Ceremony (reduces Unhappiness from Population in Capital by 33%): Ceremonies are rituals a society uses to mark important events and reinforce social bonds. These can range from communal ceremonies, like Kava, to more personal ones, like Surfing. They can also range in their degree of sacredness, with some being highly Tapu, while others are far more informal. Regardless of the exact nature of the ceremony, it serves to reinforce the social bonds of culture.
Kava (gain +10 Happiness): The drink made from the prepared roots of the Kava plant (Piper methysticum) is central to certain Polynesian rituals and social gatherings. The drink has a mild sedative effect and is noteworthy for the sense of relaxed well-being it instills in the drinker. Because of this, kava is often served at the opening of Polynesian meetings where one would want relaxed and happy participants. Exact details of the kava rituals vary from island to island within Polynesia. In recent years the active ingredient of kava has been studied for potential pharmacological benefits, and there is a considerable amount of informal, non-scientific studies of the kava buzz among people who go in for that sort of thing.
Luau (+2 Happiness from each type of luxury resource): After King Kamehameha II abolished certain religious tapu in 1819, the Hawaiian Islands gave birth to the luau, a lavish spread of delicacies and feasting in a merry atmosphere, often with accompanied dances and singing. The luau proper was a delicacy of taro leaves and chicken, baked in coconut milk, but soon came to represent the entire celebratory feast. Luaus of the kings could reach incredible sizes, with the famous “Merry Monarch” Kalakaua inviting so many guests that they had to be fed in shifts of hundreds. Luau today is synonymous with “party” in Hawaiian culture, and indeed throughout many cultures in the world.
Powhiri ( Gold gifts to city-states produce 25% more Influence): The Maori greeting ceremony for dignitaries is a complex ritual. Traditionally it begins with a ceremonial threat to the visitor (this part is rightfully regarded as the most exciting part of the Powhiri), during which the visitor’s steadfastness is judged and the host’s martial prowess is displayed, lest there be any confusion about how things might go. The visitor accepts the rautapu, a token offering by the Atua of Peace, the two sides exchange a hongi by pressing their noses to each other and sharing breath, and the ceremony is concluded.
Surfing (+1 Happiness for each city in your empire): First described to the west as part of the record of Cook’s voyage in HMS Endeavor, Ancient Hawaiians had long practiced the art of he’enalu-gliding on waves. Access to the best surfing spots and beaches was restricted by class, though skilled surfers of lower classes could earn the right to surf these waters. Hawaiian longboards could be up to 5.5 meters long, and weigh over a hundred pounds, and required considerable skill and prowess to use.
Surfer experienced several “waves” of popularity from the early 20th century to present, as new audiences quickly discovered the righteousness of carving sick pipes for themselves.
Tapu ( Culture cost of future policies reduced by 10%): Inextricably linked to the concept of mana, tapu is loosely translated as “holiness” or “sacredness”, and may also imply prohibition, and thus is the source of the loan word “taboo”. Things that are tapu are sacrosanct and may not be disturbed or will suffer desecration and a loss of their mana. Breaking tapu was a serious matter and severely punished in most Polynesian cultures.
Hula (amount of Happiness required to start a Golden Age reduced by 25%): The hula is a type of traditional Hawaiian dance which is accompanied by chants and instrumentation. There are several kinds of related dance across greater Polynesia. Since contact with the West, the instruments and chanting used in the in hula have integrated new elements, including polyphonic singing and the ukulele. Hula was performed for a variety of reasons, from highest ritual to simple socialization. The hula dancer’s hand motions are used to represent elements in the song, from the undulation of the sea to waving trees, to emotions of the characters. After hula nearly devolved into cultural kitsch, a serious effort to revive the ancient styles of hula began in earnest in Hawaii.
Rongo-Rongo (doubles Science output from Libraries and Observatories): Easter Island’s enigmatic Moai are not that island’s only mystery. The rongo-rongo are a collection of glyphed tablets dating from the 18th century, covered in a sort of proto-language which defies decoding. There are approximately two dozen legitimate rongo-rongo objects with consistent characters across them, but even the most advanced statistical methods have failed to unlock their meaning. The leading theory at this time is that the rongo-rongo were mnemonic devices for priests or chanters, as the word “rongo-rongo” dervies (sic) from the Rapa Nui for “to recite, to chant”. A maddening twist to the mystery of the rongo-rongo are countless reports that there were once many more of these objects, but as the secrets of the language were lost, the wood of the rongo-rongo tablets were used for canoes, fishing reels, and even firewood by the islanders!
Stone Carving (+1 Culture from each Moai): Polynesian’s carving has risen to one of their highest decorative arts, and though carving styles varied from island to island, each island focused on the material they had readily at hand. On islands without large forests, stone carving usually featured prominently, In addition to human tiki figures, many Polynesian islands feature petrogylphs of various styles. The most famous example of Polynesian stone carving is the massive Moai of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). These 887 stone statues were carved from the volcanic rock of Rapa Nui with simple lithic tools and moved for miles by scores of workers to their ahu platforms, from whence they could gaze inland at Rapa Nui in a awesome display of mana.
Tapa Cloth (+2 Culture in every city): Tapa is a traditional decorative Polynesian cloth made from pounded bark. Tapa reached its height of artistry in Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa, but was made elsewhere in Polynesia. Tapa is traditionally painted with complex, graphical geometric shapes in contrasting colors. The preparation of tapa is an important social and ritual gathering for the island’s women. Tapa was synonymous with wealth, and a gift of tapa from a chief was a princely gift. Today, tapa cloth is still used for formal occasions such as weddings, but cotton has largely replaced it as a more durable substitute.
The Arts (increases Culture from Monuments and Temples by 2 each): Art is an abstract expression of personal sentiment-a physical work of the artist’s imagination. Almost any mundane object can be elevated to the level of art by investing the artist’s effort into it. For example, simple bark cloth would do for clothing, but creating Tapa makes that same bark cloth become art. Art is also a way to sanctify objects with Mana, bringing the artist closer to the immortal.
Tiki (50% of excess Happiness added each turn to the amount of Culture that may be spent on social policies): Tiki is a Polynesian carving of the human form, usually representing chiefs, heroes, gods, and other figures of legend. Tiki can either be tall and slender or short and powerful, with each style said to represent some virtuous, mana-infused aspect of the subject. For example, a leering tiki with its tongue protruding is said to have visible power and strength, and a broad forehead is said to represent wisdom. After World War II, the broad diffusion of Polynesian culture diluted the meaning of the word, and “tiki” has since been applied as an adjective for fun to a variety of products, most of which an ancient Polynesian hero would find devoid of mana.
Ariki (rate at which Great Generals born increased by 100%): Ariki was the title given to members of chieftain or noble rank in Polynesian society. Various minor and noble chiefs called “mataiapo” or “rangatira” would serve under the ariki. The chief’s power over his people was said to arise from his mana, which was enriched by his noble birth and great deeds. Today in the Cook Islands there is a parliamentary body called the House of Ariki, a dignified advisory body, some of whose members attempted a coup in the early 21st century (to no effect, perhaps a result of diminished mana).
Haka (gain Culture for the empire equal to triple the Combat Strength of each enemy killed): The Haka is a traditional dance of the Maori of New Zealand, with distinctive strong, energetic movement and rhythmic and shouted chants. Haka was performed both by war parties and as a peaceful (albeit somewhat intimidating) greeting to dignitaries, both by men and women (though the dances differ between groups and occasion). Facial contortions performed during the course of the Haka, such as rictus-like grins and tongue protrusion, are supposed to demonstrate the powerful welling of mana within the dancer.
The haka is most famous today as the field greeting of the New Zealand All Blacks rugby team, but many other organizations (including the New Zealand military forces) have a signature haka of their own.
Honor (gives +15 XP to all land combat units constructed from this point onwards): In an “honorable” society, the citizens’ status is based upon the society’s judgment of their personal qualities. Qualities that are usually considered honorable include fealty, honesty, integrity, and courage. In many societies men are expected to “defend their honor” to the death, as any loss of honor is considered far worse than loss of life.
Kahuna Healing (Melee combat units gain Medic promotion): Kahuna is a Hawaiian word for Polynesian priests of shamanistic healers, and these healers aided their people through herbal medicines and “Ho’oponopono”, a process of reconciliation with ancestors, spirits, gods, and people wronged by the supplicant. Kahuna healing’s emphasis on mutual, constructive resolution and restoration of the individual may be lauded as contributing to the harmony of Polynesian culture, and Kahuna healing today is undergoing something of a renaissance among Hawaiians and throughout Polynesia in general.
Mana (rate at which Great People are born increased by 100%): Mana is central to Polynesian spirituality-the mystical force or essence that pervades all of creation. The word, though rendered slightly differently across Polynesia, keeps its importance and central meaning. Great deeds and actions are the result of mana, and bring mana to the person who accomplishes them. Mana imparts authority, prestige, and power on the possessor, and to lose mana is to lose power. Also it is very hard to cast any spells once you’ve run out of mana.
Poi (+1 Movement for embarked units): Poi is a staple Polynesian food, made from the mashed, cooked tubers of the taro plant. Poi’s consistency can range from a thick liquid to a dough-like mash, depending on cooking method used. Poi’s flavor has been variously described as “glue-like” and “refined and delicate” and “defying description”. Fermented, sour poi can also be used to prepare other foods.
In Hawaiian culture, the taro plant plays a prominent part in the creation myth of people, and so when poi was brought to the table, it was believed that the ancestral spirit of the Hawaiians came to be with the family.