Resources are special commodities found from the map. Civilization V contains three kinds of resources: bonus resources, strategic resources and luxury resources. This article explains their differences and lists the resources of each category.
These resources are neither luxury nor strategic resources and are not shared across your empire and neither can they be traded. Instead, they provide additional output for the tile they are on when worked, especially when improved; several buildings can be constructed in their host cities to further increase their yields.
Certain military units and buildings consume a strategic resource while in play or being built (or queued to be built). For example, a horseman consumes a horse resource, while a factory requires a coal resource. If these objects are removed from a civilization's control—whether by losing a unit in battle, gifting it to a city-state, losing a building's host city, etc.—the strategic resource consumed by the object is released for future use; strategic resources never actually leave play. Each improved strategic resource tile provides a number of that resource to the empire that controls it, regardless whether it is worked by a city or not. Unused strategic resources may be traded to other empires.
Luxury resources provide happiness. Each improved strategic resource tile provides one of that resource to the empire that controls it. If an empire has access to more than one of the same luxury resource the happiness effect is the same as having access to only one. Luxury resources may be traded to other empires.
Valid only in the Gods and Kings expansion pack. Gods and Kings expansion
† Unique to mercantile city-states with the Gods and Kings expansion.