Introduced in Gods & Kings
|Date of birth||603 AD|
|Date of death||683 AD|
|Preferred victory||Scientific Victory|
|Voice actor/actress||Jorge Perera Brito|
Pacal or K'inich Janaab' Pakal (March 603 - August 683) was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque in the Late Classic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology.
Pacal is the leader of the Maya in the Gods & Kings expansion. He speaks what could be a form of Yucatec, which was spoken in the city-state of Palenque, which he ruled. He is standing at the top of a pyramidal temple surrounded by other Mesoamerican buildings. He wears a regal headdress and carries a staff. On rare occasions he can be seen without feathers on his headdress.
Unique Ability: The Long Count
Voice Actor: Jorge Perera Brito
|Wonder Competitiveness||7 (9-5)|
|City State Influence Competitiveness||4 (6-2)|
|Hate Warmongers||6 (8-4)|
|Willingness to Denounce||4 (6-2)|
|Willingness to Declare Friendship||6 (8-4)|
|Offensive Unit Production||5 (7-3)|
|Defensive Unit Production||7 (9-5)|
|Defensive Building Production||5 (7-3)|
|Military Training Buildings Production||5 (7-3)|
|Recon Unit Production||5 (7-3)|
|Ranged Unit Production||7 (9-5)|
|Mobile Unit Production||4 (6-2)|
|Naval Unit Production||3 (5-1)|
|Naval Recon Unit Production||3 (5-1)|
|Air Unit Production||5 (7-3)|
|Naval Growth||3 (5-1)|
|Naval Tile Improvements||3 (5-1)|
|Water Connections||3 (5-1)|
|Tile Improvements||6 (8-4)|
|Infrastructure (Roads)||5 (7-3)|
|Production Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Science Emphasis||8 (10-6)|
|Gold Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Culture Emphasis||6 (8-4)|
|Happiness Emphasis||6 (8-4)|
|Great People Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Wonder Emphasis||7 (9-5)|
|Religion Emphasis||8 (10-6)|
|Diplomacy Victory||5 (7-3)|
|Spaceship Victory||6 (8-4)|
|Nuke Production||6 (8-4)|
|Use of Nukes||5 (7-3)|
|Use of Espionage||5 (7-3)|
|Anti-Air Production||5 (7-3)|
|Air Carrier Production||5 (7-3)|
|Land Trade Route Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Sea Trade Route Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Archaeology Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Trade Origin Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Trade Destination Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Airlift Emphasis||5 (7-3)|
|Likeliness to Declare War||4 (6-2)|
|Likeliness to be Hostile||4 (6-2)|
|Likeliness to be Deceptive||5 (7-3)|
|Likeliness to be Guarded||7 (9-5)|
|Likeliness to be Afraid||6 (8-4)|
|Likeliness to be Friendly||5 (7-3)|
|Likeliness to be Neutral||5 (7-3)|
|Ignore City States||7 (9-5)|
|Friendliness to City States||4 (6-2)|
|Protection of City States||5 (7-3)|
|Conquest of City States||5 (7-3)|
|Bullying of City States||6 (8-4)|
Personality and BehaviorEdit
Pacal may pursue any victory condition, but will usually focus on a scientific victory.
Pacal places a high emphasis on improving the science output of his cities, spreading his religion, and building wonders. He is neither bold nor aggressive, and is one of the leaders more likely to be afraid.
Though Pacal does not often denounce or go to war with other civilizations, he will protect his territory with a large defensive army that primarily consists of ranged units.
In spite of his passivity, Pacal is quite loyal to his allies. However, his tendency to become guarded can make it difficult for warmongers or leaders who have built several wonders to befriend him.
Pacal typically ignores city-states, but will sometimes bully them.
Commonly known as "Pacal the Great," the Mayan king K'inich Janaab' Pakal is perhaps the most renowned of all Mayan rulers. Ascending to the throne at the tender age of 12 and ruling for nearly 70 years thereafter, Pacal inherited the city-state of Palenque during a time of great turmoil. Although the historical details surrounding his reign are often hazy, Pacal is best known for reinvigorating the ravaged city, which had been sacked repeatedly during the rule of his predecessors. Leading a vast construction effort, Pacal oversaw the creation of immense and remarkably detailed structures throughout his domain. Most famously, Pacal's burial tomb, known as the Temple of Inscriptions, features an intricately carved history of the king's life presented in Mayan glyphs. With an astonishing number of well preserved inscriptions, the temple has given contemporary archaeologists crucial insight into the once lost history and culture of this great Mayan city.
Pacal's mother, Lady Zac-Kuk, was one of few women to ever rule independently over a Mayan city-state. Typically the crown was only passed on to the son of a king, but in the absence of a suitable male heir, leadership was bestowed upon Lady Zac-Kuk, who asserted her right to the throne as the granddaughter of a past queen. Ruling for 3 years until Pacal came of age, this unusual deviation in the traditionally patriarchal society led directly to the later efforts of Pacal to legitimize his reign and the rule of his family line.
When Pacal did take the throne in 615, the city of Palenque was in a tumultuous position, having been the target of frequent incursions from the neighboring kingdom of Calakmul in the preceding years. Making a clear statement to Palenque's rivals early in his reign, Pacal sent his own raiding parties against the Calakmul, capturing several of their leaders and sacrificing them in retribution for the attacks.
Rejuvenation of PalenqueEdit
With the intention of both returning Palenque to its former glory, and also establishing the legitimacy of his rule, Pacal initiated the construction of grand monuments throughout the city, with reliefs extolling the virtues of his family line. A number of impressive structures were built, including the Temple of the Count and the large central complex known simply as "The Palace," featuring a peculiar four-story tower unlike any seen throughout the Mayan realm. Yet, of the many edifices assembled during his reign, none surpassed the Temple of Inscriptions. Built to serve as Pacal's burial tomb, construction began on the stepped pyramid during the final years of his life and continued under his successor, Chan Bahlum II.
Featuring intricate carvings and hieroglyphic text, the temple is best known for housing Pacal's ornate sarcophagus. First discovered by Mexican archeologists in 1952, the walls of Pacal's tomb in the lower level of the temple contain the longest set of Mayan glyphs ever found. Although still the subject of interpretation today, the glyphs appear to chronicle the events of Pacal's life leading up to his death and the ascension of his heir.
The sarcophagus itself features an elaborately detailed stone lid with glyphs representing the planets and several constellations. These celestial elements in particular have contributed to controversial theories regarding the involvement of extraterrestrials in the Mayan culture, similar to theories surrounding the ancient Egyptian pyramids. While most esteemed researchers believe the sarcophagus depicts Pacal's journey to the underworld, other sources interpret this imagery as Pacal at the controls of a spaceship preparing for launch. Inside the sarcophagus, archaeologists discovered the skeletal remains of Pacal, wearing a finely crafted jade mosaic in the form of a mask.
Judgement of HistoryEdit
Pacal the Great is considered by historians to be one of the most revered leaders in Mayan history, based on the remarkable monuments and sculptural creations found throughout Palenque. In his time as king, nearly 1000 structures were assembled in the city, requiring stones that weighed up to 15 tons. Although his past is still being uncovered today, we can say with certainty that his efforts to restore the kingdom of Palenque led to the assembly of some of the greatest monuments and art ever created by the Maya.
- The name Pacal means "Shield," or "Sun Shield," in Mayan.
- The name of Pacal's unique ability is a reference to the Mayan calendar, a fantastic scientific achievement used by the Maya to schedule festivals, rituals, and crop rotations.
Pacal speaks in Yucatec Mayan.
Intro: Greetings, wayward one. I am known as Pacal. (Toch o'lal dix'colo. Kuya'ral tenha P'akal.)
Attacked: *Creepy laugh*
Declares War: Prepare for destruction! OR A sacrifice unlike all others must be made!
Defeated: Today comes pain that is always hot. With you comes the path to the black storm. (Behla’e’ tal lelo’ Yah U laylie k’iinal. yetel tal A beh u ch’en.)
[Note: The "black storm" is likely related to the whole Mayan apocalypse, as the glyph for ch'en appears in the Haab' calender as the 9th month.]
Hate Hello: You. (Tech.)
Hate Yes 01: Oh...fine, okay. (O...Ma'alob tun.)
Neutral Hello: Fine day; it helps you. (Maalob k'iin, anat ti tech.)
[Note: Ti is a third person singular pronoun; this is probably the closest sensible translation.]
Neutral Let's Hear It 01: Not necessary. (Ma' k'abeet.)
[Ed: Notice that Firaxis put the wrong line in. This isn't the first time they've done this.]
Neutral Let's Hear It 02: If you must show me (Literally: "If must show."). (Ete.)
Neutral No 01: No no, too much trouble. (Ma' ma' ba'te'el - although the last word could also potentially be bek'ech, which would change the phrase to "no no, too slim/too little.")
Neutral Yes 01: Fine, okay. (Ma'alob tun.)
Neutral Yes 02: Fine. (Ma'alob.)
Request: Friend, I believe I may have found a way to save us all! Look, look and accept my offering! OR The rage of the Gods be upon you, lest you heed my offer. (The voice actor's tone implies the line is the former, not the latter.)
Your people kneel before you, exalted King Pacal the Great, favored son of the gods and shield to the citizens of the Palenque domain. After years of strife at the hands of your neighboring rivals, you struck back at the enemies of your people, sacrificing their leaders in retribution for the insults dealt to your predecessors. The glory of Palenque was restored only by the guidance afforded by your wisdom, as you orchestrated vast reconstruction efforts within the city, creating some of the greatest monuments and architecture your people - and the world - have ever known.
Illustrious King, your people once again look to you for leadership and counsel in the coming days. Will you channel the will of the gods and restore your once proud kingdom to its greatest heights? Will you build new monuments to forever enshrine the memories of your people? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?