ottoman forces, but to little avail. In the early 17th century the city was burned down by the Ottomans, who then captured and rebuilt it.
 
Bucharest developed rapidly under the Ottomans and became the main economic center and capital of the seized Walachia region in 1659. Over the next two hundred years, Bucharest was almost destroyed by natural disasters many times, (stubbornly rebuilt after every occurrence), ravaged by the Bubonic plague, and was occupied repeatedly by both the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, ultimately residing under the Russians.
 
Walachia remained under Russian rule until a series of civic unrests in Bucharest helped to unify the Walachia and Moldavia regions, forming the state of Romania in 1859; Bucharest was named its capital in 1862. As the capital of the new kingdom, the city's population increased dramatically and large-scale architectural projects were begun.  The extravagance shown by Bucharest's residences at this time earned it the nickname "The Paris of the East".
 
While escaping relatively unscathed during the First World War, Bucharest suffered substantial damage during World War II, primarily from heavy Allied bombings.  After the wars, much of the old historic district of the city was torn down to make way for high-rise apartment buildings commissioned by the Communist government, and a massive earthquake in 1977 destroyed many of the remaining historic neighborhoods.  
 
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 ended Communist rule in Romania when many disillusioned and dissatisfied protesters gathered in Bucharest. While at a speech being delivered by President Nicolae Ceausescu, the protesters turned to rioting and fighting, overrunning the ineffective and desperate attempt by the police to contain them. Since the fall of communism, Bucharest has enjoyed a newfound economic boom and period of modernization, as well as new attempts by the local government to restore its nearly demolished historic center.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BELGRADE={
Description=[=[Belgrade]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The present capital of Serbia, Belgrade lies at the juncture of two of Europe's most important waterways, the Danube and Sava rivers, and has served as a major crossroad between Europe and Asia for centuries. Belgrade is one of the oldest cities in Europe, with settlements dating as far back as 6,000 BC, and may have been the home of the largest known prehistoric European culture, the Vincas. The first recorded fort and permanent settlement  on this location was built by the Celts in the 3rd century BC, who named it Singidun, or Singidunum, "White Fortress".
 
Singidunum was ravaged and occupied by a large succession of peoples over the next couple of hundred years, including the Romans, Huns, Sarmatians, Ostrogoths, and Avars, before falling under Byzantium rule in the 9th century AD. This is when the city was given its Slavic name, Beligrad, which means "White Fortress." In the following centuries the city hosted the armies of both the First and Second Crusade and remained a contested battleground between Bulgaria, Hungary, and Byzantium.
 
In 1456, the Ottomans launched the famous Siege of Belgrade in an attempt to subjugate Hungary - the fall of the fortress at Belgrade would have opened a clear path for Sultan Mehmed II to take the heart of Central Europe. However, an army led by Hungarian John Hunyadi destroyed the Ottoman's forces and is credited not only with saving the city but also with preserving Christianity in Europe. To this day, Catholic churches still ring the church bells at noon in commemoration of the victory.  Unfortunately, plague killed many of the victorious soldiers - including Hunyadi - in the weeks following their triumph. In 1521, nearly 70 years later, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent finally captured the city, and it was made the seat of the Ottomans' Sanjak district and quickly became the second largest city in the Empire, eclipsed only by Constantinople.
 
The Second Serbian Uprising of 1815 (following a brief failed attempt in 1807) granted the Serbian region semi-independence, with full independence not achieved until 1878; the capital of this new kingdom was moved to Belgrade and the city once again prospered and grew rapidly.  The city's growth was halted however with the advent of World War I in 1914, when Belgrade was decimated from repeated attacks. After the war, Belgrade became the capital of newly-formed Yugoslavia and experienced a period of unforeseen growth and modernization.
 
Despite the Serbian government's attempt to stay out of World War II, Belgrade was heavily bombed and its people massacred by the Luftwaffe in 1941, and was quickly occupied by the Germans.  In 1944, the Allies bombed the city and finally liberated it a few months later. At war's end Serbia was under the Soviet Union's control, and a year later the People's Republic of Yugoslavia was created, with Belgrade again housing the government's seat. Communist Belgrade rapidly developed into a major industrial center.
 
In 1996, massive demonstrations were held in Belgrade against the Communist-led government, and in 1997 the first mayor of Belgrade was elected who did not belong to the Communist or Socialist party.  Unrest continued however, with major bombings during the Kosovo War of 1999 causing substantial damage and leading to hundreds of thousands of protesters taking to the streets.  However, in spite of these military and economic troubles of the 1990s, Belgrade has been growing strong ever since as a center for history, culture, and tourism.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_BRUSSELS={
Description=[=[Brussels]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Brussels was officially founded along the banks of the Senne River in 979 AD, when Charles of Lorraine, a descendent of Charlemagne, constructed the first permanent fortification around a small Catholic chapel and township. The early city lay low along the river and was often at risk of floods, giving it its Dutch name Broeksel, or, "home in the marsh".  City walls, constructed and expanded during the 11th to 14th centuries, allowed for a period of growth, expansion, and for a general peaceful existence, uncommon for the times.
 
The peace ended violently in 1695, when King Louis XIV of France sent troops to Brussels and bombarded the city with artillery, destroying the Grand Palace and nearly a third of the city in one attack, the most destructive event in the entire history of the city. This invasion brought a "Frenchification" to the region, in both culture and language. In 1830 the southern French-speaking provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands seceded from the Dutch-speaking provinces in the Belgian Revolution, the conflict taking place for the most part in Brussels. Following Belgian independence, the new king Leopold I began the massive undertaking of destroying the old city walls to make way for new construction and more modern buildings. It also helped his cause that by this point the Senne, the previous life-blood of the city, had become a serious health hazard and its entire urban area was buried over and rebuilt.
 
Brussels escaped the World Wars with little damage (even though Belgium was invaded by Germany on both occasions), largely in part to its adamant policy of remaining neutral. It is this neutrality which has made the city a modern-day center for international politics and the de facto capital city of the European Union (the EU) and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).  The only major controversy in the otherwise peaceful city revolves around the laws governing the language borders between the French and Dutch speaking municipalities, a tension mirrored in the rest of Belgium as a whole.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_MONACO={
Description=[=[Monaco]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The Principality of Monaco is the world's smallest monarchy and the second smallest country, larger only than Vatican City. While being populated by Ligurian people (Monoikos in Greek) from the 6th century AD, the city of Monaco was founded in 1228 as a colony of Genoa. In 1297 Francesco Grimaldi captured the fortress protecting the small city state, and his family has ruled the country since.
 
French revolutionary forces captured the principality in 1793, and it remained under French control until 1814 when it was designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna. It remained under Sardinia until Sardinia was also annexed to France, then gained its independence in 1861. France, however, was (and still is) required to provide any military defenses for the small country. Not a bad deal for a country less than a mile square in area. Monaco was briefly occupied during World War II, but the attempt to set up a Fascist administration and replace the Grimaldis failed, leaving the country little changed.
 
Monaco's current claim to fame comes primarily from three sources - the late Princess Grace, its status as a tax haven, and its world renowned casino. For the first, Prince Rainier III married the American actress Grace Kelly in 1956, focusing the world's attention on the small country for the first time in centuries. Besides the constant attention she brought to the country, she also avidly worked to improve arts and education support in the U.S. and Monaco. For a second point of fame, or rather infamy, Monaco has never levied a personal income tax on its inhabitants, thereby attracting numerous wealthy residents from around the world. Finally, the Monte Carlo Casino is one of the greatest tourist attractions in the country.  Open since 1856, the casino is visited by many of the world's wealthiest gamblers, but is forbidden to the country's own citizens. The casino serves as a landmark in the annual Monaco Grand Prix and as a location for three James Bond films. A class of computational algorithms and methods for sampling random data also take their name from the casino.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_KATHMANDU={
Description=[=[Kathmandu]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The ancient city of Kathmandu, capital to the highly-elevated country of Nepal, traces its history back almost 2,000 years to the dawn of the first millennium AD. Steeped in both Hindu and Buddhist traditions, the city of Kathmandu was named after a great temple found at the site known as "Kasthamandap," said to have been constructed from the timber of a single tree in the 16th century.
 
Long before the city's establishment, the Kathmandu Valley was inhabited by the Newar people, ancestors to the modern Newars who continue to live throughout Nepal. The Newars are responsible for many of the unique characteristics that have come to be recognized as symbolic of Nepal, including the pagoda style architecture that was adapted over the centuries from both Chinese and Indian designs.
 
During the reign of the Malla Dynasty, who ruled Kathmandu for over 500 years beginning in the 12th century, many of the city's most notable temples and pagodas were constructed. Though the city was often fraught with conflict and turmoil, leading to the destruction of many of the earliest structures, dozens of magnificent examples remain today. In 2006, the collective of monuments within Kathmandu was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site, acknowledging the cultural significance of the historic city.
 
In the present-day, Kathmandu is home to more than one million residents, with an economy supported by the production of local crafts as well as an increasingly large tourist population. As the city continues to grow and modernize, the local government faces a difficult task in dealing with urbanization and pollution issues.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_HANOI={
Description=[=[Hanoi]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Located on the banks of the Red River in Vietnam, the area surrounding Hanoi has been inhabited from at least the third millennium BC. One of the first recorded permanent structures at the site was the Co Loa citadel, built sometime around 200 BC. However, it is not until 1010 AD that the official founding of Hanoi is recorded - the then ruler of the land, Lý Thái To, moved the capital to the site and renamed it Thang Long, or "ascending dragon". Thang Long remained the capital of Vietnam until 1397.
 
The city continued to grow quietly for the next few centuries, even while briefly occupied by the Chinese in the early 1400's. In 1831 Emperor Minh Mang renamed the city, giving it the more literal name of "Between Rivers". Shortly thereafter, the French occupied the city and surrounding area in 1873, later making Hanoi the capital of their new colony - French Indochina - in 1887.
 
After World War II the city was the scene of deadly fighting as control of the country was contested between the independent nationalists and the French government. North Vietnam finally won its independence in 1954 and made Hanoi the capital of the country. The city remained the capital once North and South Vietnam were reunited in 1976.
 
Since then, Hanoi has boomed into a vibrant metropolitan area, exponentially increasing in size with every passing generation. The city is now the most developed and modern in Vietnam, boasting the latest advancements in infrastructure and agriculture technologies.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_LHASA={
Description=[=[Lhasa]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world, located almost 12,000 ft above sea level. Lhasa literally translates to "place of the gods", a name change from Rasa in the early 7th century (which meant "goat's place"). The recorded history of the city starts around this time when Songstan Gampo became the leader of the Tibetan Empire and moved the capital to Lhasa in 637 AD. Gampo soon converted to Buddhism (which he learned of from his wives), and began the construction of Buddhist statues and temples.  While the political power of the city slowly waned over the centuries (the monarchy dissolved in the 9th century), Lhasa continued to rise in prominence as a religious center. During this time the first Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of the Tibetan Buddhists, rose to power in 1391.
 
In 1642 the fifth Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso, began to wield real political power, in addition to his spiritual authority, and unified the loosely assembled Tibetan tribes into one country. Lhasa was named both the spiritual and political capital of the new country. By the time the West began sending explorers to the city in the early 20th century, nearly half of Lhasa's population were practicing Buddhist monks.
 
In 1950 China invaded Tibet and many people fled the city, including the 14th Dalai Lama, and sought refuge in exile in India. The attack is classified as a "peaceful liberation" by the Chinese, but the Tibetans, U.S. Congress, and other prominent military and political figures consider it an unprovoked invasion. Many of the remaining monks and nuns in the city revolted and held peaceful demonstrations against the Chinese oppressors, which led to an imposed restriction upon the monasteries. Re-education programs were instituted in an attempt to realign the Buddhists with Communist views, while also requiring the protesters to denounce both the Dalai Lama and Tibet's independence. Many monks and nuns refused to cooperate and were sent to prison; those who escaped fled to India.
 
The question of Tibetan independence is still a major source of controversy in Lhasa and in the rest of the world, with many world leaders continuing to condemn the Chinese treatment of the Tibetan people. Talks between the reigning Dalai Lama in exile and the Chinese government began in May 2008 discussing Tibet's independence and autonomous rule, but little has changed as a result.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_ALMATY={
Description=[=[Almaty]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Located near the southeastern border of modern-day Kazakhstan, Almaty has hosted human settlements from as early as 1000 BC.  Its early history was one of farms and tribal herdsman, and it wasn't until the Middle Ages that Almaty began to prosper and flourish as a city, when it became an integral part of the Silk Road trade route.  For three centuries Almaty thrived as a center for agriculture and crafts, but in the 13th century much of the city was destroyed by Mongol raids.  By the 15th century, Almaty and the surrounding region found itself in a state of decline.
 
It wasn't until 1854 that Almaty began to recover and build anew into the modern city it is today.  Imperial Russia constructed Fort Zailiyskoye on the ancient site, later renaming it Fort Verniy. A year later the soldiers started accepting peasants and tradesmen to the area and formed the town of Verniy, which housed the administrative center of the newly created Semirechye province of Turkistan.  For a brief thirty years this version of Almaty prospered again, only to be destroyed in less than twelve minutes by a catastrophic earthquake in 1887.
 
In the early 20th century, the town's name was changed to Alma-Ata. With the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railroad the city regained some of its former importance as a trade depot.  The capital of Kazakhstan was moved to Alma-Ata in 1936, with the idea of remaking the city into a kind of cultural Mecca.  In 1993 Alma-Ata's name was changed yet again to Almaty (referencing the area's ample apple orchards).
 
In 1997 the government moved the country's capital to Astana - a city with far fewer threats of natural disasters. Despite this setback to its political importance and the constant threat of destruction from catastrophic mudflows, Almaty once again prospers as a cultural, financial, and industrial center.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_KUALA_LUMPUR={
Description=[=[Kuala Lumpur]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Kuala Lumpur had its start as a tin mining town when the Malay Chief ordered a new mine opened at its location in 1857. The original name, Pengkalan Lumpur, literally translated to "bundle of mud", a testament to the site's low laying position between two equally muddy rivers. Later the town's name was changed to Kuala Lumpur or, "muddy confluence" - apparently the environment still hadn't changed much for the better.
 
The small mining town eventually developed into a more lucrative trading post, but it was constantly plagued by disease, fires, and floods, slowing its progress some. The state's capital was moved to the city in 1880 despite this, taking advantage of the strategic rivers and mines. However, a year later a fire engulfed the town, quickly followed by a massive flood. The two natural disasters destroyed virtually every building in the city, mostly because they were made of wood and thatch - both of which either quickly burn or can easily be mildewed or swept away by raging waters. Leaders of the city mandated that all new constructions be fashioned of brick and tile. After the city rebuilt itself, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States in 1896.
 
The 1900's brought more problems to Kuala Lumpur - it was occupied by the Japanese during World War II, tin collapsed as a commodity, and it had to deal with a guerrilla war fought between the British rulers and communist nationals. However, in 1963 Malaysia gained its independence from Britain, and made Kuala Lumpur its new capital.
 
The city is now the largest in Malaysia and has one of the most iconographic modern skylines. At one point it also boasted the world's tallest skyscrapers, the Petronas Twin Towers, before they were overtaken by Taipei 101 in 2004. Today the city is an economic and cultural hub of the country, with a booming industrial and tourist sector.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_SINGAPORE={
Description=[=[Singapore]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Records and archeological excavations show that the island of modern-day Singapore has been occupied from about the second century AD - the small island was originally part of the Sumatran Empire and went by the name of Temasek, or "sea town." For unknown reasons the area slid into a decline in the 14th century, and for the next few centuries the island's population consisted mostly of small villages of fishermen.
 
This all changed on January 29, 1819, when the British statesman Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles landed on the island and signed a treaty to develop the southern portion into a British trading post. Singapore officially became a British colony in 1824 when the British East India Company gained control of the entire island. The island city grew steadily as it became an important hub for trade and commerce in the Pacific.
 
In 1941, the Japanese invaded Singapore and in six short days gained control of the city and its military base. The Battle of Singapore, as it came to be known, was the worst recorded military disaster in British history and the city became an important base for the Japanese for the rest of World War II. The British regained control of the island a month after Japan's surrender in 1945.
 
After the war, Singapore started on the road to independence. In 1955 the city was allowed to hold its first general election, but delegations sent to England demanding self-rule were met with resistance until 1959. Four years later the small city-state nation declared formal independence from the British Empire and quickly joined the Federation of Malaysia. However, major ideological conflicts between Singapore and the Federation soured the relationship and two years later Singapore officially declared complete sovereignty.
 
Since its independence, fortunes for the city-state have increased, with massive improvements in standards of living, the economy, and education. Singapore is now the fifth wealthiest country in the world (in terms of GDP per capita) with booming tourism and medical industries.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_RIO_DE_JANEIRO={
Description=[=[Rio de Janeiro]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Portuguese explorers first came across the Rio de Janeiro area in 1502 AD, which was at the time inhabited by four different groups of indigenous peoples.  A small fortified settlement was erected at the site, both to deal with the natives and to fend off encroaching attacks from French pirates. On March 1, 1565, the city center was officially founded. The fertile land surrounding the settlement was planted with sugarcane and provided all of the city's early income. The small city grew to about 8,000 people by 1700, but two thirds of these were probably slaves.
 
About this time scouts found gold and diamonds in the neighboring hills, generating a huge influx of both wealth and immigrants. The city tripled in size and the colonial capital was transferred here in 1763. Rio continued to wildly grow and the city spilled beyond its fortified walls. Many large Romanesque aqueducts were also built at this time, the ruins of which still stand in the city. However, towards the end of the century the mines began to dry up and Central America entered the world economy with a strong sugar market of its own, both of which put Rio in a precarious position. Exports had fallen by more than half of what they were by 1796.
 
Coffee saved the day for Rio. In 1808 the Portuguese royal family ordered the growing of the bean and resettled themselves in Brazil, bringing a new found prosperity to the colony. Expansion of the coffee plantations gave birth to a new wave of improvements in the city, and large manor homes were built, streets were paved, and fine academic instructions were founded.
 
In 1822 Prince Pedro I proclaimed Brazil's independence, and named Rio as the capital of the new empire. When the country replaced the monarchy with a republic in 1889, it kept Rio as the capital city. Rio was further transformed into a modern city through the early 1900's as streets were widened, health conditions of its populace were improved, and the surrounding swamps were drained and reclaimed for future building sites. In 1960 the capital was moved to the newly constructed city of Brasilia, and the growth of Rio finally began to slow.
 
Rio de Janeiro is famous worldwide for its carnival celebrations, the invention of samba music, the Cristo Redentor (a modern Wonder of the World), and its landmark beaches. Unfortunately the city is also famous for its crime, and holds the dubious honor of being one of the most violent cities in the world. Despite this, it continues to attract millions of tourists every year who come to sample its charm, beauty, and relaxed spirit.]=];
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MINOR_CAPE_TOWN={
Description=[=[Cape Town]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Located on the southern edge of Africa, Cape Town is the first European settlement in South Africa. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company established a refreshment station for its ships on the shores of Table Bay, a harbor just to the northwest of the Cape of Good Hope with convenient access to fresh water. Within a few years Dutch colonists ventured outside of the forts and set up farmsteads, working the fields with African slaves imported from other locations. The local native inhabitants (the Khoekhoe, whom the Dutch called "Hottentots") were not enslaved, and in fact many lived side by side with, and in some cases intermarried with, the colonists. By the turn of the century the town had some 200 houses and a thriving port.
 
During the seventeenth century the port continued to grow in size and in strategic importance, its position allowing the Dutch to dominate the Cape of Good Hope, the primary water passage between Europe and the Far East. The British sought to occupy the port in 1781, during the American Revolution, but a French fleet beat them to it, establishing a garrison to help the Dutch keep it out of British control.
 
As the century progressed the British dominance of the high seas gave them increasing leverage over African colonies. Ownership of Cape Town passed back and forth between England and the Netherlands, and by 1814 title of the colony had passed to Britain permanently. The British freed the slaves in 1834, and within a few years the young city's population reached some 20,000 citizens. In 1870 diamonds were discovered inland from the city, and roughly 16 years later gold was found as well. This brought a massive influx of prospectors and those who supported/preyed upon them to the city and the land beyond.
 
At the turn of the 20th century the Boer War (1899-1902) broke out between the British and the Boer Republics, which, depending upon which historians you read, was a fight to end growing British tyranny over the people of Dutch ancestry, a rebellion by Afrikaans seeking to continue to enslave and oppress non-Whites, or a war between greedy politicians over the growing profits from the gold and diamond mines. The war was long and bitter, and though fighting took place miles inland, the city was an important military base for the British, and it gained an industrial base constructing war materials and other supplies.
 
In 1910 the British colonies of Cape Colony, Transvaal, Natal and Orange River were unified into the Union of South Africa, and Cape Town was its capital. The 20th century saw increased efforts by the European inhabitants to protect themselves from what they saw as a growing threat of being overwhelmed by the African natives. Increasingly odious apartheid laws relegated non-white citizens to subservient status, with limited access to employment and education, and almost no say in government or control over their own affairs. The struggle for equality intensified over the course of the century and, along with internal resistance, the white government faced growing sanctions from the rest of the world. By 1990 the apartheid system was in collapse, and Cape Town and South Africa saw the appointment of Nelson Mandela as president, the first black man to ever hold that title.
 
Modern Cape Town is a vibrant, growing city. It still faces the after-effects of years of inter-racial struggle and the poverty and lack of education of a large portion of its native inhabitants. But it survived the transition from apartheid to near universal democracy with remarkably little violence (thanks largely to the genius of Nelson Mandela). Though the city is troubled by the ailments that face all modern cities (and some unique to itself), Cape Town's future remains bright.]=];
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MINOR_SIDON={
Description=[=[Sidon]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Sidon is an ancient city located on the coast of Lebanon. Originally a fishing and trade center, in modern times Sidon serves as the Mediterranean terminus for the Trans-Arabian Pipeline from Saudia Arabia.
 
Sidon was founded by Phoenicia in the 3rd millennium BC.
		Sidon became wealthy and prosperous in the 2nd millennium BC, famous for the quality of its glass and its purple dyes. In approximately 2700 BC, Sidon colonists founded the city of Tyre some 25 miles down the coast, and for many years the two cities competed for the seat of Phoenician wealth and power.
 
As Phoenicia's power waned, Sidon's wealth and strategic location made it a tempting target for conquest. During its history Sidon has been ruled by Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Alexander of Macedonia, the Seleucids, the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, the Romans, the Ottomans, the French, and finally, Lebanon. During the Crusades the city changed hands several times, being destroyed and rebuilt in the process. The area is littered with the remains of fortifications from throughout history. Today, Sidon is home to Sunni and Shiite Muslims as well as Christian Greek Catholics and Maronites.
 
The city is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. Perhaps its most famous citizen is the wicked Queen Jezebel, wife of King Ahab of Northern Israel and great aunt of Queen Dido of Carthage. According to the Bible, Jezebel was an evil and corrupt ruler, and she encouraged the worship of foreign (Phoenician) gods in Israel. For these crimes she was killed by her own eunuchs and thrown into the street to be eaten by dogs.
 
There are two great lessons from this story for all rulers: first, don't mess with the people's religion, and second, never trust the royal eunuchs.]=];
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MINOR_TYRE={
Description=[=[Tyre]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city located in the southern portion of Lebanon, approximately 12 miles north of the Lebanese border with Israel. Tyre was built on the mainland and a nearby offshore island. Founded in approximately 2700 BC by colonists from the city of Sidon, the city soon grew to rival and eventually surpass its sister city as a fishing and mercantile center for Phoenicia. In the 9th century BC settlers from Tyre founded the city of Carthage in North Africa.
 
Like Sidon, Tyre is frequently mentioned in the Bible. Relations between Israel and Tyre were generally cordial; in fact, Hiram, king of Tyre, furnished building materials for Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.
 
Because of its wealth and strategic location, Tyre was subjected to repeated attacks by whatever power happened to be rampaging in the area. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC it was under Assyrian dominance. In the 6th century BC it withstood a long siege by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, though it was captured shortly thereafter by the Persians. Then, in the third century BC, Alexander of Macedon happened by at the head of his army.
 
Alexander's siege of Tyre lasted some seven months. To defeat the stubborn defenders, Alexander completely destroyed the mainland city and used the rubble to construct a causeway out to the island. After capturing the city, the great Alexander showed his appreciation for the citizens' valor and courage by putting 10,000 of them to death and selling 30,000 others into slavery. Though it revived somewhat under later Egyptian and Roman rule, Tyre never fully recovered from Alexander's exuberance.
 
Today Tyre is a city of approximately 120,000 residents. Because of its proximity to Israel, it tends to suffer whenever violence occurs along the Lebanese-Israeli border, which seems to happen with depressing frequency, as bombs, bullets and missiles from all sides make the ancient ruins even more ruined. Still, Tyre has survived worse than this - much worse - and it will hopefully live to see peace and prosperity once again.]=];
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MINOR_CIV_ANTWERP={
Description=[=[Antwerp]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The city of Antwerp is located in the central European nation of Belgium, in what is known as the Low Countries. Settled by the Franks in the 4th century, Antwerp is believed to be situated on the same land as an early Roman encampment founded in the previous century. Built up over the years through the efforts of several ruling kingdoms, by the 16th century Antwerp had grown to become the wealthiest city in Europe, serving as an economic hub for traders from across the world.
 
During Antwerp's height as a thriving financial center, the city was home to international traders, merchants, and bankers who flocked to the growing city, bringing with them art and culture from abroad. Although the city enjoyed a period of calm and prosperity, the tumult of the Protestant Reformation, along with the increasing influence of nearby Amsterdam, led to a swift decline in Antwerp's economy and population by the 18th century.
 
In the 20th century, Antwerp was occupied by Germany during World War II, only to be liberated by the Allied forces after several years of conflict. Unfortunately for the people of Antwerp, Germany battered the city with V-2 rockets in an attempt to disrupt the flow of supplies arriving in Antwerp's port. Much of the city was ravaged, and it would be several decades before Antwerp again rose to its former place of prominence within Europe.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Antwerp]=];
Adjective=[=[Antwerp]=];
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_CAHOKIA={
Description=[=[Cahokia]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Found in the southern region of the U.S. state of Illinois, Cahokia was once an ancient city comprised of more than one hundred earthwork mounds, constructed around 700 AD by the Native American Mississippian culture. Covering more than 2,200 acres, Cahokia is the largest native city north of Mexico. Throughout the city's early history, it served as an important economic hub along the Mississippi river, joining far off settlements in the exchange of goods and services.
 
Of the approximately 70 to 80 mounds remaining today, the largest is that of "Monks Mound," which covers an area nearly as big as the Great Pyramid at Giza. Although the site is thought to have been abandoned some 600 years ago, European settlers, including a group of French monks, inhabited the area during the early 1800s (the monks providing the mound's namesake).
 
Today, Cahokia is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.  Several hundred thousand tourists from around the world visit the site each year, while archeologists working in the area expand on their research and continue to make new discoveries.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Cahokia]=];
Adjective=[=[Cahokia]=];
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ArtStyleSuffix="_AMER";
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_COLOMBO={
Description=[=[Colombo]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The largest city on the island nation of Sri Lanka, Colombo, has long been a vibrant trade center due in no small part to its strategic location along the trade routes connecting Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Beginning in ancient times, traders sailing from Greece, Rome, and China all stopped within Colombo's naturally formed harbor while sailing to distant ports.
 
Sometime around the 8th century AD, Arab settlers and traders hoping to profit from the port made permanent residence in the area of Colombo. However, it wasn't until nearly 600 years later with the arrival of Portuguese explorers that Colombo saw a vast expansion in its economic influence. From the early 1500s on, Colombo was of strategic and economic importance to a number of empires, as control of the city changed hands from the Portuguese to the Dutch, and later still, the English.
 
In the present-day, Colombo and its port are integral to the overall economy of Sri Lanka, as much of the nation's imports and exports pass through the city.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Colombo]=];
Adjective=[=[Colombo]=];
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ArtStyleSuffix="_ASIA";
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_HONG_KONG={
Description=[=[Hong Kong]=];
Civilopedia=[=[A city-state in its truest form, Hong Kong is a massive city residing along the southern coast of China. Home to more than seven million residents in the present-day, the island of Hong Kong and its surrounding territories were once home to numerous small settlements, including those constructed by foreign explorers. During the reign of the Chinese Qing Dynasty in the 19th century, trade relations with England dissolved amidst growing concern over the importation of Indian Opium into China. Britain had hoped to offset its increasing expensive tea imports from China by exporting greater amounts of Opium from its Indian colonies to China. However, the Qing rulers objected, and attempted to seize incoming opium shipments, inciting the First Opium War in 1839.
 
As one of the premier naval powers of the era, Britain had little trouble defeating the Chinese forces and occupying the island of Hong Kong. After nearly 3 years of conflict, the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 provided Britain with various spoils, including control of Hong Kong. After growing as a British colony for more than 150 years, Hong Kong was finally returned to China in 1997, after a peaceful transfer of power led to the creation of the Hong Kong special administrative region. Modern Hong Kong is distinguished by its highly dense, urban landscape with a distinctive skyline marked by dozens of skyscrapers and brightly lit structures. Despite the communist system utilized by the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong maintains an autonomous system of government that firmly supports free trade, and the city is now considered one of the world's premier financial hubs.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Hong Kong]=];
Adjective=[=[Hong Kong]=];
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ArtStyleSuffix="_ASIA";
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MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_JAKARTA={
Description=[=[Jakarta]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Serving as the capital of Indonesia, Jakarta is both the largest and most culturally-diverse city in the Southeast Asian country. Since the first settlements in the area of Jakarta were laid by Hindu pilgrims in the 4th century AD, the city has been known by many names, and controlled by an equally extensive number of empires. For nearly 1,000 years, Jakarta was part of the Kingdom of Sunda, who ruled a number of surrounding territories along the Indian Ocean. With the arrival of Portuguese explorers in the 16 century, the lucrative spice trade was quickly established with Jakarta being the primary port in the region.
 
The Kingdom of Sunda eventually fell to the Muslim Sultanate of Fatahillah, who also expelled the Portuguese from the region. However, trade routes were reestablished soon after with the arrival of Dutch and English traders, including the influential English East India Company. After repeated conflicts between the two colonial powers vying for trade dominance, the Dutch and their own East India Company emerged victorious.
 
The Dutch East India Company remained the dominant trading power in the region's islands until its eventual dissolution in 1800, when the Dutch formally declared the formation of the Dutch East Indies, which covered much of the area known today as Indonesia. In 1950, the efforts of Indonesian nationalists succeeded in gaining full independence for the nation, with Jakarta established as its capital. Although the city and its residents have often been enveloped in political unrest and instability, the economy of Jakarta continues to grow as foreign investors seek new markets for development.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Jakarta]=];
Adjective=[=[Jakarta]=];
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ArtStyleSuffix="_ASIA";
ArtStylePrefix="ASIAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MARITIME";};
 
MINOR_CIV_JERUSALEM={
Description=[=[Jerusalem]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The often contentious debate over Jerusalem, holy city to the followers of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, has raged for decades since the city's establishment as the capital of Israel. With portions of the city having been constructed over 6,000 years ago, Jerusalem is one of the oldest known cities in the world. Throughout its tumultuous history, Jerusalem has come under siege numerous times, as far-reaching empires and local kingdoms alike struggled to wrest control of the city from one another.
 
The oldest area in Jerusalem, the City of David, is said to have been founded by the legendary King David sometime during the 1st millennium BC. Over the centuries that followed, immigrants and refugees toiling under a number of kings and emperors worked to expand the city. By the time the Islamic Caliphates rose to power in the 6th century AD, Jerusalem had already been controlled by the Macedonians, the Romans, and the Byzantine Empire.
 
The past century has arguably been the most controversial in Jerusalem's history, following the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel and Israel's subsequent annexation of Jerusalem following the Six-Day War. In the time since, Israel's control of Jerusalem has been one of the major hurdles preventing a resolution to the longstanding Israeli-Palestinian conflict.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Jerusalem]=];
Adjective=[=[Jerusalem]=];
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ArtStyleSuffix="_ASIA";
ArtStylePrefix="ASIAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_RELIGIOUS";};
 
MINOR_CIV_LA_VENTA={
Description=[=[La Venta]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The ancient Olmec settlement of La Venta, found in central Mexico, is thought by archeologists to have been an important cultural center that also contributed greatly to trade in the region. The structures of La Venta are unique in that the surrounding region had no stone available for construction, leaving the Olmec to build everything from clay and fill dirt. Although large portions of the site have been lost to present-day construction, what has been excavated indicates that La Venta held ceremonial significance for the Olmec. Numerous monuments and sculptures adorn the complex, with burial tombs and altars having also been discovered. Of the iconic "Colossal Heads" carved by the Olmec, La Venta features four of the most famous. Weighing several tons each, archeologists can only theorize as to how the Olmec managed to acquire the stone for these massive carvings. Unfortunately, due to ongoing construction taking place in the area, it appears unlikely that further excavations will take place at La Venta in the near future.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[La Venta]=];
Adjective=[=[La Venta]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
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ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_SOUTH_AMERICA";
ArtStyleSuffix="_AMER";
ArtStylePrefix="AMERICAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_RELIGIOUS";};
 
MINOR_CIV_LISBON={
Description=[=[Lisbon]=];
Civilopedia=[=[As one of the oldest cities in the world, Portugal's capital, Lisbon, has long been a prized trade hub on the Iberian Peninsula. Although Lisbon has existed in one form or another for thousands of years, the city became an integral part of the Roman trade network following their victory over Carthage during the Punic Wars. Growing over the centuries, Lisbon continually expanded as its port became the point of departure for Portuguese vessels sailing throughout the world.  During the Age of Discovery in the 15th century, many notable Portuguese explorers set out from Lisbon, including Vasco da Gama, the first to sail from Europe to India.
 
In 1755, one of the deadliest earthquakes in recorded history, the Great Lisbon Earthquake, rattled the Iberian Peninsula, nearly destroying all of Lisbon. Modern historians estimate that up to 100,000 people may have been killed as a result of the quake, and extensive reconstruction efforts were required to rebuild the crumbling city.
 
In the present day, Lisbon is home to more than 500,000 residents and serves as one of Portugal's leading centers of commerce and trade. Lisbon is also a popular tourist destination, as the city features numerous examples of historic architecture, along with several famous museums and cultural festivals.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Lisbon]=];
Adjective=[=[Lisbon]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
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ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MARITIME";};
 
MINOR_CIV_MANILA={
Description=[=[Manila]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Although accurate historical records of Manila's early history are limited, sometime around the 10th century AD, the site of the Philippine's future capital city was settled in its earliest incarnation. It wasn't until 1571 however, with the arrival of Spanish Conquistador Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, that the existing settlements were destroyed, and the reconstructed city first came to be known as Manila. For the next 300 years, Manila and the Philippine islands remained under Spanish control. In 1898, Spain relinquished the Philippine territories to the United States after the Spanish-American War.
 
Manila's port, simply known as the Port of Manila, is one of the busiest seaports in the world, and the primary means of import and export within the Philippines. With a diverse variety of exported products, ranging from food and local commodities, to chemicals and industrial products, the Philippines rely heavily on Manila's port to maintain their flourishing economy. Tourism is also a major component of the local economy in Manila, as visitors come from around the world to see the historic walled district within Manila known as the Intramuros.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Manila]=];
Adjective=[=[Manilan]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_GREEN";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_ASIAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_ASIA";
ArtStylePrefix="ASIAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MARITIME";};
 
MINOR_CIV_MARRAKECH={
Description=[=[Marrakech]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Home to one of the largest traditional Arab markets in the world, Marrakech, Morocco, was founded in 1062 AD by King Youssef bin Tashufin to serve as the capital of the Almoravid Dynasty. The city's reputation as a commercial center and trade hub can be attributed to its earliest roots, when caravans stopped in Marrakech to rest and regroup before continuing along the surrounding trade routes. Marrakech's famous market, found in the Jemaa el-Fnaa square in the old city, features elaborate stalls with vendors selling everything from local cuisine to crafts and other items directed at tourists. Performances of varying types are also common in the square, with snake charmers, dancers, and other forms of entertainment continuing into the night. Home to more than one million residents in the present day, Marrakech has seen an influx of expatriates and other Europeans moving to the city for a change of pace.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Marrakech]=];
Adjective=[=[Marrakech]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_PEACH";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_ASIAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_ASIA";
ArtStylePrefix="MEDITERRANEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_MILAN={
Description=[=[Milan]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Founded in the 4th century BC by the Celtic Insubres people, the city of Milan in northern Italy grew over time to become one of the greatest cultural centers of the Italian Renaissance period.
 
After being conquered by the Romans in approximately 222 BC, Milan later became one of the three capitals of the Roman Empire during the Tetrarchy of Emperor Diocletian. Passing through the hands of a number of kings and empires following Rome's decline, Milan's prosperity continued to climb as the city became an increasingly important bastion in northern Italy.
 
Of the many notable aspects of Milan's history, none have a greater renown than the city's cultural contributions to the world. As an integral part of the Italian Renaissance movement, Milan was home to many great artists, who produced some of the greatest works of the era. Perhaps the most famous of Milan's residents was the painter Leonardo Da Vinci, who spent much of his life working and studying in the city.
 
In the present day, Milan is still recognized as one of the world's leading cultural centers, with much of the current focus being on fashion and modern design.  Milan is also one of Italy's most important commercial business centers, as much of the country's transportation infrastructure leads through the city. Numerous multinational corporations also have offices in Milan, with industries ranging from telecommunications to manufacturing.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Milan]=];
Adjective=[=[Milanese]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_ORANGE";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_GRECO_ROMAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_MED";
ArtStylePrefix="MEDITERRANEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_MOMBASA={
Description=[=[Mombasa]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Although the founding of Mombasa is shrouded in conflicting historical records, it is believed the city, now the second largest in Kenya, was settled sometime around the 10th century AD. By the Middle Ages, Mombasa had grown into a flourishing city with an economy primarily based on the export of Ivory. Mombasa was also known for its vast network of plantations producing coconuts, cashews, and millet, which were then shipped out along the trade routes crossing the Indian Ocean. Mombasa's port, known as the Kilindini Harbor, is the only international seaport in Kenya, which has allowed the city to become a major center of commerce and trade for the entire nation. In the present day, Mombasa's largest exports continue to be agricultural in nature, particularly coffee, tea, and grain.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Mombasa]=];
Adjective=[=[Mombasa]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_GREEN";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_MIDDLE_EAST";
ArtStyleSuffix="_AFRI";
ArtStylePrefix="AFRICAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MARITIME";};
 
MINOR_CIV_PRAGUE={
Description=[=[Prague]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Widely recognized for its cultural contributions to Europe over the past millennium, the city of Prague, capital of the Czech Republic, grew from a minor settlement of the mid-8th century to a major metropolitan area of more than one million people as it stands today.
 
During the 14th century, Prague flourished as the seat of power for the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. Many of the city's most notable landmarks were constructed during his reign, including the famous St. Vitus Cathedral built in the Gothic architectural style. Prague also expanded as an economic center during this period, receiving traders and financiers from across Europe as the city's population greatly increased.
 
Home to a number of renowned museums, theaters, and other cultural attractions, Prague is an extremely popular tourist destination in the present day. By current estimates, more than three million visitors come to Prague each year to enjoy the sights of the historic city.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Prague]=];
Adjective=[=[Prague]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_BLUE";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_VALLETTA={
Description=[=[Valletta]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The capital city of the Republic of Malta, located south of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea, Valletta was founded by Jean Parisot de la Valette, Grandmaster of the Order of Malta. The island of Malta was given to the Knights Hospitaller, a Christian military order, by Spanish King Charles V in 1530 during the height of the Islamic Ottoman Empire's power. This eventually led to the famous Siege of Malta in 1565, when the Ottomans moved to invade the island and conquer the Knights. In successfully repelling the invasion, the Order of Malta decided to construct a new, fortified city to ensure their position would be secure from future attacks. Valetta was founded along the Maltese coastline, an ideal location that provided easy access to two major harbors. The Grand Harbor, as it's known today, is the most crucial port on Malta, handling much of the republic's import and export duties.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Valletta]=];
Adjective=[=[Valletta]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_YELLOW";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MILITARISTIC";};
 
MINOR_CIV_VATICAN_CITY={
Description=[=[Vatican City]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The walled Vatican city-state, officially established in 1929, serves as the epicenter for the Catholic Church and its millions of followers throughout the world today. Founded as a means of resolving the ongoing conflicts between the Pope and the Kingdom of Italy over land ownership and control of Rome, the Lateran Treaty laid the groundwork for an independently governed city-state within the boundaries of Rome itself. As the sovereign of Vatican City, the Pope is the only absolute monarch left in Europe, and he holds supreme authority over all branches of the Vatican's government. The city itself is known for the many incredible works of art housed in its museums and cathedrals. St. Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel are perhaps the best known sites within the Vatican, featuring works by Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Vatican City]=];
Adjective=[=[Vatican]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
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ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_GRECO_ROMAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_RELIGIOUS";};
 
MINOR_CIV_WITTENBERG={
Description=[=[Wittenberg]=];
Civilopedia=[=[The city of Wittenberg, a small settlement in central Germany, claims a unique stature in history as the birthplace of the Protestant Reformation incited by Martin Luther in the 16th century. Although the city was well-established within the Holy Roman Empire as the seat of power for the Elector of Saxony, it was Martin Luther's revolt that put Wittenberg on the map.
 
While teaching theology at the University of Wittenberg, Martin Luther first expressed his distaste for the selling of indulgences - the process of paying the Catholic Church for the forgiveness of sin. In 1517, Martin Luther famously nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, sparking the Protestant Reformation across Europe. Although it would take more than a century before the religious wars spurred by the Reformation were resolved, Wittenberg was always remembered as the wellspring for Martin Luther's dissidence.
 
More recently, Wittenberg was consumed by the conflicts of World War II, although much of the city's historic center was spared from the devastation of the allied bombing campaign. Following the conclusion of the war, Wittenberg was occupied by the Soviets and became part of East Germany in 1949, where it remained until the reunification of Germany in 1990.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Wittenberg]=];
Adjective=[=[Wittenberg]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_PURPLE";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_RELIGIOUS";};
 
MINOR_CIV_YEREVAN={
Description=[=[Yerevan]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Standing among the oldest cities in the world, Yerevan, the present-day capital of Armenia, traces its founding to the construction of the Erebuni fortress in 782 BC by King Argishti I of Urartu. Since that time, Yerevan has fallen under the rule of a number of powerful empires, having been conquered during the Arab invasions of the 7th century AD. It was during this period that Yerevan became an important stopover along the caravan routes connecting Europe to Asia. In the present-day, Yerevan is known for the many industries based in the city, which account for more than 50% of Armenia's total industrial output. Industries producing heavy machinery, chemicals, raw materials, and textiles, have all contributed to the city's growing economy. Yerevan also plays an important role in Armenia's reputation for producing high quality alcohol, as a number of manufacturers are based within the city.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Yerevan]=];
Adjective=[=[Yerevan]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_PEACH";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_MIDDLE_EAST";
ArtStyleSuffix="_ASIA";
ArtStylePrefix="ASIAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_CULTURED";};
 
MINOR_CIV_ZANZIBAR={
Description=[=[Zanzibar]=];
Civilopedia=[=[As part of the region once known as the "Spice Islands," Zanzibar, found in Tanzania in East Africa, has long captured the eye of traders sailing from around the world. At one time, Zanzibar was the world's leading producer of cloves, in addition to a number of other spices including nutmeg and cinnamon. In the modern day, Zanzibar is also heavily reliant on the tourism industry, which provides a steady income in addition to the agricultural industries.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Zanzibar]=];
Adjective=[=[Zanzibar]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_LIGHT_BLUE";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_ASIAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_AFRI";
ArtStylePrefix="AFRICAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
MINOR_CIV_ZURICH={
Description=[=[Zurich]=];
Civilopedia=[=[Zurich, the largest city in modern Switzerland, traces its early history to the Romans, who are thought to have founded the city some 2,000 years ago as a minor fortress. Zurich's growth into a major international center of trade and business wouldn't come until the 18th century, when vast expansions took place and the city grew exponentially.
 
Zurich is presently a crucial economic center for Switzerland and Europe as a whole, with many of the world's largest banks and financial institutions having central offices within the City. The Swiss Stock Exchange, having existed for more than 150 years, is also based in Zurich.]=];
ShortDescription=[=[Zurich]=];
Adjective=[=[Zurich]=];
ArtDefineTag="ART_DEF_CIVILIZATION_MINOR";
DefaultPlayerColor="PLAYERCOLOR_MINOR_GRAY";
ArtStyleType="ARTSTYLE_EUROPEAN";
ArtStyleSuffix="_EURO";
ArtStylePrefix="EUROPEAN";
MinorCivTrait="MINOR_TRAIT_MERCANTILE";};
 
}
return data

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